Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Clerodendrum thomsoniae
(bleeding glory bower)

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Datasheet

Clerodendrum thomsoniae (bleeding glory bower)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Clerodendrum thomsoniae
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bleeding glory bower
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. thomsoniae is a vine which is native to western Africa but has been widely cultivated in tropics and subtropics around the world, and is known to be naturalized in many introduced places including the Guiana...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Clerodendrum thomsonae (bleeding glory bower); flowering habit. Iao Valley Rd, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionClerodendrum thomsonae (bleeding glory bower); flowering habit. Iao Valley Rd, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum thomsonae (bleeding glory bower); flowering habit. Iao Valley Rd, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
Flowering habitClerodendrum thomsonae (bleeding glory bower); flowering habit. Iao Valley Rd, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum thomsonae (bleeding glory bower); flowering habit. Iao Valley Rd, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionClerodendrum thomsonae (bleeding glory bower); flowering habit. Iao Valley Rd, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum thomsonae (bleeding glory bower); flowering habit. Iao Valley Rd, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
Flowering habit Clerodendrum thomsonae (bleeding glory bower); flowering habit. Iao Valley Rd, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum thomsonae (bleeding glory bower); flowering habit. Iao Valley Rd, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
TitleGeneral habit
CaptionClerodendrum thomsonae (bleeding glory bower); flowering habit. Iao Valley Rd, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum thomsonae (bleeding glory bower); flowering habit. Iao Valley Rd, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.
General habitClerodendrum thomsonae (bleeding glory bower); flowering habit. Iao Valley Rd, Maui, Hawaii, USA. July, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum thomsonae (bleeding glory bower); close-up of flowers and leaves at YMCA Keanae, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May, 2009.
TitleFlowers
CaptionClerodendrum thomsonae (bleeding glory bower); close-up of flowers and leaves at YMCA Keanae, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum thomsonae (bleeding glory bower); close-up of flowers and leaves at YMCA Keanae, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May, 2009.
FlowersClerodendrum thomsonae (bleeding glory bower); close-up of flowers and leaves at YMCA Keanae, Maui, Hawaii, USA. May, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Clerodendrum thomsoniae Balf.f.

Preferred Common Name

  • bleeding glory bower

Other Scientific Names

  • Clerodendrum thomsoniae var. balfourii B.D. Jacks. ex Dombrain

International Common Names

  • English: bag flower; bleeding heart vine; glory tree; southern bleeding heart; tropical bleeding heart

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: clara lisa; claralisa; clemátida; clerodendron; crendolento; crendolinda; jamaiquina; querendona
  • Dominican Republic: bandera holandesa; coquisa
  • Germany: kletternder Losstrauch
  • Japan: genpei-kusagi
  • Myanmar: bleeding heart; taik-pan-gyi
  • Puerto Rico: bandera danesa
  • Sweden: brokklerodendrum

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. thomsoniae is a vine which is native to western Africa but has been widely cultivated in tropics and subtropics around the world, and is known to be naturalized in many introduced places including the Guiana Shield, Belize, the United States, the Galapagos Islands, and Australia (Funk et al., 2007; Randall, 2012). The species is listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds as an environmental weed (Randall, 2012) but does not appear to be a Clerodendrum species with high risk of introduction based on current evidence.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Lamiales
  •                         Family: Lamiaceae
  •                             Genus: Clerodendrum
  •                                 Species: Clerodendrum thomsoniae

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Most members of the Lamiaceae genus Clerodendrum are native to the Old World tropics, but many have been cultivated and introduced as ornamentals elsewhere. The genus consists of approximately 400 species (Armitage, 2001; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2005), although this number has now been reported to be closer to 180, as much taxonomic confusion in the past has resulted in thousands of misnamed and synonymous specimens (Wearn and Mabberly, 2011). The genus name Clerodendrum derives from the Greek words ‘kleros’, meaning ‘chance’, ‘lot’, or ‘fate’, and ‘dendron’, meaning ‘tree’, likely referring to the numerous and sometimes doubtful medicinal qualities that have been associated with these shrubs, trees and climbers (Stearn, 1992; Armitage, 2001; Quattrocchi, 2012).

The species name ‘thomsoniae’ is in honor of Rev. William Cooper Thomson (d. 1878), a missionary, physician and plant collector in Nigeria and Calabar and nephew of the British collector George Thomson (1819-1878) (Quattrocchi, 2012). Balfour originally named the species ‘thomsonae’ in 1862 based on a plant cultivated at the Edinburgh Botanical Garden sent by Thomson from Old Calabar, southern Nigeria; the spelling has since been changed to ‘thomsoniae’ in accordance with Melbourne ICN Art. 60.12 and Rec. 60C.1(b) although both names continue to be used (Rueda, 1993; IPNI, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). Other spellings appear to include ‘thompsoniae’ and ‘thompsonae’ with the author Balf. f. rather than Balf. (USDA-NRCS, 2014), as Britton (1918) identifies the taxon as ‘Mrs. Thompson’s clerodendron’.

One of the common names, ‘bleeding glory bower’, is in reference to the species’ combination of white and red flowers.

Description

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Slightly woody vine, twining, attaining 3-7 m in length. Stems obtusely quadrangular, puberulent; stipules absent. Leaves opposite, 5.2-14 × 2.7-7 cm, elliptical or lanceolate, chartaceous, the apex acuminate, the base obtuse or rounded, the margins entire or remotely sinuate; upper surface puberulent, dark green, dull; lower surface puberulent, pale green, with numerous dots, the veins prominent; petioles 1-2.8 cm long, sulcate, puberulent. Inflorescences of axillary dichasial cymes; bracts minute, subulate. Calyx more or less urceolate, 1.5-2.5 cm long, white, puberulent, the sepals lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, connate at the base, acuminate at the apex; corolla red or crimson, hypocrateriform, ca. 2 cm long, the tube quite narrow, the lobes rounded; filaments pink, twice as long as the corolla; style pink, as long as the filaments (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005).

Fruit drupaceous, covered by the calyx, 2.3 cm long, round or depressed-globose, 10-14 mm long and wide, glossy black, 2-bilobed; seeds oblong (Rueda, 1993).

Plant Type

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Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

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C. thomsoniae is native to tropical western Africa, but is commonly cultivated as an ornamental around the world, including gardens in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005), Ecuador (Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014), Myanmar (Kress et al., 2003), India (Deori et al., 2013) and French Polynesia (Wagner et al., 2014). The species is known to be naturalized in the Guiana Shield (Funk et al., 2007) and is considered a casual alien species in Singapore (Chong et al., 2009).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AssamPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDeori et al., 2013
-TripuraPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDeori et al., 2013
MyanmarPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedKress et al., 2003
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al., 2009

Africa

CameroonPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
GhanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
MaliPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
NigeriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
SenegalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
Sierra LeonePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana, 2014
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedBrown and Knox, 2013

Central America and Caribbean

BelizePresentIntroducedRandall, 2012Naturalised
Costa RicaRueda, 1993; Flora Mesoamericana, 2014
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana, 2014
HondurasPresentIntroducedFlora Mesoamericana, 2014
NicaraguaRueda, 1993; Flora Mesoamericana, 2014; Flora of Nicaragua, 2014
PanamaFlora Mesoamericana, 2014; Panama Checklist, 2014

South America

BoliviaPresentMadidi Checklist, 2014Madidi National Park
ColombiaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedVascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014
EcuadorPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedVascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012
French GuianaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
GuyanaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
PeruPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPeru Checklist, 2014
SurinamePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
VenezuelaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedFunk et al., 2007Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012Naturalised
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012
French PolynesiaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedWagner and Lorence, 2014
Micronesia, Federated states ofRandall, 2012; Wagner et al., 2012
NiuePresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedMoldenke, 1944

History of Introduction and Spread

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Date of introduction to the West Indies is uncertain, but C. thomsoniae appears to be a relatively recent introduction. The species was not included in Bello’s works on Puerto Rico (1881; 1883) or Urban’s work on the West Indies (1903-1911), but was collected there in 1914 (Smithsonian Institute collections) and was reported as occasionally planted in the Virgin Islands as of 1926 (Britton and Wilson, 1926). The species was reportedly being cultivated in Trinidad in 1870 (Prestoe, 1870), and was present in Bermuda by 1918, as it was described by Britton under the name C. thompsonae as an occasionally planted ornamental. It was present in the Dominican Republic by 1929, and Cuba by 1930 (Smithsonian Institute collections).

Risk of Introduction

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Rueda (1993) reported that C. thomsoniae was not known to escape cultivation in Mesoamerica, but according to recent reports the species has naturalized in Belize (Randall, 2012), and is also known to be naturalized elsewhere in the Neotropics including Puerto Rico (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005), the Guiana Shield (Funk et al., 2007), and Colombia (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014). The species can take between 5-10 years to reach its maximum height (Royal Horticultural Society, 2014) and can be propagated by seeds, semi-hardwood, and root cuttings, but is not known to be an aggressive root suckering colonizer like some other weedy members of the Clerodendrum genus. The species has been described as ‘persistent’ (Liogier and Martorell, 2000), but is not listed as invasive in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) and does not appear to be a priority species in the Pacific, as it has not yet received a PIER risk assessment. The risk of introduction of this species is currently low, but monitoring is recommended especially in areas where it is cultivated, considering it is a Clerodendrum and that it occurs beyond its native range of tropical Africa.

Habitat

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C. thomsoniae is mostly known as a garden ornamental plant but occurs outside of cultivated areas. On Tinian Island, Micronesia, it has been collected in weedy flats (Smithsonian Institute collections). In Peru, the species grows in disturbed areas (Peru Checklist, 2014), and in Antioquia, Colombia, it reportedly occurs in wet lower montane forest (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details
Littoral
Mud flats Present, no further details

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome count for this species has been reported to be 2n = 42, 46, 48, or 50 (Rueda, 1993).

Environmental Requirements

C. thomsoniae is native to tropical western Africa and is cultivated in humid tropical and subtropical climates around the world. The species prefers partial shade and moist but well-drained soil. It can tolerate a range of soils, clay, loam, or sand, with pH ranging from acid, neutral to alkaline (Royal Horticultural Society, 2014). Altitude range is typically low. In Ecuador and Peru the species has been reported at 0-500 m (Peru Checklist, 2014; Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014). In Nicaragua it reportedly grows at 0-100 m (Flora of Nicaragua, 2014) although it has been collected at 860 m (Flora Mesoamericana, 2014). In Florida, the species is recommended to be planted in pots to bring the plant indoors when temperatures drop below 7°C (Floridata, 2014). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 7

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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C. thomsoniae is susceptible to the glasshouse red spider mite and the glasshouse whitefly (Royal Horticultural Society, 2014), as well as other mealybugs and spider mites (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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C. thomsoniae is chiefly spread internationally for ornamental purposes, and can be propagated by seeds, semi-hardwood, and root cuttings (Royal Horticultural Society, 2014). Although the species reportedly can spread up to 15 feet ( Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014) it does not spread as vigorously as some other vine species and can be controlled (Floridata, 2014). Birds are also possible dispersal vectors, as the seeds are encased in small, red berries; colour has been attributed to the dispersal syndrome and brightly coloured fruits would be more attractive to birds (Pijl, 1982; Chiarini and Barboza, 2009).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Breeding and propagation Yes Yes
Horticulture Yes Yes
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Soil, sand and gravelPropagated by root cuttings and could spread in transported ssoil Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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C. thomsoniae has minor negative environmental impacts but could increase if not monitored. It is listed as an environmental weed in Australia (Randall, 2012). Its roots can spread as far as 15 feet (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014) and the species can propagate by both seed and root cuttings (Royal Horticultural Society, 2014). So far, however, there is little evidence that this species has caused significant damage to the native flora in places where it has been introduced and, in some cases naturalized.

The species is a popular cultivation for ornamental purposes, both within its native range of tropical western Africa and across tropical and subtropical regions.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact mechanisms
  • Hybridization
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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C. thomsoniae is known to be used as an ornamental in many places including Colombia (Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014), Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2005), Ecuador (Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014), Myanmar (Kress et al., 2003), India (Deori et al., 2013) and French Polynesia (Wagner et al., 2014). 

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Ornamental

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Rueda (1993) writes that the species “is very similar to C. umbellatum. However, the calyx in C. thomsoniae is twice as large as in C. umbellatum. In addition, the calyx of C. thomsoniae is coarser in texture than is that of C. umbellatum”.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Recommended areas for future research include more detailed descriptions of the species’ habitat outside of cultivation and the management of species within cultivation.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51:483 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Armitage AM, 2001. Armitage's manual of annuals, biennials, and half-hardy perennials. Portland, OR, USA: Timber Press.

Bello D, 1883. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Segunda parte. Monoclamídeas.) Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, 12:103-130.

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Britton NL, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons. 585 pp.

Britton NL; Millspaugh CF, 1920. The Bahama Flora. New York, USA: NL Britton & CF Millspaugh.

Britton NL; Wilson P, 1926. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and Virgin Islands. Volumen VI. New York, USA: Academy of Sciences, 629 pp.

Brown SP; Knox GW, 2013. Flowering Vines of Florida. Department of Agriculture, University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS). Circular 860. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/MG/MG09700.pdf

Chiarini FE; Barboza GE, 2009. Fruit anatomy of species of Solanum sect. Acanthophora (Solanaceae). Flora (Jena), 204(2):146-156. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03672530

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Deori C; Roy DK; Talukdar SR; Pagag K; Sarma N, 2013. Diversity of the genus Clerodendrum Linnaeus (Lamiaceae) in Northeast India with special reference to Barnadi Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam. Pleione, 7(2):473-488.

Flora Mesoamericana, 2014. Flora Mesoamericana. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FM

Flora of Nicaragua, 2014. Flora of Nicaragua, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=7

Floridata, 2014. FLORIDATAbase website. Tallahassee, Florida, USA: Floridata.com. http://www.floridata.com/

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

IPNI, 2014. International Plant Names Index., UK\USA\Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens\The Harvard University Herbaria\Australian National Herbarium. http://www.ipni.org/

Kress WJ; Defilipps RA; Farr E; Kyi DYY, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 45:1-590.

Liogier HA; Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, 2nd edition revised. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico, 382 pp.

Madidi Checklist, 2014. List of the Flora of Madidi National Park, Bolivia (Listado de la Flora del Parque Nacional Madidi, Bolivia). St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/MDICHK

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015. Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plantfinder/plantfindersearch.aspx

Moldenke HN, 1944. The known geographic distribution of the members of the Verbenaceae and Avicenniaceae. Supplement 2. Botanical Gazette, 106:158-164.

Panama Checklist, 2014. Flora of Panama Checklist, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/PAC

Peru Checklist, 2014. The Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PEC

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Pijl Lvan der, 1982. Principles of Dispersal in Higher Plants, 3rd ed. New York, USA: Springer Press.

Prestoe H, 1870. Catalog of plants cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Trinidad, from 1865-1870., Trinidad: Chronicle Printing Office.

Quattrocchi U, 2012. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology [ed. by Quattrocchi, U.]. London, UK: CRC Press Inc., 3960 pp.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Royal Horticultural Society, 2014. RHS Find a Plant website. London, UK: Royal Horticultural Society. https://www.rhs.org.uk/plants

Rueda RM, 1993. The genus Clerodendrum (Verbenaceae) in Mesoamerica. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 80(4):870-890.

Stearn WT, 1992. Stearns dictionary of plant names for gardeners: A handbook on the origin and meaning of the botanical names of some cultivated plants. London, UK: Cassell.

Urban I, 1903-1911. Florae Indiae Occidentalis. In: Symbolae antillanae [ed. by Urban, I.].

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Vascular Plants of Antioquia, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of the Department of Antioquia (Colombia), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CV

Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Tornabene MW; Weitzman A; Lorence DH, 2012. Flora of Micronesia website. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/micronesia/index.htm

Wagner WL; Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm

Contributors

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30/9/2014 Original text by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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