Invasive Species Compendium

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Clerodendrum indicum
(Turk's turban)

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Datasheet

Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Clerodendrum indicum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Turk's turban
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. indicum is a small shrub which is listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds as ‘environmental weed’, ‘naturalised’, and ‘weed‘ (

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); habit. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionClerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); habit. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2007.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); habit. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2007.
HabitClerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); habit. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2007.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); foliage and developing fruits. Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.
TitleFoliage and developing fruits
CaptionClerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); foliage and developing fruits. Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); foliage and developing fruits. Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.
Foliage and developing fruitsClerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); foliage and developing fruits. Hana, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); flowers and foliage. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2007.
TitleFlowers and foliage
CaptionClerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); flowers and foliage. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2007.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); flowers and foliage. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2007.
Flowers and foliageClerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); flowers and foliage. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2007.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2007.
TitleFlowers
CaptionClerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2007.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2007.
FlowersClerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2007.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); close view of flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2007.
TitleFlowers
CaptionClerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); close view of flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2007.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); close view of flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2007.
FlowersClerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); close view of flowers. Enchanting Floral Gardens of Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. October, 2007.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); fruits. Bishop Museum, Oahu, Hawaii. August, 2006.
TitleFruits
CaptionClerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); fruits. Bishop Museum, Oahu, Hawaii. August, 2006.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Clerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); fruits. Bishop Museum, Oahu, Hawaii. August, 2006.
FruitsClerodendrum indicum (Turk's turban); fruits. Bishop Museum, Oahu, Hawaii. August, 2006.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze

Preferred Common Name

  • Turk's turban

Other Scientific Names

  • Clerodendrum siphonanthus R. Br.
  • Clerodendrum longicolle G. Meyer
  • Clerodendrum mite (L.) Vatke
  • Ovieda mitis L.
  • Siphonanthus indica L.

International Common Names

  • English: glory bower; Indian glory bower; skyrocket; tube-flower; Turk's-turban
  • Chinese: chang guan da qing; chang guan jia mo li

Local Common Names

  • India: bharangi; bhargi; hunjika; kavalai
  • Indonesia: genje; ringgo dipo; sekar petak
  • Malaysia: ganja ganja; penatoh
  • Myanmar: ngayan-padu
  • Thailand: leng chon tai; phayaa raak dieo; thao yaai mom

EPPO code

  • CLZIN (Clerodendrum indicum)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. indicum is a small shrub which is listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds as ‘environmental weed’, ‘naturalised’, and ‘weed‘ (Randall, 2012). The species is considered native to temperate and tropical Asia including southern China, India, Malaysia and possibly the Philippines (Brown, 2014). It has been intentionally introduced across temperate and tropical regions as an ornamental, is known to have escaped from cultivation (Standley, 1914), and is now established in the Neotropics. It is known to be a weed in Vietnam (Holm et al., 1979), southern Florida and other parts of the USA (Randall, 2012). The species reproduces by seeds, rooted cuttings, and suckers, but does not appear to be as invasive as some other members of the Clerodendrum genus and is not currently a significant threat to native flora. Monitoring and future reassessment is recommended, considering its now widespread distribution beyond its native range, its rapid growth rate, and its ability to reproduce both by seed and vegetatively.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Lamiales
  •                         Family: Lamiaceae
  •                             Genus: Clerodendrum
  •                                 Species: Clerodendrum indicum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Most members of the Lamiaceae genus Clerodendrum are native to the Old World tropics, but many have been cultivated and introduced as ornamentals elsewhere. The genus consists of approximately 400 species (Armitage, 2001; Acevedo-Rodriguez, 1996), although this number has now been reported to be closer to 180, as much taxonomic confusion in the past has resulted in thousands of misnamed and synonymous specimens (Wearn and Mabberly, 2011). For example, Burman spelled the genus as Clerodendron in 1737 instead of Linnaeus’ correct 1753 spelling Clerodendrum, which resulted in both spellings occurring in the literature (Rueda, 1993). The genus name Clerodendrum is derived from the Greek words ‘kleros’, meaning ‘chance’, ‘lot’, or ‘fate’, and ‘dendron’, meaning ‘tree’, likely referring to the numerous and sometimes doubtful medicinal qualities that have been associated with these shrubs, trees and climbers (Stearn, 1992; Rueda, 1993; Armitage, 2001; Quattrocchi, 2012).

The species C. indicum was originally named Siphonanthus indica by Linneaus in 1753, and changed to its current name in 1891 by Kuntze. Its name refers to its perceived origin of India (Stearn, 1992).

Description

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Shrub, 1.5-3 m tall, laxly branched. Leaves verticillate, sessile, 3-5 in each whorl, narrowly lanceolate, 10-20 cm long, 1-2.5 cm broad, entire, acute. Cymes verticillately arranged to form a terminal, 20-25 cm long panicle. Flowers white, c. 1.5 cm across; bracts 5-10 mm long, reddish when young, linear to linear-lanceolate; pedicels up to 1.5 cm long. Calyx-lobes 6-7 mm long, ovate-lanceolate. Corolla-tube 8-10 mm long, glabrous; lobes ovate-oblong, 10-12 mm long, obtuse. Drupe c. 1 cm in diameter, bluish-black, enclosed by enlarged red coloured calyx [Flora of Pakistan, 2014].

In Myanmar and the eastern Caribbean, the species occurs as a shrub (Kress et al., 2003; Broome et al., 2007).

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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C. indicum is native to Asia but has been introduced as an ornamental to the Neotropics. In the Guiana Shield, the species has been cultivated and is now naturalized in Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana (Funk et al., 2007). While the species has been recorded for much of the West Indies and the Guiana Shield, it is not well represented in other parts of South America, continental Africa, or Europe, and has not been reported, for example, in Forzza et al.’s (2010) work on Brazil or in Flora Europaea (Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2014).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BhutanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
CambodiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
ChinaPresentWearn and Mabberley, 2011Southern China
-GuangdongPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-YunnanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
IndiaPresentWearn and Mabberley, 2011
-AssamPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-BiharPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-DelhiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-GujaratPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-HaryanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-Indian PunjabPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-KarnatakaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-KeralaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-Madhya PradeshPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-MaharashtraPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-ManipurPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-OdishaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-SikkimPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-TripuraPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-West BengalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentWearn and Mabberley, 2011
-MoluccasPresentWearn and Mabberley, 2011Probably naturalised on Borneo
-SulawesiPresentWearn and Mabberley, 2011Probably naturalised on Borneo
-SumatraPresentWearn and Mabberley, 2011
LaosPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
MalaysiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014Kedah, Mahang
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentWearn and Mabberley, 2011
-SabahPresentWearn and Mabberley, 2011
-SarawakPresentWearn and Mabberley, 2011
MyanmarPresentKress et al., 2003; USDA-ARS, 2014Kachin, Magway
NepalPresentWearn and Mabberley, 2011; USDA-ARS, 2014
PakistanPresentNativeFlora of Pakistan, 2014
PhilippinesPresentNativePelser et al., 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014Possibly native
SingaporePresent only in captivity/cultivation
Sri LankaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
ThailandPresentWearn and Mabberley, 2011; USDA-ARS, 2014
VietnamPresentValkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001; Wearn and Mabberley, 2011Common in southern Vietnam

Africa

MadagascarPresentIntroducedMadagascar Catalogue, 2014Naturalised

North America

USAPresentIntroducedITIS, 2014
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Brown, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014
-GeorgiaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2014
-South CarolinaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden, 2014
-TexasPresentIntroduced Not invasive Nesom, 2009

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Antigua and BarbudaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
BarbadosWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
DominicaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
GrenadaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
GuadeloupeWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
MartiniqueWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Saint LuciaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012St Vincent
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012St. Croix

South America

French GuianaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
GuyanaPresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007
SurinamePresentIntroducedFunk et al., 2007

Oceania

GuamPresentWagner et al., 2014

History of Introduction and Spread

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C. indicum has been so widely cultivated across Malesia that its native distribution within Asia is now unclear (Wearn and Mabberly, 2011), but it is considered to be native to India and Nepal, eastward to Myanmar, southern China, Indo-China, Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia (Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001). In the Philippines and Singapore, it is reported only as a cultivated species (Chong et al., 2009; Pelser et al., 2014).

Date of introduction to the Neotropics is uncertain, but in the West Indies it was reported (as syn. C. siphonanthus) as naturalized in St. Kitts, Trinidad, and Guiana by 1864 (Grisebach, 1864). The species was present in Martinique by 1867, Guadeloupe by 1892, St. Vincent by 1947, and Dominica by 1964 (Smithsonian Herbarium Collections). It was not included in Bello’s work on Puerto Rico (Bello Espinosa, 1881; Bello, 1883), but in 1914 Standley reported that it had escaped and become established in the West Indies (Standley, 1914). The species was included (as syn. Siphonanthusindicus) in Volume 6 of Britton and Wilson’s survey of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Britton and Wilson, 1926), where it was reported to be naturalized in St. Croix after being planted as an ornamental, and reportedly growing in the Puerto Rico Federal Experiment Station in 1951 (Hume, 1951). It was reported (as syn. Siphonanthusindica) as a cultivated species in Bermuda in 1918 (Britton, 1918). In the continental USA, C. indicum was present in the state of Louisiana by 1884 and Mississippi by 1887 (Standley, 1914).

Risk of Introduction

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C. indicum has been intentionally introduced across temperate and tropical regions as an ornamental and possibly as a contaminant, is known to have escaped from cultivation (Britton and Wilson, 1926; Standley, 1914), and is now established in parts of the Neotropics. It is known to be a weed in Vietnam (Holm et al., 1979), southern Florida and other parts of the USA (Randall, 2012). In Texas, the species has been classified as F3-Woody, “Relatively few in number, known from relatively few localities, usually in disturbed habitats, repeatedly introduced or perhaps merely long-persisting at some localities, not showing aggresively invasive tendencies, or perhaps incipiently invasive” (Nesom, 2009). C. indicum grows quickly and reproduces by seeds, rooted cuttings, and suckers, but does not appear to be as invasive as some other members of the Clerodendrum genus; in Florida, it is reportedly an easily managed garden plant (Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001; Brown, 2014). Considering the widespread distribution, rapid growth rate, and ability to reproduce both by seed and vegetatively, this species has potential to negatively impact environments, but based on the current data it appears to be more of a common weed and does not pose a significant threat to native ecosystems where it has been introduced.

Habitat

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Outside of cultivated gardens, C. indicum is occasional on river banks and other damp, open land such as waste ground (Wearn and Mabberly, 2011). In China, it is found on roadsides on mountain slopes (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014) while in Java the species is naturalized in grassy, sunny or slightly shaded areas near human settlements (Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001). On St. Croix the species was observed growing in rocky woods (Britton and Wilson, 1926).

 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details
Disturbed areas Present, no further details
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details
Riverbanks Present, no further details
Rocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details

Biology and Ecology

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C. indicum is native to temperate and tropical regions of Asia (USDA-ARS, 2014) in zones 8A-12 (minimum of 10°F, or -12°C) (Brown, 2014). It can tolerate a wide range of soil types, but prefers moist but well-drained soil and partial shade to full sun (Whistler, 2000; Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001; Brown, 2014). It has low tolerance for salt but is fairly drought-resistant (Brown, 2014). Altitude requirements for members of the Clerodendrum genus tend to be lower rather than higher ranges (Rueda, 1993). In China the species has been found between 500 and 1000 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014), while in Nepal it has been recorded to occur at 200-1400 m (Flora of Nepal Editorial Committee, 2014) and in Java at 0-500 m (Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001). 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -12

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cercoseptoria clerodendri Pathogen Leaves

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Leaves of C. indicum are often attacked by the fungus Cercoseptoria clerodendri (Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Vector Transmission (biotic)

Seeds of Clerodendrum are encased in shiny purple berries which may be dispersed by birds and other animals (Rueda, 1993). Additionally, it is a suckering plant and can be spread by movement of humans and animals who may transport rhizome fragments.

Accidental Introduction

C. indicum is known to have escaped cultivation and become naturalized in parts of the West Indies (Britton and Wilson, 1926).

Intentional Introduction

The species has been widely introduced outside of its native range for use as an ornamental (Quattrocchi, 2012).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoosSpecies cultivated in gardens Yes
Digestion and excretionBerries eaten by birds and animals, seeds dispersed after passing through the gut Yes Yes
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes
Garden waste disposal Yes
HitchhikerSeeds and root fragments possibly transported by soil stuck to hooves, shoes, on wheels, etc. Yes
Medicinal useUsed in traditional medicine in Asia Yes
Ornamental purposesIntroduced from Old Tropics to New Tropics for ornamental purposes Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessions Yes
Land vehicles Yes Yes
Machinery and equipment Yes Yes
Soil, sand and gravel Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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C. indicum is not recorded to have made significant negative economic or environmental impacts in the places where it has been introduced; rather it is more of a common weed in, for example, parts of the United States including Texas, where the species is “not showing aggressively invasive tendencies, or perhaps incipiently invasive” (Nesom, 2009).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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C. indicum has been cultivated as an ornamental (USDA-ARS, 2014), both within and outside of its native range. The species also has a history of medicinal use in Pakistan, India, China, Java and Myanmar (Watt, 1883; Khare, 2007; Quattrocchi, 2012; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Flora of Pakistan, 2014). Among its many uses in Ayurvedic and traditional medicine, the plant is known to be used to treat asthma, coughs, fever, atrophy, consumption, skin problems such as pemphigus, herpes, scrofula, and rheumatism, and is used as a tonic (Watt, 1883; Khare, 2007; Quattrocchi, 2012; Duke, 2014). In Pakistan, the root is used in chest troubles, and the juice of the leaves mixed with butter fat is applied to cure herpetic eruptions, and in India, Pakistan, and Myanmar, a resin obtained from the plant is used for treating syphilitic rheumatism (Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001; Khare, 2007; Flora of Pakistan, 2014). In India and Java, the leaves of the species are dried and smoked like cigarettes to relieve asthma, and in New Caledonia, the leaves are used as a bitter tonic and vermifuge (Valkenburg and Bunyapraphatsara, 2001; Khare, 2007). The leaves are also reportedly eaten as a vegetable (Quattrocchi, 2012).

Uses List

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General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Ornamental

Human food and beverage

  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 1996. Flora of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 78:1-581.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51:483 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Armitage AM, 2001. Armitage's manual of annuals, biennials, and half-hardy perennials. Portland, OR, USA: Timber Press.

Bello D, 1883. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Segunda parte. Monoclamídeas.) Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural, 12:103-130.

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Britton NL, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons. 585 pp.

Britton NL; Wilson P, 1926. Scientific Survey of Porto Rico and Virgin Islands. Volumen VI. New York, USA: Academy of Sciences, 629 pp.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Brown SH, 2014. September/October Bloomer: Tube Flower; Turk's Turban (Clerodendrum indicum). Florida Native Plants, Flowering Trees and Garden Almanac website. Fort Myers, F, USA: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS), University of Florida Lee County Extension. http://lee.ifas.ufl.edu/Hort/GardenPubsAZ/Tube_Flower.pdf

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore. National University of Singapore, Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, 273 pp.

Duke JA, 2014. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases online resource. Beltsville, USA: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Nepal Editorial Committee, 2014. Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=110

Flora of Pakistan, 2014. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Forzza R, 2010. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

Grisebach AHR, 1864. Flora of the British West Indian Islands. London, UK: Lovell Reeve & Co., 806 pp.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. New York, USA: Wiley.

HUME EP, 1951. Some ornamental shrubs for the tropics. Circular. Porto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station, Federal Station, Mayaguez, 34:151 pp.

ITIS, 2014. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov

Khare CP, 2007. Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary. New York, USA: Springer Press, 900 pp. http://www.ayurveda-heal.co.il/userfiles/Indian%20Medicinal%20Plants%20-%20Ayurveda.pdf

Kress WJ; Defilipps RA; Farr E; Kyi DYY, 2003. A checklist of the trees, shrubs, herbs, and climbers of Myanmar. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 45:1-590.

Madagascar Catalogue, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Madagascar. St. Louis, Missouri, USA and Antananarivo, Madagascar: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/project/mada

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Nesom GL, 2009. Assessment of invasiveness and ecological impact in non-native plants of Texas. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 3(2):971-991.

Pelser PB; Barcelona JF; Nickrent DL, 2014. Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines. www.philippineplants.org

Quattrocchi U, 2012. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology [ed. by Quattrocchi, U.]. London, UK: CRC Press Inc., 3960 pp.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2014. Flora Europaea. Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/FE/fe.html

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Biological Diversity of the Guiana Shieldhttp://botany.si.edu/bdg/
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
Flora of Micronesiahttp://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/micronesia/index.htm
Flora of the Hawaiian Islandshttp://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm

Contributors

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22/8/2014 Original text by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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