Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Clover yellow vein virus
(CYVV)

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Datasheet

Clover yellow vein virus (CYVV)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Clover yellow vein virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • CYVV
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Potyviridae
  •         Genus: Potyvirus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Irregular vein chlorosis and vein banding by Clover yellow vein virus in white clover (Trifolium repens) sap-inoculated with the Dutch pea necrosis isolate E178 (Row A) and the British type strain from clover (Row B).
TitleSymptoms in white clover
CaptionIrregular vein chlorosis and vein banding by Clover yellow vein virus in white clover (Trifolium repens) sap-inoculated with the Dutch pea necrosis isolate E178 (Row A) and the British type strain from clover (Row B).
CopyrightL. Bos
Irregular vein chlorosis and vein banding by Clover yellow vein virus in white clover (Trifolium repens) sap-inoculated with the Dutch pea necrosis isolate E178 (Row A) and the British type strain from clover (Row B).
Symptoms in white cloverIrregular vein chlorosis and vein banding by Clover yellow vein virus in white clover (Trifolium repens) sap-inoculated with the Dutch pea necrosis isolate E178 (Row A) and the British type strain from clover (Row B).L. Bos

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Clover yellow vein virus

Preferred Common Name

  • CYVV

Other Scientific Names

  • Bean yellow mosaic virus-N (necrotic strain)
  • Bean yellow mosaic virus-S (severe strain)
  • Clover yellow vein potyvirus
  • Pea necrosis virus
  • Statice virus Y

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Kleegelbadrigkeits-Virus
  • Netherlands: klavergeelnerfvirus

English acronym

  • ClYVV

EPPO code

  • CLYVV0 (Clover yellow vein potyvirus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Potyviridae
  •                 Genus: Potyvirus
  •                     Species: Clover yellow vein virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

JapanRestricted distributionUyeda et al., 1975; Inouye et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-HokkaidoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000
-HonshuPresentKaji et al., 1991; Nakamura and Honkura, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-ShikokuPresentSasaya et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2000
Korea, Republic ofPresentRoh and Chang, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2000; Park et al., 2014; Shin et al., 2014
YemenPresentAlhubaishi et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2000

North America

CanadaPresentPratt, 1968; Pratt, 1969; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-British ColumbiaPresentPratt, 1969; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-New BrunswickPresentPratt, 1968; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-Prince Edward IslandPresentPratt, 1968; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-QuebecPresentPratt, 1968; CABI/EPPO, 2000
USARestricted distributionPratt, 1968; Pratt, 1969; Barnett and Gibson, 1975; McLaughlin and Boykin, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-AlabamaPresentBarnett and Gibson, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-CaliforniaPresentHouston and Oswald, 1953; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-ConnecticutPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000
-FloridaPresentIrey et al., 2006; Adkins et al., 2011
-GeorgiaPresentBarnett and Gibson, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-IdahoPresentMcLaughlin and Ensign, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-KentuckyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000
-LouisianaPresentHarville and Derrick, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-MarylandPresentDwadash-Shreni and Stavely, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-MassachusettsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000
-MinnesotaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000
-MississippiPresentBarnett and Gibson, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-NebraskaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000
-New JerseyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000
-New YorkPresentKreitlow et al., 1957; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-North CarolinaPresentLucas and Harper, 1972; Barnett and Gibson, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-OregonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000
-PennsylvaniaPresentLeath and Barnett, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-South CarolinaPresentBarnett and Gibson, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-TennesseePresentCABI/EPPO, 2000
-TexasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000
-VermontPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000
-VirginiaPresentBarnett and Gibson, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-WashingtonPresentHowell and Mink, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2000

South America

ColombiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000

Europe

BulgariaPresentKostova and Tzorlianis, 2007
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentMusil et al., 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2000
FrancePresent, few occurrencesLeclerq-Le-Quillec and Maury, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2000
GermanyPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000
HungaryPresentCABI/EPPO, 2000
ItalyPresentLisa & Dellavelle, 1981; Lisa & Dellavelle, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2000
NetherlandsPresentBos, 1969a; Bos et al., 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2000
PolandPresentBos et al., 1974; Kowalska, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2000
SpainPresentLuis-Arteaga et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2000
SwedenPresentLindsten et al., 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2000
UKPresentHollings and Nariani, 1965; Gibbs et al., 1966; CABI/EPPO, 2000

Oceania

AustraliaPresentRalph, 1992; Norton and Johnstone, 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-New South WalesPresentBarnett et al., 1987; Helms et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-QueenslandPresentBarnett et al., 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-South AustraliaPresentHelms et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-TasmaniaPresentMunro, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-VictoriaPresentGarrett, 1983; Helms et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2000
-Western AustraliaPresentHelms et al., 1993; McKirdy and Jones, 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2000
New ZealandPresentForster and Musgrave, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2000

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dieback
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Seeds / distortion
Stems / dead heart
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Myzus persicaeInsect

References

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Abu-Samah N; Randles JW, 1983. A comparison of Australian bean yellow mosaic virus isolates using molecular hybridisation analysis. Annals of Applied Biology, 103(1):97-107

Adkins S; Baker CA; Jones L; Irey MS; Rosskopf EN, 2011. Identification of three potyviruses in Ammi majus in Florida. Acta Horticulturae [12th International Symposium on Virus Diseases of Ornamental Plants, Haarlem, Netherlands, 21 April 2008.], No.901:133-138. http://www.actahort.org/books/901/901_17.htm

Aitken Y; Grieve BJ, 1943. A mosaic disease of subterranean clover. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, 9:81-82.

Alconero R, 1983. Response of Trifolium hybridum germ plasm to mechanical inoculation with bean yellow mosaic and clover yellow vein viruses in the greenhouse. Plant Disease, 67(11):1272-1273

Alconero R, 1983. Viruses infecting six species of perennial clover (Trifolium spp.) in field evaluations of plant introductions and cultivars. Plant Disease, 67(11):1270-1271

Alconero R; Fiori B; Sherring W, 1986. Relationships of virus infections to field performance of six clover species. Plant Disease, 70(2):119-121

Alhubaishi AA; Walkey DGA; Webb MJW; Bolland CJ; Cook AA, 1987. A survey of horticultural plant virus diseases in the Yemen Arab Republic. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 35(4):135-143

Baker CA; Zettler FW, 1988. Viruses infecting wild and cultivated species of the Commelinaceae. Plant Disease, 72(6):513-518

Bariana HS; Shannon AL; Chu PWG; Waterhouse PM, 1994. Detection of five seedborne legume viruses in one sensitive multiplex polymerase chain reaction test. Phytopathology, 84(10):1201-1205

Barnett OW; Diachun S, 1984. Virus diseases of clovers. Clover Science and Technology, Agronomy Monograph, 25 235-268.

Barnett OW; Gibson PB, 1975. Identification and prevalence of white clover viruses and the resistance of Trifolium species to these viruses. Crop Science, 15(1):32-37

Barnett OW; Gibson PB, 1977. Effect of virus infection on flowering and seed production of the parental clones of Tillman white clover (Trifolium repens). Plant Disease Reporter, 61(3):203-207

Barnett OW; Gibson PB; Seo A, 1975. A comparison of heat treatment, cold treatment, and meristem tip-culture for obtaining virus-free plants of Trifolium repens. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(10):834-837

Barnett OW; Randles JW; Burrows PM, 1987. Relationships among Australian and North American isolates of the bean yellow mosaic potyvirus subgroup. Phytopathology, 77(6):791-799

Baxter LW Jr; McGlohon NE, 1959. A method of freeing white clover plants of bean yellow mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 49:810-811.

Beczner L, 1974. Review of virus diseases infecting lucerne and the possibilities of their differentiation. Novenyvedelmi Kutato Intezet Kozlemenyei, 8:73-101

Beczner L; Horvath J; Borbely F, 1983. Susceptibility of Pisum sativum and Lupinus species and cultivars o some economically important viruses. Tagungsbericht der Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der Deutschen Demokratische Republik, 216(1):313-322.

Beczner L; Maat DZ; Bos L, 1976. The relationships between pea necrosis virus and bean yellow mosaic virus. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 82(2):41-50

Bednarek J; Kobylko T; Mamajko A; Maj Z, 1988. Reaction of selected varieties of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to infection by clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV). Acta Agraria et Silvestria, Agraria, 27:3-11

Bos L, 1969. Inclusion bodies of bean yellow mosaic virus, some less known closely related viruses and beet mosaic virus. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 75:137-143.

Bos L, 1969. Some problems in the identification of a necrosis virus of pea (Pisum sativum L). Proceedings 6th Conference of the Czechoslovak Plant Virologists, Olomouc 1967, 253-262.

Bos L, 1970. The identification of three new viruses isolated from Wisteria and Pisum in the Netherlands, and the problem of variation within the potato virus Y group. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 76:8-46.

Bos L; Kowalska C; Maat DZ, 1974. The identification of bean mosaic, pea yellow mosaic and pea necrosis strains of bean yellow mosaic virus. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 80(6):173-191

Bos L; Lindsten K; Maat DZ, 1977. Similarity of clover yellow vein virus and pea necrosis virus. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 83(3):97-108

Bos L; Parlevliet JE, 1995. Concepts and terminology on plant/pest relationships: toward consensus in plant pathology and crop protection. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 33:69-102; 67 ref.

Bos L; Rubio-Huertos M, 1969. Light and electron microscopy of cytoplasmic and unusual nuclear inclusion bodies evoked by a virus from necrotic peas. Virology, 37:377-385.

Briese DT, 1989. Host-specificity and virus-vector potential of Aphis chloris (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a biological control agent for St John's wort in Australia. Entomophaga, 34(2):247-264

Brunt A; Crabtree K; Dallwitz MJ; Gibbs A, 1996. Viruses of Plants. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 423-425.

Bryan GT; Gardner RC; Forster RLS, 1992. Nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene of a strain of clover yellow vein virus from New Zealand: conservation of a stem-loop structure in the 3' region of potyviruses. Archives of Virology, 124(1-2):133-146

CABI/EPPO, 2000. Clover yellow vein potyvirus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 811. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Campbell CL; Moyer JW, 1983. Effects of clover yellow vein virus and Codinpa fertilis on growth of white clover. Plant Disease, 67(1):70-73

Campbell CL; Moyer JW, 1984. Yield responses of six white clover clones to virus infection under field conditions. Plant Disease, 68(12):1033-1035

Chang CA; Hiebert E; Purcifull DE, 1988. Purification, characterization and immunological analysis of nuclear inclusions induced by bean yellow mosaic and clover yellow vein potyviruses. Phytopathology, 78(10):1266-1275

Christie RG; Edwardson JR, 1977. Light and Electron Microscopy of Plant Virus Inclusions. Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Monograph Series, 9:150 pp.

Christie RG; Edwardson JR, 1986. Light microscopic techniques for detection of plant virus inclusions. Plant Disease, 70(4):273-279

Cockbain AJ; Govier DA; Bowen R, 1976. Diseases of grain legumes. Rothamsted Experimental Station Report for 1975, Part I:263-264.

Cope WA; Walker SK; Lucas LT, 1978. Evaluation of selected white clover clones for resistance to viruses in the field. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(3):267-270

Davis RF; Shifriss O, 1983. Natural virus infection in silvery and nonsilvery lines of Cucurbita pepo. Plant Disease, 67(4):379-380

Demski JW; Bays DC; Khan MA, 1986. Simple latex agglutination test for detecting flexuous rod-shaped viruses in forage legumes. Plant Disease, 70(8):777-779

Dwadash-Shreni VC; Stavely JR, 1984. Comparative resistance of Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars to clover yellow vein virus using various inoculation methods. Plant Disease, 68(7):555-558

Forster RLS; Musgrave DR, 1985. Clover yellow vein virus in white clover (Trifolium repens) and sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus) in the North Island of New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 28(4):575-578

Fortass M; Bos L; Goldbach RW, 1991. Identification of potyvirus isolates from faba bean (Vicia faba L.), and the relationships between bean yellow mosaic virus and clover yellow vein virus. Archives of Virology, 118(1-2):87-100

Fox M; Corbett MK, 1985. Winged bean mosaic caused by clover yellow vein virus. Plant Disease, 69(4):352-354

Garrett RG, 1983. Confirmation of the presence of clover yellow vein virus in Australia. Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of Plant Pathology.

Garrett RG, 1986. The spread of clover yellow vein virus in lupin plots by immigrant aphids. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 37.

Gibbs AJ; Varma A; Woods RD, 1966. Viruses occurring in white clover (Trifolium repens L.) from permanent pastures in Britain. Annals of Applied Biology, 58:231-240.

Gibson PB; Barnett OW; Burrows PM; King FD, 1982. Filtered-air enclosures exclude vectors and enable measurement of effects of viruses on white clover in the field. Plant Disease, 66(2):142-144

Gibson PB; Barnett OW; Huddleston LH, 1979. Virus infections reduce yield of Yuchi arrowleaf clover. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(4):297-300

Gibson PB; Barnett OW; Pederson GA; McLaughlin MR; Knight WE; Miller JD; Cope WA; Tolin SA, 1989. Registration of Southern Regional Virus Resistant white clover germplasm. Crop Science, 29(1):241-242; 5 ref.

Gibson PB; Barnett OW; Skipper HD; McLaughlin MR, 1981. Effects of three viruses on growth of white clover. Plant Disease, 65(1):50-51

Hagita T, 1992. Studies on viral diseases and causal viruses of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Hokkaido. Report of Hokkaido Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Stations, 76:119 pp.

Hammond J, 1992. Potyvirus serology, sequences and biology. Archives of Virology Vienna, Austria; Springer-Verlag/Wien, Supplementum 5:123-138

Hammond J, 1998. Serological relationships between the cylindrical inclusion proteins of potyviruses. Phytopathology, 88(9):965-971; 45 ref.

Harville BG; Derrick KS, 1978. Identification and prevalence of white clover viruses in Louisiana. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(4):290-292

Helms K; Muller WJ; Waterhouse PM, 1993. National survey of viruses in pastures of subterranean clover. I. Incidence of four viruses assessed by ELISA. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 44(8):1837-1862

Hewish DR; Xiao XW; Mishra A; Gough KH; Shukla DD, 1993. Characterisation and epitope analysis of monoclonal antibodies to virions of clover yellow vein and Johnsongrass mosaic potyviruses. Archives of Virology, 133(1-2):127-141

Hollings M; Nariani TK, 1965. Some properties of clover yellow vein, a virus from Trifolium repens L. Annals of Applied Biology, 56:99-109.

Hollings M; Stone OM, 1974. Clover yellow vein virus. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses, 131.

Houston BR; Oswald JW, 1953. The mosaic disease complex of ladino clover. Phytopathology, 43:271-276.

Howell WE; Mink GI, 1981. Viruses isolated from wild carrot and poison hemlock. Plant Disease, 65(3):277-279

Hulse LB; Helms K; Waterhouse PM, 1993. National survey of viruses in pastures of subterranean clover. III. Equipment for large scale screening of viruses by ELISA. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 44(8):1883-1890

Ikegami M; Isomura Y; Maeda T; Inouye N, 1995. The nucleotide sequence of the 3-terminal region of clover yellow vein potyvirus isolated from Calanthe sp. Journal of Phytopathology, 143(7):385-390

Inouye N; Mpda T; Mitsuhata K, 1988. A strain of clover yellow vein virus isolated from Calanthe sp. Acta Horticulturae, No. 234:61-68

Inouye T, 1968. Studies on host range of PVY-group viruses in leguminous plants in Japan, and the identification of them by the selected differential test plants. Nogaku Kenkyu, 52:11-29.

Irey M; Adkins S; Baker CA, 2006. Clover yellow vein virus identified in Ammi majus in Florida. Plant Disease, 90(3):380.

Johnstone GR; McLean GD, 1987. Virus diseases of subterranean clover. Annals of Applied Biology, 110(2):421-440

Jones RT; Diachun S, 1977. Serologically and biologically distinct bean yellow mosaic virus strains. Phytopathology, 67(7):831-838

Jordan R; Hammond J, 1991. Comparison and differentiation of potyvirus isolates and identification of strain-, virus-, subgroup-specific and potyvirus group-common epitopes using monoclonal antibodies. Journal of General Virology, 72(1):25-36

Kaji K; Takechi S; Hanzawa S; Sakuma H, 1991. Control and varietal resistance of kidney bean necrotic stem blight caused by clover yellow vein virus. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, No. 42:45-47

Karl E; Schmidt HE; Giersemehl I, 1992. Range of aphid vector species of clover yellow vein potyvirus. Journal of Phytopathology, 134(2):117-120

Knight WE; Barnett OW; Singleton LL; Smith CM, 1976. Potential disease and insect problems in arrowleaf clover. Proceedings South Branch of the American Society of Agronomy, 3:7.

Knight WE; McLaughlin MR; Rincker CM; Windham GL; Edwards NC; Pederson GA, 1988. Registration of Brown Loam Synthetic No.2 white clover germplasm. Crop Science, 28(2):380.

Kostova D; Tzorlianis S, 2007. First report of Clover yellow vein virus (CLYVV) on green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Bulgaria. Rasteniev'dni Nauki, 44(2):110-113.

Kowalska C, 1979. Viruses infecting pea (Pisum L.) in Poland. Genetica Polonica, 20(2):211-215

Kreitlow KW; Hunt OJ; Wilkins HL, 1957. The effect of virus infection on yield and chemical composition of Ladino clover. Phytopathology, 47:390-394.

Lawson RH; Brannigan MD; Foster J, 1985. Clover yellow vein virus in Limonium sinuatum. Phytopathology, 75(8):899-906

Leath KT; Barnett OW, 1981. Viruses infecting red clover in Pennsylvania. Plant Disease, 65(12):1016-1017

Leclerq-Le-Quillec F; Maury Y, 1998. Disorders caused by viruses on pea crops. Phytoma, 502:41-43.

Lesemann D-E; Koenig R; Hein A, 1979. Statice virus Y - a virus related to bean yellow mosaic and clover yellow vein viruses. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 95(2):128-139

Lindsten K; Brishhammar S; Tomenius K, 1976. Investigations on relationship and variation of some legume viruses within the potyvirus group. Meddelanden Statens Vaxtskyddsanstalt, 16(171):289-322

Lisa V; Dellavalle G, 1981. Characterization of two potyviruses in Cucurbita pepo. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 100(3):279-286

Lisa V; Dellavalle G, 1983. Clover yellow vein virus in climbing bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 22(1/2):49-52

Lucas LT; Harper CR, 1972. Mechanically transmissible viruses from Ladino clover in North Carolina. Plant Disease Reporter, 56:774-776.

Luis-Arteaga ML; Garcia-Arenal F; Rodriguez-Cerezo E, 1996. Characterization of a strain of clover yellow vein potyvirus infecting borage (Borago officinalis L.) in Spain. Plant Pathology, 45(1):38-44.

McKern NM; Barnett OW; Whittaker LA; Mishra A; Strike PM; Xiao XW; Ward CW; Shukla DD, 1993. Sequence relationships among the coat proteins of strains of pea mosaic, white lupin mosaic, and bean yellow mosaic potyviruses. Phytopathology, 83(3):355-361

McKirdy SJ; Jones RAC, 1997. Further studies on the incidence of virus infection in white clover pastures. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 48(1):31-37.

McLaughlin MR; Barnett OW; Gibson PB; Burrows PM, 1984. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of viruses infecting forage legumes. Phytopathology, 74(8):965-969; [1 fig., 5 tab.]; 29 ref.

McLaughlin MR; Boykin DL, 1988. Virus diseases of seven species of forage legumes in the southeastern United States. Plant Disease, 72(6):539-542

McLaughlin MR; Ensign RD, 1989. Viruses detected in forage legumes in Idaho. Plant Disease, 73(11):906-909

McLaughlin MR; Fairbrother TE, 1994. Susceptibility to clover yellow vein potyvirus in the United States germ plasm collection of subterranean clover. Plant Disease, 78(7):665-667

McLaughlin MR; Pederson GA; Evans RR; Ivy RL, 1992. Virus diseases and stand decline in a white clover pasture. Plant Disease, 76(2):158-162

Miller JD; Demski JW; Baltensperger DD; Wells HD, 1987. First report of peanut mottle virus and clover yellow vein virus on alyceclover in Georgia. Plant Disease, 71(2):192

Moghal SM; Francki RIB, 1976. Towards a system for the identification and classification of potyviruses I. Serology and amino acid composition of six distinct viruses. Virology, 73(2):350-362

Munro D, 1981. Clover yellow vein virus in broad bean. Australasian Plant Pathology, 10(3):61-62

Musil M; Smrz J; Vacek V, 1986. Susceptibility of cultivars of the white clover collection to viruses and incidence of viruses in 1977 - 1984. Sbornik UVTIZ, Ochrana Rostlin, 22(4):265-271

Nagel J; Zettler FW; Hiebert E, 1983. Strains of bean yellow mosaic virus compared to clover yellow vein virus in relation to gladiolus production in Florida. Phytopathology, 73(3):449-454

Nakamura S; Honkura R, 1997. Characterization of some viruses isolated from broad bean in Miyagi Prefecture. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, 48:80-84.

Nelson SC; Campbell CL, 1993. Comparative spatial analysis of foliar epidemics on white clover caused by viruses, fungi, and a bacterium. Phytopathology, 83(3):288-301

Norton MR; Johnstone GR, 1998. Occurrence of alfalfa mosaic, clover yellow vein, subterranean clover red leaf, and white clover mosaic viruses in white clover throughout Australia. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 49(4):723-728; 24 ref.

Okuda S; Hasegawa M; Natsuaki T; Kaji K; Natsuaki KT; Teranka M, 1992. Clover yellow vein virus isolated from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) showing vein necrosis in Fukushima Prefecture. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 58(2):298-304

Park CY; Lee MA; Nam M; Park EH; Bae YS; Lee SH; Kim JS; Won DY, 2014. First report of Clover yellow vein virus on white clover (Trifolium repens) in South Korea. Plant Disease, 98(10):1450. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Pederson GA; McLaughlin MR, 1989. Resistance to viruses in Trifolium interspecific hybrids related to white clover. Plant Disease, 73(12):997-999

Pederson GA; McLaughlin MR, 1994. Genetics of resistance to peanut stunt, clover yellow vein, and alfalfa mosaic viruses in white clover. Crop Science, 34(4):896-900

Pederson GA; McLaughlin MR; Windham GL, 1991. Registration of MS-2X, MS-4X, and MS-6X kura clover germplasms. Crop Science, 31(6):1714; 2 ref.

Pratt MJ, 1967. Reduced winter survival and yield of clover infected with clover yellow mosaic virus. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 47:298-294.

Pratt MJ, 1968. Clover viruses in Eastern Canada. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 48(3):87-92.

Pratt MJ, 1969. Clover yellow vein virus in North America. Plant Disease Reporter, 53(3):210-212.

Provvidenti R, 1987. Inheritance of resistance to clover yellow vein virus in Pisum sativum. Journal of Heredity, 78(2):126-128

Provvidenti R; Granett AL, 1974. Sweet violet, a natural host of bean yellow mosaic virus. Plant Disease Reporter, 58:155-156.

Provvidenti R; Schroeder WT, 1973. Resistance in Phaseolus vulgaris to the severe strain of bean yellow mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 63(1):196-197

Provvidenti R; Uyemoto JK, 1973. Chlorotic leaf spotting of yellow summer squash caused by the severe strain of bean yellow mosaic virus. Plant Disease Reporter, 57(3):280-282

Purcifull DE; Hiebert E, 1992. Serological relationships involving potyviral nonstructural proteins. Archives of Virology Vienna, Austria; Springer-Verlag/Wien, Supplementum 5:97-122

Quagliotti L; Lepori G, 1981. Climbing bean germplasm collected in Cuneo province. Results of four years' evaluations. Atti del convegno su: risultati di un quinquennio di lavoro sul miglioramento genetico del fagiolo da granella, Cuneo, 3 luglio, 1981:71-96.

Ragland CK; Campbell CL, 1983. Effect of clover yellow vein and peanut stunt viruses on yield of white clover clones in a clover-tall fescue stand. Phytopathology, 73(3):505.

Ragland CK; Campbell CL; Moyer JW, 1986. The effects of clover yellow vein virus and peanut stunt virus on yield of two clones of ladino white clover. Phytopathology, 76(5):557-561

Ralph W, 1992. Viruses contribute to clover decline. Rural Research, No. 155:4-10

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