Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

clover phyllody phytoplasma
(phyllody of clover)

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Datasheet

clover phyllody phytoplasma (phyllody of clover)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • clover phyllody phytoplasma
  • Preferred Common Name
  • phyllody of clover
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Firmicutes
  •     Class: Mollicutes
  •       Order: Acholeplasmatales
  •         Family: Acholeplasmataceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
SGP in strawberry: sometimes stunting and witches' broom symptoms only affect part of the plant.
TitleSymptoms on strawberry plant
CaptionSGP in strawberry: sometimes stunting and witches' broom symptoms only affect part of the plant.
CopyrightAssunta Bertaccini
SGP in strawberry: sometimes stunting and witches' broom symptoms only affect part of the plant.
Symptoms on strawberry plantSGP in strawberry: sometimes stunting and witches' broom symptoms only affect part of the plant.Assunta Bertaccini
SGP in strawberry: affected fruits show, in some cases, virescence symptoms.
TitleSymptoms on strawberry plant
CaptionSGP in strawberry: affected fruits show, in some cases, virescence symptoms.
CopyrightAssunta Bertaccini
SGP in strawberry: affected fruits show, in some cases, virescence symptoms.
Symptoms on strawberry plantSGP in strawberry: affected fruits show, in some cases, virescence symptoms.Assunta Bertaccini
SGP (clover phyllody phytoplasma) in strawberry: flower malformation and virescence are associated with the pathogen presence.
TitleSymptoms on strawberry plant
CaptionSGP (clover phyllody phytoplasma) in strawberry: flower malformation and virescence are associated with the pathogen presence.
CopyrightAssunta Bertaccini
SGP (clover phyllody phytoplasma) in strawberry: flower malformation and virescence are associated with the pathogen presence.
Symptoms on strawberry plantSGP (clover phyllody phytoplasma) in strawberry: flower malformation and virescence are associated with the pathogen presence.Assunta Bertaccini

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • clover phyllody phytoplasma

Preferred Common Name

  • phyllody of clover

International Common Names

  • English: green petal of strawberry

EPPO code

  • PHYP03 (Clover phyllody phytoplasma)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Firmicutes
  •         Class: Mollicutes
  •             Order: Acholeplasmatales
  •                 Family: Acholeplasmataceae
  •                     Genus: Phytoplasma
  •                         Species: clover phyllody phytoplasma

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaPresentShatrughna-Singh et al., 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-Himachal PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
JapanPresentNakamura et al., 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2009

Africa

SudanPresentDafalla and Cousin, 1988

North America

CanadaPresentChiykowski and Craig, 1975; Chiykowski and Craig, 1978; Deng and Hiruki, 1990; Lee et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-New BrunswickPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
-Nova ScotiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
-Prince Edward IslandPresentCutcliffe and Thompson, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-QuebecPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
USAPresentHarrison et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-FloridaPresentHarrison et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2009

Europe

BelarusPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
BelgiumPresentSamyn et al., 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2009
BulgariaPresentBertaccini et al., 1995b; CABI/EPPO, 2009
Czech RepublicPresentHonestlegrova-Franova et al., 1996; Ponkarova-Vorackova et al., 1998; CABI/EPPO, 2009; Fránová and Spak, 2013
FrancePresentGiannotti et al., 1980; Saeed and Cousin, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2009
GermanyPresentKleinenhempel et al., 1972; Lehman, 1973; Schneider and Seemuller, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2009
HungaryPresentGaborjanyi and Nagy, 1972; Gaborjanyi and Sziraki, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2009
IrelandPresentO'Rourke, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2009
ItalyPresentSavio and Conti, 1983; Bertaccini et al., 1994; Vibio et al., 1995; Firrao et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2009
-Italy (mainland)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
LithuaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
PortugalPresentBertaccini et al., 1995a; Louro et al., 1996; CABI/EPPO, 2009
RomaniaPresentPloaie et al., 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2009
Russian FederationPresentSkripal et al., 1988; Bogatyrenko, 1979; Iordanova, 1979; Vlasov, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2009
SwitzerlandPresentCazelles, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2009
UKPresentClark et al., 1989a; Clark et al., 1989b; Clark et al., 1983; Clark and Davies, 1984; Davies et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2009

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009
-VictoriaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2009

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Inflorescence / abnormal leaves (phyllody)
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Stems / witches broom
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / elongation

References

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Alma A; Bosco D; Danielli A; Bertaccini A; Vibio M; Arzone A, 1997. Identification of phytoplasmas in eggs, nymphs and adults of Scaphoideus titanus Ball reared on healthy plants. Insect Molecular Biology, 6(2):115-121; 32 ref.

Bertaccini A; Davis RE; Lee IM, 1990. Distinctions among mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) in Gladiolus, Ranunculus, Brassica, and Hydrangea through detection with nonradioactive cloned DNA probes. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 29(2):107-113

Bertaccini A; Marani F; Rapetti S, 1988. Phyllody and virescence in Ranunculus hybrids. Acta Horticulturae, No. 234:123-128

Bertaccini A; Mittempergher L; Vibio M, 1996. Identification of phytoplasmas associated with a decline of European hackberry (Celtis australis). Annals of Applied Biology, 128(2):245-253; 29 ref.

Bertaccini A; Murari E; Vibio M; Danielli A; Davis RE; Borgo M; Consolaro C; Sancassani P, 1996a. Identificazione molecolare dei fitoplasmi presenti in viti affette da giallumi nel Veneto. L'Informatore Agrario, 20:55-59.

Bertaccini A; Vibio M; Bellardi MG, 1996. Virus diseases of ornamental shrubs. X. Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. infected by viruses and phytoplasmas. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 35(2):129-132; 17 ref.

Bertaccini A; Vibio M; Bellardi MG; Danielli A, 1996. Identification of phytoplasmas in Alstroemeria. Acta Horticulturae, No. 432:312-317; 12 ref.

Bertaccini A; Vibio M; Hostachy B; Hiruki C; Louro D, 1995a. Molecular characterization and identification of phytoplasmas infecting flower crops. European Journal of Plant Pathology, XIII International Plant Protection Congress, the Hague, the Netherlands 2-7 July, 1995. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.

Bertaccini A; Vibio M; Lee I-M; Davis RE, 1994. Genetic characterization of mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) infecting flower and vegetable crops in Italian and French Riviera. XXIVth International Horticultural Congress, Kyoto, Japan 21-27 August 1994. Japan: International Society for Horticultural Science.

Bertaccini A; Vibio M; Pastore M, 1997b. Identificazione mediante metodiche molecolari di fitoplasmi presenti in fragola in Italia. Italus Hortus, 4:21-25.

Bertaccini A; Vibio M; Pastore M; Recupero S; Guerrini S; Grimaldi D, 1997. Nested-PCR assays for detection of phytoplasmas in strawberry. Acta Horticulturae, No. 439, II:787-790; 11 ref.

Bertaccini A; Vibio M; Sakalieva D; Guergov E; Karov S, 1995b. Molecular characterization of phytoplasmas infecting vegetable and flower crops in Bulgaria. I Congrasso Nazionale Biotecnologia, Bologna 6-9 Settembre 1995, S1.3.

Bogatyrenko TN, 1979. Clover phyllody. Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchity Rastenii. All-Union Res. Inst. Pl. Prot. Leningrad USSR, 28-42

CABI/EPPO, 2009. Clover phyllody phytoplasma. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No.April. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 1050 (Edition 1).

Carraro L; Osler R; Loi N; Favali MA, 1991. Transmission characteristics of the clover phyllody agent by dodder. Journal of Phytopathology, 133(1):15-22

Cazelles O, 1974. Mycoplasmas, plant parasites, and diseases caused by them. Revue Suisse de Viticulture Arboriculture Horticulture, 6(5):141-143

Chen KH; Credi R; Loi N; Maixner M; Chen TA, 1994. Identification and grouping of mycoplasmalike organisms associated with grapevine yellows and clover phyllody diseases based on immunological and molecular analyses. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 60(6):1905-1913; 35 ref.

Chiykowski LN, 1973. Effectiveness of antibiotics applied as postinoculation sprays against clover phyllody and aster yellows. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 53(1):87-91

Chiykowski LN, 1973. Factors affecting the infection of plants with clover phyllody agent transmitted by Macrosteles fascifrons. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 66(5):987-990

Chiykowski LN, 1974. Additional host plants of clover phyllody in Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 54(4):755-763

Chiykowski LN, 1975. Aphrodes bicincta as a vector of the clover phyllody agent. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 68(4):645-648

Chiykowski LN, 1991. Vector-pathogen-host plant relationships of clover phyllody mycoplasmalike organism and the vector leafhopper Paraphlepsius irroratus. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 13(1):11-18

Chiykowski LN; Craig DL, 1975. Reaction of strawberry cultivars to clover phyllody (green petal) agent transmitted by Aphrodes bicincta. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 55(2):66-68

Chiykowski LN; Craig DL, 1978. Plant and insect age as factors in the transmission of clover phyllody (green petal) agent to strawberry by Aphrodes bicinctus. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 58(2):467-470

Chiykowski LN; Sinha RC, 1990. Differentiation of MLO diseases by means of symptomatology and vector transmission. Recent advances in mycoplasmology. Proceedings of the 7th congress of the International Organization for Mycoplasmology, Baden near Vienna, 1988. [edited by Stanek, G.; Cassell, G.H.; Tully, J.G.; Whitcomb, R.F.] Stuttgart, Germany; Gustav Fischer Verlag, 280-287

Clark MF; Barbara DJ; Davies DL, 1983. Production and characteristics of antisera to Spiroplasma citri and clover phyllody-associated antigens derived from plants. Annals of Applied Biology, 103(2):251-259

Clark MF; Davies DL, 1984. Mycoplasma detection and characterization. Report East Malling Research Station for 1983. Maidstone, Kent UK, 108-109

Clark MF; Davies DL; Buss SL; Morton A, 1989. Serological discrimination among mycoplasma-like organisms using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Acta Horticulturae, 235:107-113

Clark MF; Morton A; Buss SL, 1989. Preparation of mycoplasma immunogens from plants and a comparison of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies made against primula yellows MLO-associated antigens. Annals of Applied Biology, 114(1):111-124

Cousin MT; Perreau P; Kartha KK, 1974. Essais de caracterisation sur milieux artificiels d'agents pathogenes a partir de plantes atteintes de 'jaunisse'. Annales de Phytopathologie, 6(3):277-284.

Cutcliffe JA; Thompson LS, 1977. Incidence of green petal disease in strawberry in Prince Edward Island, 1976. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 57(1/2):1-2

Dafalla GA; Cousin MT, 1988. Natural occurrence of virescence disease on Catharanthus roseus and Zinnia elegans in the Gezira, Sudan. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 95(4):414-418

Dale PJ; Cheyne VA, 1993. The elimination of clover diseases by shoot tip culture. Annals of Applied Biology, 123(1):25-32

Danielli A; Bertaccini A; Bosco D; Alma A; Vibio M; Arzone A, 1996a. May evidence of 16SrI-group-related phytoplasmas in eggs, nymphs and adults of Scaphoideus titanus Ball suggest their transovarial transmission? IOM Letters, 4:190-191.

Danielli A; Bertaccini A; Vibio M; Rapetti S, 1996b. Identificazione di fitoplasmi associati allo scopazzo dell'olivo. Atti Convegno annuale SIPaV, Udine 26-27 Settembre 1996, C28-29. Italy: Societa Italiana di Patologia Vegetale.

Davies DL; Barbara DJ; Clark MF, 1995. The detection of MLOs associated with pear decline in pear trees and pear psyllids by polymerase chain reaction. Acta Horticulturae, No. 386:484-488; 4 ref.

Davis RE; Lee IM; Dally EL; Dewitt N; Douglas SM, 1988. Cloned nucleic acid hybridization probes in detection and classification of mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs). Acta Horticulturae, No. 234:115-122

Denes AS; Sinha RC, 1991. Extrachromosomal DNA elements of plant pathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 13(1):26-32

Denes AS; Sinha RC, 1992. Alteration of clover phyllody mycoplasma DNA after in vitro culturing of phyllody-diseased clover. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 14(3):189-196

Deng SJ; Hiruki C, 1990. Molecular cloning and detection of DNA of the mycoplasmalike organism associated with clover proliferation. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 12(4):383-388

Firrao G; Carraro L; Gobbi E; Locci R, 1996. Molecular characterization of a phytoplasma causing phyllody in clover and other herbaceous hosts in northern Italy. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 102(9):817-822; 34 ref.

Fránová J; Spak J, 2013. First report of a 16SrI-C phytoplasma infecting celery (Apium graveolens) with stunting, bushy top and phyllody in the Czech Republic. Journal of Phytopathology, 161(9):666-670. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434

Gaborjanyi R; Nagy F, 1972. Termesztett gyogynovenyeink virus- es mikoplazma betegsegei. Herba-Hungarica, 11(2):39-51.

Gaborjanyi R; Sziraki I, 1978. Cytokinins in white clover plants infected by clover phyllody mycoplasma. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 13(1/2):33-40

Garnier M; Martin-Gros G; Iskra ML; Zreik L; Gandar J; Fos A; Bove JM, 1990. Monoclonal antibodies against the MLOs associated with tomato stolbur and clover phyllody. Recent advances in mycoplasmology. Proceedings of the 7th congress of the International Organization for Mycoplasmology, Baden near Vienna, 1988. [edited by Stanek, G.; Cassell, G.H.; Tully, J.G.; Whitcomb, R.F.] Stuttgart, Germany; Gustav Fischer Verlag, 263-269

Giannotti J; Giannotti D; Vago C, 1980. Intracellular multiplication and pathogenic action of mollicutes isolated from plants in non-vector insects. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences, D, 290(5):417-419

Giannotti J; Vago C; Leclant F; Marchoux G; Czarnecky D, 1972. Obtention de cultures de mycoplasmes a partir de Lavandula hybrida Reverchon atteinte de "deperissement" et de Hyalesthes obsoletus Sign., un vecteur probable de la maladie. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences,-D, 274(3):394-397.

Goszdziewski M; Petzold H, 1975. Fluorescence microscopy techniques to determine the presence of mycoplasma-like organisms in plants. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 82(1):63-69

Gouranton J; Maillet PL, 1970. Etude autoradiographique de sites de multiplication des mycoplasmes dans le tube digestif d'un insecte vecteur de la phyllodie du trefle. Comptes Rendus des Seances de la Societé de Biologie et de ses Filiales, 164(10):2114-2116.

Gouranton J; Maillet PL, 1973. High resolution autoradiography of mycoplasmalike organisms multiplying in some tissues of an insect vector for clover-phyllody. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 21(2):158-163

Grunewaldt-Stocker G; Schonbeck F, 1982. On the rooting behaviour of cuttings from MLO-infected Catharanthus roseus. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 89(10):604-611

Gundersen DE; Lee IM; Schaff DA; Harrison NA; Chang CJ; Davis RE; Kingsbury DT, 1996. Genomic diversity and differentiation among phytoplasma strains in 16S rRNA groups I (aster yellows and related phytoplasmas) and III (X-disease and related phytoplasmas). International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 46(1):64-75; 61 ref.

Haggis GH; Sinha RC, 1978. Scanning electron microscopy of mycoplasmalike organisms after freeze fracture of plant tissues affected with clover phyllody and aster yellows. Phytopathology, 68(4):677-680

Harrison NA; Legard DE; DiBonito R; Richardson PA, 1997. Detection and differentiation of phytoplasmas associated with diseases of strawberry in Florida. Plant Disease, 81(2):230; 3 ref.

Honetslegrovß JF; Vibio M; Bertaccini A, 1996. Electron microscopy and molecular identification of phytoplasmas associated with strawberry green petals in the Czech Republic. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 102(9):831-835; 17 ref.

Iordanova ND, 1979. Investigation of abnormal fluorescence of plant tissues infected with mycoplasmas. Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchity Rastenii. All-Union Res. Inst. Pl. Prot. Leningrad USSR, 65-71

Jiang YP; Chen TA; Chiykowski LN; Sinha RC, 1989. Production of monoclonal antibodies to peach eastern X-disease agent and their use in disease detection. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 11(4):325-331

Kleinhempel H; Muller HM; Spaar D, 1972. Isolation and cultivation of Mycoplasmatales from white clover with phyllody symptoms. Archiv fur Pflanzenschutz, 8(5):361-370

Lee IM; Davis RE; Chen TA; Chiykowski LN; Fletcher J; Hiruki C; Schaff DA, 1992. A genotype-based system for identification and classification of mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) in the aster yellows MLO strain cluster. Phytopathology, 82(9):977-986

Lee IM; Davis RE; DeWitt ND, 1990. Nonradioactive screening method for isolation of disease-specific probes to diagnose plant diseases caused by mycoplasmalike organisms. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 56(5):1471-1475

Lee IM; Hammond RW; Davis RE; Gundersen DE, 1993. Universal amplification and analysis of pathogen 16S rDNA for classification and identification of mycoplasmalike organisms. Phytopathology, 83(8):834-842

Lehmann W, 1971. Identification of yellows viruses and their reaction to antibiotics. Tagunsbericht Deutsche Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften zu Berlin, No. 115:99-114

Lehmann W, 1973. Euscelis plebejus (Fallen) and Macrosteles cristatus Ribaut as vectors for plant diseases of presumed mycoplasma etiology. Archiv fur Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz, 9(6):363-370

Lehmann W; Skadow K, 1971. Studies on the occurrence, etiology and vector transmissibility of phyllody of rape. Archiv fur Pflanzenschutz, 7(5):323-336

Louro D; Vibio M; Bertaccini A, 1996. Deteccao e caracterizacao molecular de fitoplasmas associados a doencas de culturas ornamentais em Portugal. 1st Meeting of the Portuguese Society of Plant Pathology, Vila Real, Portugal: October 3-4, 1996, 166-168. Portugal: Portuguese Society of Plant Pathology.

Malinovskaya LP; Skripal' IG, 1984. Studies of phytopathogenic mycoplasmas by the complement fixation test. Mikrobiologicheski Zhurnal, 46(3):58-64

Musetti R; Favali MA; Carraro L; Osler R, 1992. An attempt to differentiate by microscopic methods two plant mycoplasma-like organisms. Cytobios, 72(289):71-82

Nakamura S; Saito T; Yamamoto M, 1978. Studies on clover phyllody (part 2). Effects of temperature upon the appearance of symptom. Journal of Agricultural Science Tokyo Nogyo Diagaku, 23(2):97-101

O'Rourke CJ, 1976. Diseases of grasses nd forage legumes in Ireland. Diseases of grasses nd forage legumes in Ireland. An Foras Taluntais (The Agricultural Institute). Dublin Irish Republic, 115 pp

Ploaie PG; Petre Z; Ionica M, 1974. Identification of some plant diseases with symptoms of proliferation, chlorosis and dwarfing associated with mycoplasma in Romania. Analele Institutului de Cercetari pentru Protectia Plantelor, 12:17-25

Poncarová-Vorácková Z; Fránová J; Válová P; Mertelfk J; Navrátil M; Nebesárová J, 1998. Identification of phytoplasma infecting Lilium martagon in the Czech Republic. Journal of Phytopathology, (in press).

Quaroni S; Saracchi M; Tornaghi R; Faoro F, 1990. A comparative scanning and transmission electron microscope study for the detection of mycoplasma-like organisms. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, 26(2-3):79-84

Roo R de, 1976. Recherches sur trefle blanc octoploide. Revue-de-l'Agriculture, 29(2):231-240.

Saeed EM; Cousin MT, 1995. The genetic relationship between mycoplasma-like organisms causing diseases in the Sudan and different continents revealed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the 16S rRNA gene followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Journal of Phytopathology, 143(1):17-20

Samyn G; Stalle J van; Welvprt W, 1982. The presence of different vectors of mycoplasma like organisms (MLO) in the Gent region. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 47(3):1071-1077

Savio C; Conti M, 1983. Epidemiology and transmission of plant mycoplasmas. Atti XIII Congresso Nazionale Italiano di Entomologia. Istituto di Entomologia Agraria e Apicoltura, Universita di Torino Turin Italy, 407-414

Schneider B; Marcone C; Kampmann M; Ragozzino A; Lederer W; Cousin MT; Seemnller E, 1997. Characterization and classification of phytoplasmas from wild and cultivated plants by RFLP and sequence analysis of ribosomal DNA. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 103(8):675-686; 38 ref.

Schneider B; Seemuller E, 1994. Studies on taxonomic relationships of mycoplasma-like organisms by Southern blot analysis. Journal of Phytopathology, 141(2):173-185

Shatrughna Singh; Nagaich BB; Arai K; Khurana SMP, 1983. Clover phyllody in Simla hills. Indian Phytopathology, 36(4):771-775

Sinha RC, 1974. Purification of mycoplasma-like organisms from China aster plants affected with clover phyllody. Phytopathology, 64(8):1156-1158.

Sinha RC, 1976. Ultrastructure of mycoplasma-like organisms purified from clover phyllody-affected plants. Journal of Ultrastructure Research, 54(2):183-189

Sinha RC, 1979. Lipid composition of mycoplasma-like organisms purified from clover phyllody and aster yellows-affected plants. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 96(2):132-139

Sinha RC; Chiykowski LN, 1990. Serological detection of mycoplasma-like organisms in plants and vector leafhoppers using polyclonal antibodies. Recent advances in mycoplasmology. Proceedings of the 7th congress of the International Organization for Mycoplasmology, Baden near Vienna, 1988. [edited by Stanek, G.; Cassell, G.H.; Tully, J.G.; Whitcomb, R.F.] Stuttgart, Germany; Gustav Fischer Verlag, 276-279

Sinha RC; Peterson EA, 1972. Uptake and persistence of oxytetracycline in aster plants and vector leafhoppers in relation to inhibition of clover phyllody agent. Phytopathology, 62(3):377-383

Skripal' IG; Malinovskaya LP; Tokovenko IP; Slobodyanik VV, 1988. Physiological and biochemical properties of mycoplasmas causing plant yellows. Mikrobiologicheskii Zhurnal, 50(4):34-38

Townsend R, 1983. Mycoplasma-like organisms from plants with 'yellows' diseases lack a spiroplasma-specific antigen. Journal of General Microbiology, 129(6):1959-1964

Vibio M; Bertaccini A; Hostachy B; Rapetti S, 1997. Different phytoplasmas associated with identical symptoms: The case of ranunculus phyllody. 10th Congress of Mediterranean Phytopathological Union, Montpellier-Le Corum (France) 1-5 June 1997, 331-335. France: Societee Francaise de Phytopathologie.

Vibio M; Bertaccini A; Lee IM; Davis RE; Clark MF, 1996. Differentiation and classification of aster yellows and related European phytoplasmas. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 35(1):33-42; 23 ref.

Vibio M; Bertaccini A; Schilir= E; Rapetti S, 1995. Caratterizzazione molecolare di fitoplasmi associati a virescenza in anemone. Informatore Fitopatologico, 45(11):60-62.

Vibio M; Camele I; Rana GL; Bertaccini A, 1996. Identificazione dei fitoplasmi associati agli scopazzi del mirto e dell'eucalipto. Atti Convegno annuale SIPaV, Udine 26-27 Settembre 1996, C98-99.

Vlasov Yu I; Gevorkyan ZG, 1979. Mikoplazmy kak patogeny rastenii. Trudy-Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchity Rastenii, 5-13.

Vlasov YuI, 1980. Mycoplasmas as the pathogens of plant diseases. Zashchita Rastenii, No.8:17-18

Yakutkina TA, 1979. The complex use of basic methods of diagnosis in establishing the mycoplasma aetiology of honeysuckle witches' broom. Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchity Rastenii. All-Union Res. Inst. Pl. Prot. Leningrad USSR, 52-56

Yakutkina TA; Petrukhova MT; Bogatyrenko TN; Sobchak IA; Neverova TN, 1979. The role of antibiotics in investigations of mycoplasma diseases of plants. Trudy Vsesoyuznogo Nauchno-Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchity Rastenii. All-Union Res. Inst. Pl. Prot. Leningrad USSR, 19-27

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