Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Calophyllum inophyllum
(Alexandrian laurel)



Calophyllum inophyllum (Alexandrian laurel)


  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Calophyllum inophyllum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Alexandrian laurel
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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TitleShade tree in park
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Shade tree in park©Rafael T. Cadiz
TitleLeaves and fruit
Copyright©Rafael T. Cadiz
Leaves and fruit©Rafael T. Cadiz
TitleLeaves and fruit
CopyrightZhou Guangyi
Leaves and fruitZhou Guangyi
1. typical habit of tree along beach
2. flowering twig
3. fruits
TitleLine artwork
Caption1. typical habit of tree along beach 2. flowering twig 3. fruits
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
1. typical habit of tree along beach
2. flowering twig
3. fruits
Line artwork1. typical habit of tree along beach 2. flowering twig 3. fruitsPROSEA Foundation


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Calophyllum inophyllum L.

Preferred Common Name

  • Alexandrian laurel

International Common Names

  • English: Borneo mahogany

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: ponyal
  • Cuba: palo María
  • Germany: Rosenholz; Schönblatt, Wohlriechendes; Takamahakbaum, Ostindischer
  • India: pinnai; polanga
  • Indonesia/Java: njamplung
  • Indonesia/Sulawesi: dingkaran
  • Malaysia: bintangor laut
  • Malaysia/Peninsular Malaysia: penaga laut
  • Malaysia/Sabah: penaga
  • Myanmar: ph'ông; ponnyet
  • Papua New Guinea: beach calophyllum
  • Philippines: bitaog; palo maria
  • Seychelles: takamaka
  • Thailand: krathing; naowakan; saraphee naea
  • Vietnam: c[aa]y m[uf]u

EPPO code

  • CMUIN (Calophyllum inophyllum)

Trade name

  • beach calophyllum

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Theales
  •                         Family: Clusiaceae
  •                             Genus: Calophyllum
  •                                 Species: Calophyllum inophyllum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Calophyllum (family Clusiaceae) is a large genus, comprising nearly 200 species, mostly found in tropical Asia (Mabberley, 1997).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Planted Reference Notes




ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-West BengalPresent
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentPlanted
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentPlanted
Sri LankaPresentPlanted

North America

United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.


Cook IslandsPresentPlanted
Papua New GuineaPresentPlanted
Solomon IslandsPresentPlanted

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
30 -25 0 200

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 8
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 18 33
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 22 37
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 12 17


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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration45number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall7505000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • saline

Uses List

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  • Agroforestry
  • Revegetation
  • Shade and shelter
  • Windbreak


  • Ornamental


  • Carved material
  • Dye/tanning
  • Essential oils
  • Gum/resin
  • Lipids
  • Miscellaneous materials
  • Pesticide
  • Poisonous to mammals
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

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  • Cooperage


Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • For heavy construction
  • For light construction


  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Musical instruments


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Basak AB; Mridha MAU, 1987. Leaf blight of ponyal in Chittagong University campus. Bano Biggyan Patrika, 16(1-2):50-54

Grace JK; Ewart DM; Tome CHM, 1996. Termite resistance of wood species grown in Hawaii. Forest Products Journal, 46(10):57-60

Guzman E de; Umali RM; Sotalbo ED, 1986. Guide to Philippine flora and fauna. Natural Resources Management Center, Ministry of Natural Resources and University of the Philippine. Manila, Philippines: JMC Press Inc.

Jacalne D, 1955. Silvical leaflet: A compilation. Los Baños, College of Forestry, Laguna: University of the Philippines.

Krishnaiah NV; Kalode MB; Pasalu IC, 1993. New approaches in utilization of botanicals in rice insect pest control. Botanical pesticides in integrated pest management Rajahmundry, India; Indian Society of Tobacco Sciences, 203-216

Lemmens RHMJ; Soerianegara I; Wong WC, eds. 1995. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 5 (2). Timber trees: minor commercial timbers. 655 pp.; Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers.

Mabberley DJ, 1997. The plant-book: a portable dictionary of the vascular plants. Ed. 2: xvi + 858 pp. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

Ong HC; Mahlia TMI; Masjuki HH; Norhasyima RS, 2011. Comparison of palm oil, Jatropha curcas and Calophyllum inophyllum for biodiesel: a review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15(8):3501-3515.

Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96.

Soerianegara I; Lemmens RHMJ, eds. , 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5(1). Timber trees: major commercial timbers. Wageningen, Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. Also published by PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. pp. 610.

Streets RJ, 1962. Exotic forest trees in the British Commonwealth. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

Troup RS; Forest Research Institute and Colleges, 1975. Troup's the silviculture of Indian trees. Volume I. Delhi, India: Controller of Publications, x+307 pp.

Uriarte M, 1992. Air-resistant pollution plant species recommended for urban areas. Techn-Info Series Vol. 4 No. 2. Department of Environment and Natural Resources.

Yao CE, 1994. Indigenous species for private reforestation. Philippine Lumberman, 60(5):34-36.

Yao CE, 1995. From Siquijor: "Bitaog for shales and degraded soils". Philippine Lumberman, 12(4):36-37.

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

Sahashi N, Akiba M, Ota Y, Masuya H, Hattori T, Mukai A, Shimada R, Ono T, Sato T, 2015. Brown root rot caused by Phellinus noxius in the Ogasawara (Bonin) islands, southern Japan - current status of the disease and its host plants. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 10 (1), 33. DOI:10.1007/s13314-015-0183-0

Selvaraj K, Ankita Gupta, Venkatesan T, Jalali S K, Sundararaj R, Ballal C R, 2017. First record of invasive rugose spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) along with parasitoids in Karnataka. Journal of Biological Control. 31 (2), 74-78. DOI:10.18311/jbc/2017/16015

Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Distribution Maps

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