Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Grapevine yellows phytoplasmas

Toolbox

Datasheet

Grapevine yellows phytoplasmas

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Grapevine yellows phytoplasmas
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Firmicutes
  •     Class: Mollicutes
  •       Order: Acholeplasmatales
  •         Family: Acholeplasmataceae

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Symptoms typical of GY-yellows diseases on naturally infected grapevine. The leaves show downward rolling and veinal yellowing.
TitleSymptoms of GY-yellows on naturally infected grapevine
CaptionSymptoms typical of GY-yellows diseases on naturally infected grapevine. The leaves show downward rolling and veinal yellowing.
CopyrightC. Marcone
Symptoms typical of GY-yellows diseases on naturally infected grapevine. The leaves show downward rolling and veinal yellowing.
Symptoms of GY-yellows on naturally infected grapevineSymptoms typical of GY-yellows diseases on naturally infected grapevine. The leaves show downward rolling and veinal yellowing.C. Marcone

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Grapevine yellows phytoplasmas Seemüller et al., 1998

International Common Names

  • Spanish: flavescencia dorada
  • French: bois noir; flavescence dorée

Local Common Names

  • Australia: Australian grapevine yellows
  • Germany: Vergilbungskrankheit
  • Italy: flavescenza dorata; giallumi della vite; legno nero

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Firmicutes
  •         Class: Mollicutes
  •             Order: Acholeplasmatales
  •                 Family: Acholeplasmataceae
  •                     Genus: Phytoplasma
  •                         Species: Grapevine yellows phytoplasmas

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Grapevine yellows (GY) are diseases of Vitis vinifera, characterized by similar symptoms, but differing in aetiology and epidemiology. The agents of these diseases are phytoplasmas, formerly called mycoplasma-like organisms (MLOs).

During the last decade, considerable progress has been made in detecting, identifying and classifying phytoplasmas. Using hybridization, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequence analyses of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified ribosomal DNA (rDNA), GY phytoplasmas have been characterized and assigned to six different groups. These are the elm yellows (EY), stolbur (STOL), X-disease, aster yellows (AY), Australian grapevine yellows (AUSGY) and faba bean phyllody (FBP) phytoplasma groups, respectively (Bianco et al., 1993, 1996; Daire et al., 1992, 1993, 1997a, b; Davis et al., 1993, 1997a, b, 1998; Prince et al., 1993; Chen et al., 1994; Maixner et al., 1995a, b, 1997; Alma et al., 1996; Padovan et al., 1996; Lee et al., 1998; Seemüller et al., 1998; Gibb et al., 1999; Martini et al., 1999).

The flavescence dorée (FD) agent and related phytoplasmas that have been detected in grapevine in the Palatinate region of Germany (Daire et al., 1997b; Reinert and Maixner, 1997) as well as in northern Italy (Bianco et al., 1993, 1996; Daire et al., 1997b; Seemüller et al., 1998; Martini et al., 1999) are members of the EY group. Members of the stolbur group are the agents causing bois noir (BN) and Vergilbungskrankheit (VK) diseases, which have been described from northern France (Caudwell, 1961) and Germany (Gärtel, 1965), respectively.

Other GY diseases occur in several European countries and Israel (Daire et al., 1993, 1997a; Maixner et al., 1995a; Davis et al., 1997a; Refatti et al., 1998; Seemüller et al., 1998). The X-disease group includes strain FDU, which was experimentally transmitted by dodder from naturally infected grapevines to the experimental host Catharanthus roseus (periwinkle) in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region of Italy (Davis et al., 1993), and phytoplasmas infecting grapevine in the USA (Prince et al., 1993; Davis et al., 1998).

In addition, a phytoplasma of the X-disease group has been associated with GY in northern Italy (Bertaccini et al., 1994). AY phytoplasmas of 16SrI-A and 16SrI-B subgroups were identified in diseased grapevines in the USA and northern Italy, respectively (Alma et al., 1996; Davis et al., 1998).

Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense, a member of the AUSGY group and a phytoplasma which proved to be indistinguishable on the basis of RFLP profiles from tomato big bud (TBB) agent, a member of the FBP group, was associated with GY diseases in Australia (Padovan et al., 1996; Davis et al., 1997b, Gibb et al., 1999).


Description

Top of page Phytoplasma bodies have been observed in sieve tube elements of GY-affected grapevine plants as well as in experimentally GY-infected periwinkles using transmission (TEM) electron microscopy (Caudwell et al., 1971a; Belli et al., 1973; Granata and Grimaldi, 1991; Credi and Santucci, 1992; Credi, 1994a, b; Di Terlizzi et al., 1994; Parente et al., 1994). TEM examinations only revealed the presence of phytoplasma bodies in mature sieve elements of infected plants. They were usually seen close to the cell wall, in very low numbers in diseased grapevine but in higher numbers in periwinkle (Credi and Santucci, 1992; Di Terlizzi et al., 1994).

The phytoplasma bodies were bound by a unit membrane 6-7 nm thick and contained DNA strands and ribosome granules in their cytoplasm. They were typically pleomorphic, although generally spherical or filamentous in appearance. Unusual structures, considered to be senescent and degenerative forms of phytoplasmas were also seen in ultra-thin sections of diseased grapevine (Credi, 1994b). These structures had a high cytoplasmatic electron density, granulation and irregular condensation of the cytoplasmic contents, ruptures of plasma membranes and cell fragmentation.

Ribosomes and DNA strands found in normal phytoplasma bodies were either absent or obscured by the cytoplasm opacity. Numerous anomalous phytoplasma bodies were observed in collapsing sieve elements. One type was spherical, mostly 90-280 nm diameter, with homogeneous cytoplasm containing highly electron-dense granules and a poorly-defined unit membrane, with external amorphous material. The bodies were sometimes distorted with disrupted membranes and were intermixed with surrounding shapeless and membranous debris of disorganised host protoplasts and phytoplasma cells.

A second type of anomalous phytoplasma was densely packed in degenerate cells and appeared as strongly electron-dense pleomorphic structures with irregular condensation of cytoplasmic substances and surrounded by electron transparent borders.


Distribution

Top of page GY diseases are widespread in viticultural areas of the world. Since the first report of FD disease in France in 1957 (Caudwell, 1957), similar GY diseases have been found in several European countries, Israel, Australia and North America (see Davis et al., 1998 for references).

FD phytoplasma is present in southern France, northern Italy and Catalonia, while EY-related phytoplasmas are known to occur in grapevine in Germany and northern Italy (Batlle et al., 1997; Daire et al., 1997b; Reinert and Maixner, 1997; Seemüller et al., 1998; Martini et al., 1999).

STOL phytoplasmas infect grapevine in several European countries and Israel while AY and X-disease phytoplasmas have been detected in diseased grapevine in northern Italy and eastern North America (Maixner et al., 1995a, 1997; Alma et al., 1996; Daire et al., 1997a; Davis et al., 1997a, 1998; Seemüller et al., 1998).

GY phytoplasmas of the AUSGY and FBP groups are only known to occur in Australia (Padovan et al., 1996; Davis et al., 1997b; Gibb et al., 1999).


Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020

Risk of Introduction

Top of page The significance of GY diseases is emphasized by phytosanitary regulations such as the EEC plant health directive or the EPPO certification scheme for grapevine propagation material that ask for freedom of grapevine propagation material from GY diseases (Maixner et al., 1997).

FD phytoplasma is a quarantine organism in the EU (Directive EEC 77/93). Multiplication and plantation vine material must be free of the organism. Certification cannot be obtained by mere diagnosis on the material, due to the uneven distribution of phytoplasma in the canes and in the mother stock which makes sampling uncertain. Rootstock varieties are an additional hazard because they may be tolerant to the phytoplasma and act as symptomless carriers of the disease agent that they will distribute by grafting to Vitis vinifera scions (Caudwell et al., 1994). Certification must include indexing on susceptible varieties and observation in quarantine nurseries of scions and grafted plants.


Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page The natural host range of GY phytoplasmas varies with the phylogenetic group. GY phytoplasmas of the EY group seem to have a very narrow host range. FD phytoplasma only infects plants in the genus Vitis. In contrast, STOL, X-disease, AY, AUSGY and FBP phytoplasmas identified in diseased grapevine also infect several other wild and cultivated plant species (Seemüller et al., 1998; Sforza et al., 1998; Viczián et al., 1998; Marzachì et al., 1999).

The FD phytoplasma was transmitted from naturally diseased grapevine plants to the experimental hosts Vicia faba (broad bean) and Chrysanthemum carinatum (tricolor chrysanthemum) using the insect vector Scaphoideus titanus while several strains of the STOL phytoplasma including the VK agent as well as strain FDU were transmitted by means of dodder (Cuscuta species) bridges from infected grapevines to periwinkle (Caudwell et al., 1970; Credi and Santucci, 1992). Broad bean and Datura stramonium (thorn apple) are also reported as experimental hosts of VK and BN agents (Maixner et al., 1995a; Sforza et al., 1998).


Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Symptoms of GY diseases are very similar in Europe, Israel, Australia and North America (Caudwell, 1983, 1990; Pearson et al., 1985; Magarey and Wachtel, 1986; Caudwell et al., 1987; Prince et al., 1993; Wolf et al., 1994; Marcone et al., 1996; Davis et al., 1998).

The leaves of affected plants are thicker than normal, brittle, rolled downward and show veinal yellowing followed by necrosis. Shoots of affected branches exhibit rows of black pustules that develop along the internodes. Due to incomplete lignification, these shoots are more flexible than normal and confer a drooping aspect to the plants. Flowers and bunches are whiter and desiccated.


List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / mummification
Fruit / reduced size
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / discoloration
Growing point / distortion
Inflorescence / discoloration (non-graminaceous plants)
Inflorescence / distortion (non-graminaceous plants)
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / reduced root system
Stems / dieback
Stems / distortion
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Stems / witches broom
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Biology and Ecology

Top of page GY phytoplasmas are graft- but not seed-transmissible and spread naturally by insect vectors. The FD phytoplasma is transmitted by the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus (Schvester et al., 1963). This vector, native to the Great Lakes area of North America, produces only one generation a year, overwinters in the egg stage, and is strictly associated with grapevine, the only plant on which it can complete its life cycle (Vidano, 1964).

Transmission of the disease is persistent, with the pathogen multiplying first in the cells of the diseased plant and then in the body of the infected host insect. S. titanus is present, most of the time in very high numbers, in vineyards throughout Southern France including Bordeaux, the Loire valley and Burgundy, as well as in Corsica (Caudwell et al., 1978), Northern Spain (Laviña et al., 1995), Northern Italy (Osler et al., 1975; Belli et al., 1985), Switzerland (Clerc et al., 1997), Slovenia and Croatia (Gabrijel, 1987) and other viticultural countries of eastern Europe. The area of incidence of FD disease is not as extensive as that of the S. titanus.

Another insect vector, Euscelidius variegatus, which produces several broods each year and is easily bred in captivity, can transmit FD agent among Vicia faba plants. By this means, FD phytoplasma has been maintained for many years in this experimental host (Caudwell et al., 1987).

The planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus is known to transmit the VK phytoplasma in Germany (Maixner, 1994) and BN phytoplasma in France (Sforza et al., 1998) whereas Macrosteles species and Neoaliturus fenestratus are reported to transmit the STOL phytoplasma to weeds and Solanaceous crop plants (Maixner et al., 1995a). Recently, Maixner et al. (2000) reported on the transmission of alder yellows (ALY) phytoplasma from diseased alder trees to grapevine by the leafhopper Oncopsis alni. ALY-infected grapevine plants showed typical symptoms of GY diseases.

GY phytoplasmas are also transmissible by dodder (Cuscuta species) (see Host Range).


Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Natural dispersal (non-biotic).

Abiotic factors are not involved in the natural spread of the pathogen.

Vector transmission.

FD phytoplasma is naturally transmitted by the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus while VK and BN agents are transmitted by the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus. The EY-related phytoplasma that has been detected in grapevine in the Palatinate region of Germany (Daire et al., 1997b; Reinert and Maixner, 1997) was transmitted by the leafhopper Oncopsis alni (Maixner et al., 2000).

Seedborne spread.

Like other phytoplasmas, GY phytoplasmas are not seed-transmissible.

Agricultural practices.

The use of infected plant material is responsible for long-distance movement of the pathogens.


Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact

Top of page GY diseases are of considerable economic importance, especially in areas where outbreaks occur. In affected plants, flowers and bunches whiten and desiccate so that the yield is drastically reduced. In addition, the quality of wine is decreased by high acid and low sugar contents of infected clusters.

According to studies by Maixner and Reinert (1997), the proportion of VK-infected vines in some vineyards in Germany, increased from 18% in 1990 to 26% in 1995. The disease incidence within individual vineyards varied from 5% to 65%. It was increasing in seven of the 12 vineyards investigated and decreasing in three. The increase in the number of symptomatic vines was highest in young plantings, which often provide favourable conditions for the insect vector Hyalesthes obsoletus and the alternative host of the VK phytoplasma, field bindweed. These vineyards are severely damaged, since young grapes systemically develop symptoms and die.

In the Emilia-Romagna region (northern Italy), Credi and Callegari (1988) found that the percentage of GY-infected vines varied in the period 1983-1987 from 0.1 to 42.8% while crop losses of 47% were recorded in affected vineyards of cv. Sangiovese (Credi, 1989). Disease incidences of more than 70% with very heavy crop losses have been recorded in GY-affected vineyards of cv. Chardonnay in the Veneto region of northern Italy (Belli et al., 1994) while a disease incidence of 76% was recorded in the Latium region (central Italy) (Del Serrone et al., 1995).

In Slovenia, during a survey carried out during 1991-1995, the percentage of GY-infected grapevine plants varied from 2 to 38% and the crop losses in infected vineyard ranged from 20 to 40% (Koruza, 1996).

For details about economic impact of FD-phytoplasma and Candidatus Phytoplasma australiense see the corresponding data sheets.


Diagnosis

Top of page Detection of GY phytoplasmas is possible by microscopic examination of phloem tissue sections stained with the DNA fluorochrome 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) as well as by electron microscope observations. However, pathogen detection by microscopic methods is often inadequate when the phytoplasma population is very low, a frequent occurrence in woody hosts including grapevine. Moreover, epidemiological studies to identify plant reservoirs or insect vectors, microscopy is seldom used because most methods fail to provide in formation about pathogen identity.

Polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies have been raised against various phytoplasmas including some GY agents (Boudon-Padieu et al., 1989; Schwartz et al., 1989; Fos et al., 1992; Chen et al., 1993, 1994; Seddas et al., 1996).

An ELISA procedure based on an indirect double sandwich with rabbit polyclonal as trapping antibodies and a cocktail of mouse monoclonal antibodies specific for two or several epitopes of membrane proteins, has been used to assay FD phytoplasma in field-collected Scaphoideus titanus leafhoppers as well as in grapevines (Boudon-Padieu et al., 1989; Schwartz et al., 1989; Osler et al., 1992; Seddas et al., 1996). However, the procedure requires the presence of a high concentration of detergents in the extraction buffer in order to improve preservation and accessibility of phytoplasma antigens from grapevine tissues (Caudwell and Kuszala, 1992).

An ELISA procedure based on the use of monoclonal antibodies was used to assay BN and VK phytoplasmas (Kuszala, 1996; Maixner et al., 1997).

PCR technology has been widely adopted for the detection and identification of GY phytoplasmas (Bianco et al., 1993, 1996; Daire et al., 1993, 1997a, b; Maixner et al., 1994, 1995a, b; Marcone et al., 1996; Padovan et al., 1996; Batlle et al., 1997; Davis et al., 1997a, b, 1998; Gibb et al., 1999; Martini et al., 1999). PCR is well suited to PCR research because of its versatility, simplicity, specificity and high sensitivity. Primers derived from ribosomal and/or non-ribosomal DNA sequences have been designed, which enable phytoplasma detection in a universal or group-specific manner. PCR amplification may be performed as non-nested PCR using either universal or group-specific primer pairs, or as nested PCR employing universal phytoplasma primers for initial amplification and internal primers then used to reamplify products generated by universal primers (Bianco et al., 1996; Davies et al., 1997a, 1998; Martini et al., 1999).

Differentiation of GY phytoplasmas from other members of their respective phylogenetic group can usually be obtained by RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene and 16S/23S rDNA spacer sequences employing suitable restriction endonucleases (Marcone et al., 1997; Davies et al., 1998; Gibb et al., 1999; Martini et al., 1999).

However, all GY agents of the STOL group proved to be indistinguishable from each other and from other member of the same group on the basis of RFLP analysis of PCR-amplified rDNA (Marcone et al., 1996; Seemüller et al., 1998; C. Marcone, unpublished data). The EY-related phytoplasma detected in grapevine in the Palatinate region of Germany (Daire et al., 1997b; Reinert and Maixner, 1997) was also indistinguishable according to RFLP profiles from the related ALY phytoplasma.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Visual assessment of symptoms is mainly based on the presence of characteristic symptoms such as yellowing of leaves, fruit abortion and lack of lignification of canes. However, for reliable diagnosis, the presence and identity of the infecting phytoplasma should be determined by molecular technologies.


Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page Some symptoms of GY-diseases may be confused with some diseases:

Grapevine leafroll virus: leafroll may be confusing. Compared with GY diseases, veins remain green and lignification of canes occurs; bunches do not wither; and leaf symptoms always affect the whole stock.

Injuries on sieve circulation such as string restriction, circular incision of bark caused by mechanical injury or insects induce leaf discoloration. However, compared with GY diseases, foliar discoloration induced by these other causes affects the entire leaf laminae. Reddening of veins and petioles is also common and lignification of canes occurs.

Botrytis cinerea on canes and stems.

Esca disease: withering of bunches and leaf discoloration symptoms may be confusing. However, in the case of Esca disease, which is caused by a complex of several fungi including Phellinus igniarius and Stereum hirsutum, the stock will suddenly collapse in July or August.


Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Use of healthy plant material, removal of infected plants and effective control of insect vectors are important measures for reducing the incidence of GY phytoplasmas. Healthy plants should be used for establishing new vineyards. Therefore, rootstocks and scionwood should be indexed by an appropriate method to ensure that they are free from infection. Also, GY phytoplasmas seem to be readily eliminated from plant material by hot-water treatment at 50°C for 45 minutes (Caudwell et al., 1997; Rivenez and Bonjotin, 1997; Bianco et al., 2000; Murari et al., 2000). Diseased grapevine plants as well as alternative plant hosts and insect vectors of the pathogens should be eliminated as they are identified.

Weber et al. (1998) reported a high disease incidence (30-34%) of VK disease in vineyards with a high number of field bindweed plants and an abundance of Hyalesthes obsoletus, which are dependent on field bindweed plants. Moreover, they found that some agricultural practices such as ploughing negatively affected populations of this planthopper vector.

In France, control of FD disease is subject to several legislative directives. One reason is the high adverse impact of this disease on the viticulture industry. Furthermore, the successful control of the disease is only feasible by well coordinated activity by producers within a particular area, due to the high mobility of the vector. All mother plots used as a source of propagation material must be treated with insecticides three times a year to protect against infestation by Scaphoideus titanus while all nurseries must be treated throughout the time when larval stages or adults of S. titanus occur.

Directives from the local authorities regulate the mandatory control of FD disease for particular areas where the disease is present. They also regulate the mandatory control of S. titanus by insecticides and the measures to be taken in order to reduce inoculum.

Prophylactic activities include the destruction of FD-infected vines as well as uprooting of both cultivated and wild Vitis plants in abandoned vineyards, both of which are potential sources of inoculum and provide a breeding reservoir for the vector. These measures, as well as the mandatory uprooting of complete vineyards when the disease incidence exceeds a certain level, are subject to prefectorial directives in France.

Control of the vector depends on insecticide treatments, which are applied either against the eggs during winter or against larvae and adult leafhoppers during the growing season. Pruned plant parts that carry the eggs of S. titanus should be burned. The number of viable eggs can be reduced by a treatment of vines in March before bud-burst. A wide range of insecticides, mainly organophosphates and pyrethroids, are available for summer treatments, which are usually applied three times. The first treatment is usually applied in June and should not be done later than 1 month after the beginning of hatching. The time of the second application depends on the stability of the compound used. The second treatment is usually applied in combination with insecticidal control of the second generation of grape berry moth. Adult leafhoppers immigrating into vineyards from surrounding areas are the target of a third treatment in August.

For further information see Caudwell (1965), Caudwell et al. (1971b, 1974) and Boudon-Padieu and Maixner (1998).

 

References

Top of page

Alma A; Davis RE; Vibio M; Danielli A; Bosco D; Arzone A; Bertaccini A, 1996. Mixed infection of grapevines in northern Italy by phytoplasmas including 16S rRNA RFLP subgroup 16SrI-B strains previously unreported in this host. Plant Disease, 80(4):418-421; 32 ref.

Batlle A; Lavina A; Kuszala C; Clair D; Larrue J; Boudon-Padieu E, 1997. Detection of flavescence dorTe phytoplasma in grapevine in northern Spain. Vitis, 36(4):211-212; 9 ref.

Belli G; Credi R; Refatti E, 1994. Recenti sviluppi nelle conoscenze sulla flavescenza dorata e altri giallumi della vite. Atti Giornate Fitopatologiche, 2:295-306.

Belli G; Fortusini A; Osler R; Amici A, 1973. Presenza di una malattia del tipo ½Favescence dorTe+ in vigneti dell'oltrep= pavese. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, 9:51-56.

Belli G; Fortusini A; Rui D, 1985. Recent study of flavescence doree and its vector in vineyards of Northern Italy. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 24(1/2):189-191

Bertaccini A; Vibio M; Lee I-M; Davis RE, 1994. Molecular characterization of mycoplasmalike organisms (MLOs) infecting fruit trees and grapevine in Italy. In: Mediterranean Phytopathological Union, eds. Proceedings 9th Congress of Mediterranean Phytopathological Union, Kusadasi-Aydin, Turkey: Mediterranean Phytopathological Union, 63-55.

Bianco PA; Davis RE; Casati P; Fortusini A, 1996. Prevalence of aster yellows (AY) and elm yellows (EY) group phytoplasmas in symptomatic grapevines in three areas of northern Italy. Vitis, 35(4):195-199; 34 ref.

Bianco PA; Davis RE; Prince JP; Lee IM; Gundersen DE; Fortusini A; Belli G, 1993. Double and single infections by aster yellows and elm yellows MLOs in grapevines with symptoms characteristic of flavescence doree. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale, 3(3):69-82

Bianco PA; Fortusini A; Scattini G; Casati P; Carraro S; Torresin GC, 2000. Prove di risanamento di materiale affetto da Flavescenza dorata mediante termoterapia. Informatore Fitopatologico, 50(4):43-49.

Boudon-Padieu E; Larrue J; Caudwell A, 1989. ELISA and dot-blot detection of flavescence doree-MLO in individual leafhopper vectors during latency and inoculative state. Current Microbiology, 19(6):357-364

Boudon-Padieu E; Maixner M, 1998. Jaunisses de la Vigne : état des connaissances et des méthodes de lutte / Grapevine Yellows : current knowledge and control methods. Bulletin de l'Office International de laVigne et du Vin (O.I.V.), 71(809-810):572-607.

Caudwell A, 1957. Deux années d'études sur la Flavescence dorée, nouvelle maladie grave de la Vigne. Annales d'Amélioration des Plantes, 4:359-393.

Caudwell A, 1961. Etude sur la maladie du Bois noir de la Vigne : ses rapports avec la Flavescence dorée. Annales des Epiphyties, 12(3):241-262.

Caudwell A, 1965. La biologie de la Flavescence dorée et les fondements des mesures préventives. Bulletin technique d'Information des Ingénieurs des Services Agricoles, 198:377-388.

Caudwell A, 1983. Origin of yellows induced by mycoplasma-like organisms (MLO) of plants and the example of grapevine yellows. Agronomie, 3(2):103-111

Caudwell A, 1990. Epidemiology and characterization of flavescence doree (FD) and other grapevine yellows. Agronomie, 10(8):655-663

Caudwell A, 1993. Advances in grapevine yellows research since 1990. In: Proceedings 11th Meeting of the International Council for the study of Viruses and Virus Diseases of Grapevine (ICVG), Montreux, Switzerland, 79-83.

Caudwell A; Boudon-Padieu E; Kuszala C; Larrue J, 1987. Biologie et Ttiologie de la Flavescence dorTe. Recherches sur son diagnostic et sur les mTthodes de lutte. In: Atti del Convegno sulla Flavescenza dorata della vite, Vicenza-Verona, Italy, 175-208.

Caudwell A; Gianotti J; Kuszala C; Larrue J, 1971. Etude du rôle de particules de type "Mycoplasme" dans l'étiologie de la Flavescence dorée de la Vigne. Examen cytologique des plantes malades et des cicadelles infectieuses. Annales de Phytopathologie, 3(1):107-123.

Caudwell A; Kuszala C, 1992. Mise au point d'un test ELISA sur les tissus de vignes atteintes de Flavescence dorée. Research in Microbiology, 143:791-806.

Caudwell A; Kuszala C; Bachelier JC; Larrue J, 1970. Transmission de la Flavescence dorée de la Vigne aux plantes herbacées par l'allongement du temps d'utilisation de la Cicadelle Scaphoïdeus littoralis Ball et l'étude de sa survie sur un grand nombre d'espFces végétales. Annales de Phytopathologie 2(2):415-428.

Caudwell A; Larrue J; Boudon-Padieu E; McLean GD, 1997. Flavescence dorTe elimination from dormant wood of grapevines by hot-water treatment. Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research, 3(1):21-25; 21 ref.

Caudwell A; Larrue J; Kuszala C; Bachelier JC, 1971. Pluralité des jaunisses de la Vigne. Annales de Phytopathologie, 3(1):95-105.

Caudwell A; Larrue J; Moutous G; Fos A; Brun P, 1978. Transmission by cicadellids of Corsican vine yellowing. Identification of this disease with golden flavescence. 1. - Tests carried out outside Corsica. Annales de Zoologie, Ecologie Animale, 10(4):613-625

Caudwell A; Larrue J; Tassart V; Boidron R; Grenan S; Leguay M; Bernard P, 1994. CaractFre porteur de la Flavescence dorée chez les vignes porte-greffes en particulier le 3309 C et le Fercal. Agronomie, 14:83-94.

Caudwell A; Moutous G; Larrue J; Fos A; Blancon G; Schick JP, 1974. Les épidémies de Flavescence dorée en Armagnac et en Corse et les nouvelles perspectives de lutte contre le vecteur par des traitements ovicides d'hiver. Bulletin technique d'Information des Ingénieurs des Services Agricoles, 294:783-794.

Chen KH; Credi R; Loi N; Maixner M; Chen TA, 1994. Identification and grouping of mycoplasmalike organisms associated with grapevine yellows and clover phyllody diseases based on immunological and molecular analyses. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 60(6):1905-1913; 35 ref.

Chen KH; Guo JR; Wu XY; Loi N; Carraro L; Guo YH; Chen YD; Osler R; Pearson R; Chen TA, 1993. Comparison of monoclonal antibodies, DNA probes, and PCR for detection of the grapevine yellows disease agent. Phytopathology, 83(9):915-922

Clerc L; Linder C; Gunthart H, 1997. PremiTre observation en Suisse romande de la cicadelle Scaphoideus titanus Ball (Homoptera, Jassidae), vecteur de la flavescence dorée de la vigne. Revue Suisse de Viticulture, d'Arboriculture et d'Horticulture, 29(4):245-247.

Credi R, 1989. Flavescenza dorata della vite in Emilia-Romagna: evoluzione della malattia nelle piante e suoi effetti sulla produzione e sullo sviluppo vegetativo. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 28:113-121.

Credi R, 1994. Mycoplasma-like organisms associated with a grapevine yellows disease occurring in Italy. Journal of Phytopathology, 141(2):113-120

Credi R, 1994. Occurrence of anomalous mycoplasma-like organisms in grapevine yellows-diseased phloem. Journal of Phytopathology, 142(3-4):310-316

Credi R; Callegari D, 1988. Epidemiological profile of grapevine flavescence doree in Emilia Romagna: temporal spread, spatial distribution of diseased plants and incidence gradients. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 27(2):90-98

Credi R; Santucci A, 1992. Dodder transmission of mycoplasma-like organisms (MLOs) from grapevines affected by a flavescence doree-type disease to periwinkle. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 31(3):154-162

Daire X; Boudon-Padieu E; Berville A; Schneider B; Caudwell A, 1992. Cloned DNA probes for detection of grapevine flavescence doree mycoplasma-like organism (MLO). Annals of Applied Biology, 121(1):95-103

Daire X; Clair D; Larrue J; Boudon-Padieu E, 1997. Survey for grapevine yellows phytoplasmas in diverse European countries and Israel. Vitis, 36(1):53-54; 11 ref.

Daire X; Clair D; Larrue J; Boudon-Padieu E; Alma A; Arzone A; Carraro L; Osler R; Refatti E; Granata G; Credi R; Tanne E; Pearson R; Caudwell A, 1993. Occurrence of diverse MLOs in tissues of grapevine affected by grapevine yellows in different countries. Vitis, 32(4):247-248

Daire X; Clair D; Reinert W; Boudon-Padieu E, 1997. Detection and differentiation of grapevine yellows phytoplasmas belonging to the elm yellows group and to the stolbur subgroup by PCR amplification of non-ribosomal DNA. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 103(6):507-514; 28 ref.

Davis RE; Dally EL; Bertaccini A; Lee IM; Credi R; Osler R; Savino V; Carraro L; Terlizzi B di; Barba M, 1993. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses and dot hybridizations distinguish mycoplasmalike organisms associated with flavescence doree and southern European grapevine yellows disease in Italy. Phytopathology, 83(7):772-776

Davis RE; Dally EL; Gundersen DE; Lee IngMing; Habili N, 1997. "Candidatus phytoplasma australiense", a new phytoplasma taxon associated with Australian grapevine yellows. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 47(2):262-269; 45 ref.

Davis RE; Dally EL; Tanne E; Rumbos IC, 1997. Phytoplasmas associated with grapevine yellows in Israel and Greece belong to the stolbur phytoplasma subgroup, 16SrXII-A. Journal of Plant Pathology, 79(3):181-187; 31 ref.

Davis RE; Jomantiene R; Dally EL; Wolf TK, 1998. Phytoplasmas associated with grapevine yellows in Virginia belong to group 16SrI, subgroup A (tomato big bud phytoplasma subgroup), and group 16SrIII, new subgroup I. Vitis, 37(3):131-137; 22 ref.

Del Serrone P; Minucci C; Barba M, 1995. Diffusione del giallume fotoplasmale della vite in impianti laziali. Rivista di Viticoltura e di Enologia, 48:11-16.

Fos A; Danet JL; Zreik L; Garnier M; Bove JM, 1992. Use of a monoclonal antibody to detect the stolbur mycoplasmalike organism in plants and insects and to identify a vector in France. Plant Disease, 76(11):1092-1096

Gartel W, 1965. Untersuchungen nber das Auftreten und das Verhalten des flavescence dorTe in den Weinbaugebieten am Mosel und Rhein. Weinbeg und Keller, 12:347-376.

Gibb KS; Constable FE; Moran JR; Padovan AC, 1999. Phytoplasmas in Australian grapevines - detection, differentiation and associated diseases. Vitis, 38(3):107-114; 22 ref.

Granata G; Grimaldi V, 1991. Electron microscopic detection of mycoplasma-like organisms in epidemic yellow affected grapevines. Petria, 1(3):171-175

Kolbe M; Lßzßr J; Davis RE; Dally E; T)kTs G; Szendrey G; Mikußs J; Krizbai L; Papp E, 1997. Occurrence of grapevine yellows disease in grapevine growing regions of Hungary. In: de Sequeira OA, Santos MT, eds. Proceedings 12th Meeting of the International Council for the Study of Viruses and Virus-Like Diseases of Grapevine (ICVG), Lisbon, Portugal: de Sequeira OA, Santos MT, 73-74.

Koruza B, 1996. Results of the study of grapevine yellows disease dispersal in Slovenia. Sodobno Kmetijstvo, 29(10):403-406.

Kuszala C, 1996. Influence du milieu d'extraction sur la dTdection du Bois noir et de la Flavescence dorTe de la vigne, par des anticorps poly et monoclonaux dirigTs contre les phytoplasmes du stolbur et de la Flavescence dorTe. Agronomie, 16:355-365.

Lavina A; Batlle A; Larrue J; Daire X; Clair D; Boudon-Padieu E, 1995. First report of grapevine bois noir phytoplasma in Spain. Plant Disease, 79(10):1075

Lee IngMing; Gundersen-Rindal DE; Davis RE; Bartoszyk IM, 1998. Revised classification scheme of phytoplasmas based on RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein gene sequences. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 48(4):1153-1169; 145 ref.

Magarey PA; Wachtel MF, 1986. Australian Grapevine Yellows. International Journal of Tropical Plant Disease, 4:1-14.

Maixner M, 1994. Transmission of German grapevine yellows (Vergilbungskrankheit) by the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus (Auchenorrhyncha: Cixiidae). Vitis, 33(2):103-104

Maixner M; Ahrens U; Seemuller E, 1995. Detection of the German grapevine yellows (Vergilbungskrankheit) MLO in grapevine, alternative hosts and a vector by a specific PCR procedure. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 101(3):241-250

Maixner M; Ahrens U; Seemüller E, 1994. Detection of mycoplasmalike organisms associated with a yellows disease of grapevine in Germany. Journal of Phytopathology, 142:1-10.

Maixner M; Daire X; Boudon-Padieu E; Lavi±a A; Battle A; Reinert W, 1997. Phytoplasmas. In: INRA Editions, Les colloques, N° 86. Sanitary Selection of the Grapevine. Protocols for detection of viruses and virus-like diseases. Paris, France: INRA, 183-195.

Maixner M; Reinert W, 1997. Spatio-temporal analysis of the distribution of grapevine yellows in Germany. In: de Sequeira OA, Santos MT, eds. Proceedings 12th Meeting of the International Council for the Study of Viruses and Virus-Like Diseases of Grapevine (ICVG), Lisbon, Portugal: de Sequeira OA, Santos MT, 75-76.

Maixner M; Reinert W; Darimont H, 2000. Transmission of grapevine yellows by Oncopsis alni (Schrank) (Auchenorrhyncha: Macropsinae). Vitis, 39(2):83-84; 8 ref.

Maixner M; Rndel M; Daire X; Boudon-Padieu E, 1995. Diversity of grapevine yellows in Germany. Vitis, 34(4):235-236; 11 ref.

Marcone C; Ragozzino A; Credi R; Seemnller E, 1996. Detection and characterization of phytoplasmas infecting grapevine in southern Italy and their genetic relatedness to other grapevine yellows phytoplasmas. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 35(3):207-213; 26 ref.

Marcone C; Ragozzino A; Seemüller E, 1997. Identification and characterization of the phytoplasma associated with elm yellows in southern Italy and its relatedness to other phytoplasmas of the elm yellows group. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 27:45-54.

Martini M; Murari E; Mori N; Bertaccini A, 1999. Identification and epidemic distribution of two flavescence dorTe-related phytoplasmas in Veneto (Italy). Plant Disease, 83(10):925-930; 34 ref.

Marzach8 C; Alma A; d'Aquilio M; Minuto G; Boccardo G, 1999. Detection and identification of phytoplasmas infecting cultivated and wild plants in Liguria (Italian Riviera). Journal of Plant Pathology, 81(2):127-136; 46 ref.

Murari E; Sartori S; Borgo M; Bertaccini A, 2000. Verifica molecolare dell'efficacia della termoterapia per eliminare i fitoplasmi dalla vite. Petria, 10:179-180.

Osler R; Boudon-Padieu E; Carraro L; Caudwell A; Refatti E, 1992. First results on the trials in progress to identify the vector of the agent of a grapevine yellows in Italy. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 31(3):175-181

Osler R; Fortusini A; Belli G, 1975. Presence of Scaphoideus littoralis in vineyards of Oltrepo pavese affected by a disease of the type "flavescence doree". Informatore Fitopatologico, 25(6):13-15

Padovan AC; Gibb KS; Daire X; Boudon-Padieu E, 1996. A comparison of the phytoplasma associated with Australian grapevine yellows to other phytoplasmas in grapevine. Vitis, 35(4):189-194; 34 ref.

Parente AM; Abreu I; Salema R, 1994. Mycoplasma-like organisms associated with phloem cells of diseased grapevines in northern Portugal. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 101(2):124-127

Pearson RC; Pool RM; Gonsalves D; Goffinet MC, 1985. Occurrence of flavescence doree-like symptoms on 'White Riesling' grapevines in New York, U.S.A. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 24(1/2):82-87

Prince JP; Davis RE; Wolf TK; Lee IM; Mogen BD; Dally EL; Bertaccini A; Credi R; Barba M, 1993. Molecular detection of diverse mycoplasma-like organisms (MLOs) associated with grapevine yellows and their classification with aster yellows, X-disease, and elm yellows MLOs. Phytopathology, 83(10):1130-1137

Refatti E; Carraro L; Osler R; Loi N; Pavan F, 1998. Presenza di differenti tipi di giallumi della vite nell' Italia nord-orientale. Petria, 8:85-98.

Reinert W; Maixner M, 1997. Epidemiological studies on a new grapevine yellows in Germany. In: de Sequeira OA, Santos MT, eds. Proceedings 12th Meeting of the International Council for the Study of Viruses and Virus-Like Diseases of Grapevine (ICVG), Lisbon, Portugal: de Sequeira OA, Santos MT, 65-66.

Rivenez MO; Bonjotin S, 1997. Grapevine yellows: flavescence dorTe or black wood? The development of these diseases. Phytoma, 49(496):17-19; 9 ref.

Saric A; Skoric D; Bertaccini A; Vibio M; Murari E, 1997. Molecular detection of phytoplasmas infecting grapevines in Slovenia and Croatia. In: de Sequeira OA, Santos MT, eds. Proceedings 12th Meeting of the International Council for the Study of Viruses and Virus-Like Diseases of Grapevine (ICVG), Lisbon, Portugal: de Sequeira OA, Santos MT, 61-67.

Schvester D; Carle P; Moutous G, 1963. Transmission de la flavescence dorée de la vigne par Scaphoideus littoralis Ball. Annales des Epiphyties, 14:175-198.

Schwartz Y; Boudon-Padieu E; Grange J; Meignoz R; Caudwell A, 1989. Monoclonal antibodies to the mycoplasma-like organism (MLO) responsible for grapevine flavescence doree. Research in Microbiology, 140(4-5):311-324

Seddas A; Meignoz R; Daire X; Boudon-Padieu E, 1996. Generation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to flavescence dorTe phytoplasma: serological relationships and differences in electroblot immunoassay profiles of flavescence dorTe and elm yellows phytoplasmas. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 102(8):757-764; 33 ref.

Seemnller E; Marcone C; Lauer U; Ragozzino A; G÷schl M, 1998. Current status of molecular classification of the phytoplasmas. Journal of Plant Pathology, 80:3-26.

Seljak G, 1987. Scaphoideus titanus Ball (= Sc. littoralis Ball), a new pest of grapevine in Yugoslavia. Zastita Bilja, 38(4):349-357

Seljak G; Petrovic N, 2000. Diffusione e stato delle malattie da fitoplasmi in Slovenia. Petria, 10:133-139.

Seruga M; Perica Mc; Skoric D; Kozina B; Mirosevic N; Saric A; Bertaccini A; Krajacic M, 2000. Geographical distribution of Bois Noir phytoplasmas infecting grapevines in Croatia. Journal of Phytopathology, 148(4):239-242; 26 ref.

Sforza R; Clair D; Daire X; Larrue J; Boudon-Padieu E, 1998. The role of Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) in the occurrence of bois noir of grapevines in France. Journal of Phytopathology, 146(11/12):549-556; 36 ref.

Terlizzi Bdi; Castellano MA; Alma A; Savino V, 1994. Present status of grapevine yellows in Apulia. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 33(2):125-131; 30 ref.

Viczißn O; Snle S; Gßborjßnyi R, 1998. Detection and identification of stolbur phytoplasma in Hungary by PCR and RFLP methods. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 33(3/4):255-260; 24 ref.

Vidano C, 1964. Scoperta in Italia dello Scaphoideus littoralis Ball, cicalina americana collegata alla ½Favescence dorTe+ della vite. L'Italia Agricola, 101:1031-1049.

Weber A; Maixner M; Blaise P, 1998. Habitat requirements of Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Auchennorrhyncha: Cixiidae) and approaches to control this planthopper in vineyards. In: Proceedings of Integrated Control in Viticulture, Godollo, Hungary: Bulletin-OILB-SROP, 21:77-78.

Wolf TK; Prince JP; Davis RE, 1994. Occurrence of grapevine yellows in Virginia vineyards. Plant Disease, 78(2):208

Distribution References

Alma A, Davis R E, Vibio M, Danielli A, Bosco D, Arzone A, Bertaccini A, 1996. Mixed infection of grapevines in northern Italy by phytoplasmas including 16S rRNA RFLP subgroup 16SrI-B strains previously unreported in this host. Plant Disease. 80 (4), 418-421. DOI:10.1094/PD-80-0418

Bianco P A, Davis R E, Casati P, Fortusini A, 1996. Prevalence of aster yellows (AY) and elm yellows (EY) group phytoplasmas in symptomatic grapevines in three areas of northern Italy. Vitis. 35 (4), 195-199.

Bianco P A, Davis R E, Prince J P, Lee I M, Gundersen D E, Fortusini A, Belli G, 1993. Double and single infections by aster yellows and elm yellows MLOs in grapevines with symptoms characteristic of flavescence dorée. Rivista di Patologia Vegetale. 3 (3), 69-82.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Caudwell A, 1993. Advances in grapevine yellows research since 1990. [Proceedings 11th Meeting of the International Council for the study of Viruses and Virus Diseases of Grapevine (ICVG), Montreux, Switzerland], 79-83.

Caudwell A, Larrue J, Moutous G, Fos A, Brun P, 1978. Transmission by cicadellids of Corsican vine yellowing. Identification of this disease with golden flavescence. 1. - Tests carried out outside Corsica. (La transmission par des cicadelles de la jaunisse du vignoble corse. Identification de cette maladie avec la flavescence doree. 1. - Les essais realises hors de la Corse.). Annales de Zoologie, Ecologie Animale. 10 (4), 613-625.

Caudwell A, Moutous G, Larrue J, Fos A, Blancon G, Schick JP, 1974. (Les épidémies de Flavescence dorée en Armagnac et en Corse et les nouvelles perspectives de lutte contre le vecteur par des traitements ovicides d'hiver). In: Bulletin technique d'Information des Ingénieurs des Services Agricoles, 294 783-794.

Chen K H, Guo J R, Wu X Y, Loi N, Carraro L, Guo Y H, Chen Y D, Osler R, Pearson R, Chen T A, 1993. Comparison of monoclonal antibodies, DNA probes, and PCR for detection of the grapevine yellows disease agent. Phytopathology. 83 (9), 915-922. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-83-915

Daire X, Clair D, Larrue J, Boudon-Padieu E, 1997. Survey for grapevine yellows phytoplasmas in diverse European countries and Israel. Vitis. 36 (1), 53-54.

Daire X, Clair D, Larrue J, Boudon-Padieu E, Alma A, Arzone A, Carraro L, Osler R, Refatti E, Granata G, Credi R, Tanne E, Pearson R, Caudwell A, 1993. Occurrence of diverse MLOs in tissues of grapevine affected by grapevine yellows in different countries. Vitis. 32 (4), 247-248.

Daire X, Clair D, Reinert W, Boudon-Padieu E, 1997a. Detection and differentiation of grapevine yellows phytoplasmas belonging to the elm yellows group and to the stolbur subgroup by PCR amplification of non-ribosomal DNA. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 103 (6), 507-514. DOI:10.1023/A:1008641411025

Davis R E, Dally E L, Gundersen D E, Lee IngMing, Habili N, 1997. "Candidatus phytoplasma australiense", a new phytoplasma taxon associated with Australian grapevine yellows. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 47 (2), 262-269.

Davis R E, Dally E L, Tanne E, Rumbos I C, 1997a. Phytoplasmas associated with grapevine yellows in Israel and Greece belong to the stolbur phytoplasma subgroup, 16SrXII-A. Journal of Plant Pathology. 79 (3), 181-187.

Davis R E, Jomantiene R, Dally E L, Wolf T K, 1998. Phytoplasmas associated with grapevine yellows in Virginia belong to group 16SrI, subgroup A (tomato big bud phytoplasma subgroup), and group 16SrIII, new subgroup I. Vitis. 37 (3), 131-137.

Gibb K S, Constable F E, Moran J R, Padovan A C, 1999. Phytoplasmas in Australian grapevines - detection, differentiation and associated diseases. Vitis. 38 (3), 107-114.

Kolbe M, Lßzßr J, Davis RE, Dally E, T)kTs G, Szendrey G, Mikußs J, Krizbai L, Papp E, 1997. Occurrence of grapevine yellows disease in grapevine growing regions of Hungary. [Proceedings 12th Meeting of the International Council for the Study of Viruses and Virus-Like Diseases of Grapevine (ICVG), Lisbon, Portugal: de Sequeira OA, Santos MT], [ed. by de Sequeira OA, Santos MT]. 73-74.

Koruza B, 1996. Results of the study of grapevine yellows disease dispersal in Slovenia. (Rezultati preučevanja razširjenosti rumenic vinske trte v Sloveniji.). Sodobno Kmetijstvo. 29 (10), 403-406.

Laviña A, Batlle A, Larrue J, Daire X, Clair D, Boudon-Padieu E, 1995. First report of grapevine bois noir phytoplasma in Spain. Plant Disease. 79 (10), 1075.

Maixner M, Ahrens U, Seemüller E, 1994. Detection of mycoplasmalike organisms associated with a yellows disease of grapevine in Germany. Journal of Phytopathology. 142 (1), 1-10.

Marcone C, Ragozzino A, Credi R, Seemüller E, 1996. Detection and characterization of phytoplasmas infecting grapevine in southern Italy and their genetic relatedness to other grapevine yellows phytoplasmas. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 35 (3), 207-213.

Martini M, Murari E, Mori N, Bertaccini A, 1999. Identification and epidemic distribution of two flavescence dorée-related phytoplasmas in Veneto (Italy). Plant Disease. 83 (10), 925-930. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.1999.83.10.925

Padovan A C, Gibb K S, Daire X, Boudon-Padieu E, 1996. A comparison of the phytoplasma associated with Australian grapevine yellows to other phytoplasmas in grapevine. Vitis. 35 (4), 189-194.

Parente A M, Abreu I, Salema R, 1994. Mycoplasma-like organisms associated with phloem cells of diseased grapevines in northern Portugal. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz. 101 (2), 124-127.

Pearson R C, Pool R M, Gonsalves D, Goffinet M C, 1985. Occurrence of flavescence dorée-like symptoms on 'White Riesling' grapevines in New York, U.S.A. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 24 (1/2), 82-87.

Prince J P, Davis R E, Wolf T K, Lee I M, Mogen B D, Dally E L, Bertaccini A, Credi R, Barba M, 1993. Molecular detection of diverse mycoplasma-like organisms (MLOs) associated with grapevine yellows and their classification with aster yellows, X-disease, and elm yellows MLOs. Phytopathology. 83 (10), 1130-1137. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-83-1130

Refatti E, Carraro L, Osler R, Loi N, Pavan F, 1998. Occurrence of different grape yellows diseases in northeastern Italy. (Presenza di differenti tipi di giallumi della vite nell'Italia nord-orientale.). Petria. 8 (1), 85-97.

Saric A, Skoric D, Bertaccini A, Vibio M, Murari E, 1997. Molecular detection of phytoplasmas infecting grapevines in Slovenia and Croatia. In: 12th Meeting of the International Council for the Study of viruses and virus-like diseases of the Grapevine (ICVG). [12th Meeting of the International Council for the Study of viruses and virus-like diseases of the Grapevine (ICVG).], Oeiras, Portugal: Oficina Grafica da Secretaria General do Ministerio da Agricultura, do Desenvolvimento Rural E das pescas. 77-78.

Seljak G, Petrovic N, 2000. (Diffusione e stato delle malattie da fitoplasmi in Slovenia). In: Petria, 10 133-139.

Šeruga M, Perica M Ć, Škorić D, Kozina B, Mirošević N, Šarić A, Bertaccini A, Krajačić M, 2000. Geographical distribution of Bois Noir phytoplasmas infecting grapevines in Croatia. Journal of Phytopathology. 148 (4), 239-242. DOI:10.1046/j.1439-0434.2000.00484.x

Wolf T K, Prince J P, Davis R E, 1994. Occurrence of grapevine yellows in Virginia vineyards. Plant Disease. 78 (2), 208. DOI:10.1094/PD-78-0208C

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map