Invasive Species Compendium

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Calopogonium mucunoides
(calopo)

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Datasheet

Calopogonium mucunoides (calopo)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Calopogonium mucunoides
  • Preferred Common Name
  • calopo
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. mucunoides is a vigorous woody vine listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds as a very aggressive weed impacting principally agricultural and semi-natural ecosystems (...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Inflorescence and leaf, Bhutan.
TitleInflorescence and leaf
CaptionInflorescence and leaf, Bhutan.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Inflorescence and leaf, Bhutan.
Inflorescence and leafInflorescence and leaf, Bhutan.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.

Preferred Common Name

  • calopo

Other Scientific Names

  • Calopogonium brachycarpum (Benth.) Hemsl.
  • Calopogonium orthocarpum Urb.
  • Stenolobium brachycarpum Benth.

International Common Names

  • English: caloponium; wild ground nut
  • Spanish: bejuco culebra; frijolillo rabo de iguana (Colombia); frisolilla; gusanillo (Colombia); jicama; picapica (Colombia); rabo de iguana
  • French: pois bleu
  • Chinese: mao man dou

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: falso-ouro
  • Cuba: bejuco peludo
  • Indonesia: kacang asu
  • Philippines: karaparapak; santing
  • Puerto Rico: jicama
  • Thailand: thua karapo

EPPO code

  • CLOMU (Calopogonium mucunoides)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. mucunoides is a vigorous woody vine listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds as a very aggressive weed impacting principally agricultural and semi-natural ecosystems (Randall, 2012). C. mucunoides has been widely introduced as a forage legume and nitrogen fixing plant in tropical and subtropical regions (Cook et al., 2005). This fast-growing vine has escaped from cultivation, becoming a serious environmental problem mainly in Australia and the Pacific Islands (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011; PIER, 2013). Once established, C. mucunoides has the potential to completely smother native vegetation as well as crops in active agricultural areas. Currently, C. mucunoides is classified as a “ noxious weed” in Australia (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011), and as an invasive species in Malaysia, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and several islands in the Pacific Ocean such as French Polynesia, the Cook Islands, Samoa, Palau and the Solomon Islands (see distribution table for details; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; PIER, 2013).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Genus: Calopogonium
  •                                 Species: Calopogonium mucunoides

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Species within the subfamily Faboideae (also known as Papilionoideae) of the Fabaceae family are trees, shrubs, and herbs that may be easily recognized by their classical pea-shaped flowers and the frequent occurrence of root nodulation (Stevens, 2012). The genus Calopogonium includes about 6-8 species native to tropical continental America and widely naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005).

Description

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Slightly woody vine, twining or creeping, much branched, attaining 3-5 m in length. Stems slender, cylindrical, hirsute. Leaves alternate, trifoliolate; leaflets chartaceous, 2-10 × 1.5-6.5 cm, the apex obtuse to almost rounded, the base of the terminal leaflet cuneate to rounded, and that of the lateral leaflets markedly asymmetrical, the margins entire; both surfaces dull, pubescent; lower surface with prominent venation. Inflorescences in axillary pseudo-racemes, up to 10 cm long; rachis hirsute; bracts persistent and about 7 mm long. Calyx campanulate, 7-8 mm long, hirsute, the sepals subulate, caudate at the apex; corolla blue or purple, the standard 6-7 mm long, marginate. Fruit is a legume, oblong-linear, flattened, hirsute, 2-4 × 0.3-0.5 cm. Seeds almost quadrangular, approximately 3 mm wide, reddish brown and shiny (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005).

Distribution

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C. mucunoides is native to tropical America, from Mexico to Argentina, and to some islands in the West Indies (USDA-ARS, 2013). C. mucunoides has been erroneously cited as native to all islands in the West Indies. However, updated checklists consider this species as naturalized in Cuba and Puerto Rico (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; González-Torres et al., 2012). Because C. mucunoides has been widely introduced for horticulture, it is now naturalized in a wide range of habitats in Africa, Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands (Cook et al., 2005).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

Brunei DarussalamPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
Chagos ArchipelagoPresentIntroduced Invasive Whistler, 1996
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-GuangdongPresentIntroduced Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-GuangxiPresentIntroduced Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
-YunnanPresentIntroduced Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentIntroduced Invasive Swarbrick, 1997
IndiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
-KarnatakaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
-KeralaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive ILDIS, 2012
-JavaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012Listed as naturalised
-MoluccasPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
JapanPresentIntroducedKato, 2007
LaosPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
MalaysiaPresentIntroduced Invasive ILDIS, 2012
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
-SabahPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
-SarawakPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
NepalPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced Invasive Csurhes and Edwards, 1998
SingaporePresentIntroduced Invasive ILDIS, 2012
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
TaiwanPresentIntroduced Not invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012
ThailandPresentIntroducedFAO, 2013
VietnamPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012

Africa

BurundiPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
CameroonPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
GuineaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
Guinea-BissauPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
KenyaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
LiberiaPresentILDIS, 2012
MadagascarPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
MalawiPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
MauritiusPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
NigeriaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
SeychellesPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
TogoPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
UgandaPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012

North America

MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013Chipas, Sinaloa, Colima, Guerrero, Jalisco, Nayarit, Veracruz
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedImada et al., 2013

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
BelizePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
Costa RicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
CubaPresentIntroducedGonzález-Torres et al., 2012Listed as potentially invasive
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
El SalvadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
GuadeloupePresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
GuatemalaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
HaitiPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
JamaicaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
MartiniquePresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
MontserratPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
NicaraguaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
PanamaPresentNativeCorrea et al., 2004Bosacs del Toro, Canal, Chriqui, Cocle, Herrera, Colon, Los Santos, Veraguas
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Saint LuciaPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNativeBroome et al., 2007
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Tobago

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeILDIS, 2012
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AcrePresentNativeLima, 2013
-AmapaPresentNativeLima, 2013
-AmazonasPresentNativeLima, 2013
-BahiaPresentNativeLima, 2013
-CearaPresentNativeLima, 2013
-Espirito SantoPresentNativeLima, 2013
-MaranhaoPresentNativeLima, 2013
-Mato GrossoPresentNativeLima, 2013
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentNativeLima, 2013
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeLima, 2013
-ParaPresentNativeLima, 2013
-ParaibaPresentNativeLima, 2013
-PernambucoPresentNativeLima, 2013
-PiauiPresentNativeLima, 2013
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeLima, 2013
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNativeLima, 2013
-RondoniaPresentNativeLima, 2013
-Sao PauloPresentNativeLima, 2013
ColombiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
EcuadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
French GuianaPresentNativeFunk et al., 2007
GuyanaPresentNativeFunk et al., 2007
PeruPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2013
SurinamePresentNativeFunk et al., 2007
VenezuelaPresentNativeHokche et al., 2008Amacuro, Bolivar, Apure, Amazonas, Guarico, Zulia, Monagas, Portuguesa

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive Space and Flynn, 2002
AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced Invasive Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Space and Flynn, 2002
FijiPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Florence et al., 2013
GuamPresentIntroduced Invasive Stone, 1970
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced Invasive Herrera et al., 2010
NauruPresentIntroduced Invasive Thaman et al., 1994
NiuePresentIntroduced Invasive Space et al., 2004
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Fosberg et al., 1979
PalauPresentIntroduced Invasive Space et al., 2009
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced Invasive ILDIS, 2012Invasive in Bismarck Archipelago
SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive Space and Flynn, 2002
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedILDIS, 2012
TongaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2013

History of Introduction and Spread

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In the West Indies, herbarium collections and botanical surveys show that C. mucunoides was first recorded in 1881 in Puerto Rico (Bello Espinosa, 1881), and in 1905 in Cuba (US Herbarium collection) and it is described as common in cultivated grounds, hillsides, disturbed fields and tickets. In Africa and Asia C. mucunoides was introduced in the early 1900s to be used as a green manure and cover crop and to improve soils and prevent erosion (Prota4U, 2013). In Sumatra, Java, and Malaysia this species was introduced in the 1920s to be used as a cover crop in the rubber and sisal plantations (Prota4U, 2013).

In Australia, C. mucunoides was introduced in the 1930s as a pasture legume, but it escaped from cultivation and became naturalized in disturbed sites and waste grounds along roadsides and waterways, and on the edges of rainforests in tropical regions of northern Australia. In the Kakadu National Park in the Northern Territory, C. mucunoides is listed as an environmental weed, and populations are extending rapidly forming dense mats that smother native vegetation (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of C. mucunoides is moderate to high. Because this species has been intentionally planted as a forage legume, green manure, cover crop and soil improver, it is widely naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions. In addition, C. mucunoides spreads by seeds which can be easy dispersed as a contaminant in hay or in mud adhering to vehicles and stock. Seeds are also expelled short distances from the pods which twist upon drying (Smith, 2002).

Habitat

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C. mucunoides grows mostly in humid tropical areas from sea level up to 2000 masl. It is especially common in disturbed areas, forest edges, along roadsides and waterways and in agricultural lands where it grows as a weed (Cooks et al., 2005; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011; PIER, 2013).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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C. mucunoides has been listed as a problem weed in sugarcane and groundnut crops in Australia (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number for C. mucunoides varies from 2n = 36 to 2n = 37 (Lackey, 1980).

Reproductive Biology

C. mucunoides has been described as a hermaphroditic self-compatible species (FAO, 2013).

Longevity and Phenology

Under humid tropical conditions, C. mucunoides grows as a perennial plant, however, in dry environments it behaves as an annual (Cook et al., 2005). C. mucunoides has been reported flowering and fruiting from December to March in Puerto Rico (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005).

Environmental Requirements

C. mucunoides grows on a wide range of soil types, but prefers clay soils with pH ranging from 4.5 to 5.0. In tropical America, it grows well on acid soils with high aluminium saturation (Cook et al., 2005; FAO, 2013). It has poor tolerance to drought and salinity. It is adapted to humid tropical areas with mean annual temperatures ranging from 24ºC to 32ºC and annual rainfall exceeding 1500 mm (but it is also able to grow in drier environments with around 1000 mm annual rainfall). This species is able to grow in partially shaded areas but is not tolerant of heavy shade (Cook et al., 2005).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 24 32

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall8001500mm; lower/upper limits

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cowpea severe mosaic virus Pathogen Whole plant not specific
Meloidogyne javanica Parasite Whole plant not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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C. mucunoides is affected by viruses including cowpea severe mosaic virus and Centrosema mosaic virus and by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica (Cook et al., 2005).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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C. mucunoides only spreads by seeds. However, it is a fast-growing vine with the potential to grow forming dense mats at ground level once established at a new site. Seeds are ejected short distances from the pods which twist upon drying. Additionally, because plants are common in disturbed and agricultural areas, seeds can easily be dispersed as contaminants in mud or hay adhering to vehicles, humans or livestock (Smith, 2002; Cook et al., 2005).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Environmental Impact

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C. mucunoides can become a weed in humid-tropical environments. This species is a fast-growing vine with the potential to form dense mats that smother native vegetation as well as crops. C. mucunoides has become invasive in tropical ecosystems in northern Australia, islands in the Pacific Ocean such as French Polynesia, Solomon Island, Samoa and Palau, and areas in Asia including the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. In Australia this species is considered a serious weed in sugarcane and groundnut plantations (Cooks et al., 2005; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011; PIER, 2013).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Competition
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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C. mucunoides is widely cultivated as a forage and pasture legume, green manure and cover crop. It is also commonly planted as a pioneer species and as a nitrogen fixing species to reduce erosion and improve soil fertility (Cook et al., 2005). Despite generally low palatability, it is used as animal forage during the latter part of the dry season in tropical Asia and Africa (Cook et al., 2005; FAO, 2013).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Small plants as well as small infestations should be removed manually making sure that all roots and stems are removed. For large infestations the Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (2011) recommends to apply glufosinate-ammonium (500 ml per 100 L water) when plants are actively growing and dicamba or picloram on plant regrowth.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51:483 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304.

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Cook B; Pengelly B; Brown S; Donnelly J; Eagle D; Franco A; Hanson J; Mullen B; Partridge I; Peters M; Schultze-Kraft R, 2005. Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool. Brisbane, Australia: CSIRO, DPI&F (Qld), CIAT and ILRI. http://www.tropicalforages.info/

Correa A; Galdames MDC; Stapf MNS, 2004. Catalogue of vascular plants of Panama (Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama.), Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 599 pp.

Csurhes S; Edwards R, 1998. Potential environmental weeds in Australia: candidate species for preventative control. Coorparoo, Australia: Queensland Department of Natural Resources.

FAO, 2013. Grassland Species Profiles. Detailed decription of more than 600 grassland species. http://www.fao.org/ag/AGP/AGPC/doc/GBASE/Default.htm

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012. Flora of China Web. Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/

Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Fosberg FR; Sachet MH; Oliver R, 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae. Micronesica, 15:1-295.

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

González-Torres LR; Rankin R; Palmarola A (eds), 2012. Invasive plants in Cuba. (Plantas Invasoras en Cuba.) Bissea: Boletin sobre Conservacion de Plantad del Jardin Botanico Nacional, 6:1-140.

Herrera K; Lorence DH; Flynn T; Balick MJ, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Lawai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 146 pp.

Hokche O; Berry PE; Huber O, 2008. New catalogue of the vascular plants of Venezuela (Nuevo Catalogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela). Caracas, Venezuela: Fundacion Instituto Botanico de Venezuela.

ILDIS, 2012. International Legume Database and Information Service. Reading, UK: School of Plant Sciences, Unversity of Reading. http://www.ildis.org/

Imada CT; Staples GW; Herbst DR, 2013. Annotated Checklist of Cultivated Plants of Hawaii. http://nsdb.bishopmuseum.org/

Kato H, 2007. Herbarium records of Makino Herbarium, Tokyo Metropolitan University.

Lackey JA, 1980. Chromosome numbers in the Phaseoleae (Fabaceae:Faboideae) and their relationship to taxonomy. American Journal of Botany, 67(4):595-602.

Lima HC, 2013. Calopogonium in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil ([English title not available]). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB22853

PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Prota4U, 2013. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011. Special edition of Environmental Weeds of Australia for Biosecurity Queensland., Australia: The University of Queensland and Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/Index.htm

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Smith NM, 2002. Weeds of the wet/dry tropics of Australia - a field guide., Australia: Environment Centre NT, Inc, 112 pp.

Space JC; Flynn T, 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, 50 pp.

Space JC; Flynn T, 2002. Report to the Government of Samoa on Invasive Plant Species of Environmental Concern. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, 78 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/samoa_report.pdf

Space JC; Flynn T, 2002b. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, 148 pp. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/cook_islands_report.pdf

Space JC; Lorence DH; LaRosa AM, 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. Hilo, Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, 227. http://www.sprep.org/att/irc/ecopies/countries/palau/48.pdf

Space JC; Waterhouse BM; Newfield M; Bull C, 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. 80 pp. [UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity.] http://www.hear.org/pier/reports/niue_report_2004.htm

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Stone BC, 1970. The Flora of Guam. Micronesica, 6:1-659.

Swarbrick JT, 1997. Environmental weeds and exotic plants on Christmas Island, Indian Ocean. Report to Parks Australia. J.T. Swarbrick, Weed Science Consultancy, 131 pp.

Thaman RR; Fosberg FR; Manner HI; Hassall DC, 1994. The flora of Nauru. Atoll Research Bulletin, 392:1-223.

USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Whistler WA, 1996. Botanical survey of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory. Isle Botanica (online), 49 pp. http://www.zianet.com/tedmorris/dg/2005NRMP-Appendixe-botanicalsurvey.pdf

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
International Legume Database and Information Servicehttp://www.ildis.org/
Tropical Forages: An Interactive Selection Toolhttp://www.tropicalforages.info/

Contributors

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10/01/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

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