Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Cleome viscosa
(Asian spiderflower)

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Datasheet

Cleome viscosa (Asian spiderflower)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cleome viscosa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Asian spiderflower
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. viscosa is a fast-growing herb of humid and warm habitats. It is commonly found growing as a weed in disturbed sites, gardens, rice paddies, pastures, orchards, abandoned lands, and along roadsides (...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleFlowering plant of Cleome viscosa.
Caption
CopyrightMaria C. Duarte
Flowering plant of Cleome viscosa.Maria C. Duarte
Cleome viscosa: a1, a2, flower (two views); b, seed.
TitleLine drawing of Cleome viscosa.
CaptionCleome viscosa: a1, a2, flower (two views); b, seed.
CopyrightSEAMEO-BIOTROP
Cleome viscosa: a1, a2, flower (two views); b, seed.
Line drawing of Cleome viscosa.Cleome viscosa: a1, a2, flower (two views); b, seed.SEAMEO-BIOTROP

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cleome viscosa L.

Preferred Common Name

  • Asian spiderflower

Other Scientific Names

  • Arivela viscosa (L.) Raf.
  • Arivela viscosa var. deglabrata (Backer) M.L.Zhang & G.C.Tucker
  • Cleome acutifolia Elmer
  • Cleome icosandra L.
  • Cleome viscosa f. deglabrata (Backer) Jacobs
  • Cleome viscosa var. nagarjunakondensis Sundararagh.
  • Cleome viscosa var. parviflora Kuntze
  • Cleome viscosa var. viscosa
  • Polanisia icosandra (L.) Wight & Arn.
  • Polanisia microphylla Eichler
  • Polanisia viscosa (L.) Blume
  • Polanisia viscosa (L.) DC.
  • Polanisia viscosa var. deglabrata Backer
  • Polanisia viscosa var. icosandra (L.) Schweinf. ex Oliv.
  • Sinapistrum viscosum (L.) Moench

International Common Names

  • English: caia; cleome; dog mustard; ground dove feed; tickweed; wild mustard; yellow cleome; yellow mesambay
  • Spanish: barba de chivo; frijolillo; jitomate; malva pegajosa; plantanillo; sambo; tabaquillo
  • French: acaya jaune; brède caya; collant; mouzambe jaune

Local Common Names

  • China: huang hua cao
  • Dominican Republic: frijol cimarrón; jitomate
  • Germany: Klebrige Spinnenpflanze
  • Indonesia: ancang ancang; mamang
  • Jamaica: wild caia
  • Japan: hime-futyoso
  • Laos: sa phac son tien
  • Malaysia: mamang kebo; mamang laki; mamang utan
  • Philippines: apoi-apoian; silisian, hulaya
  • Thailand: phak sian phee; phak som sian phee

EPPO code

  • CLEVI (Cleome viscosa)
  • PONVI (Polanisia viscosa)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. viscosa is a fast-growing herb of humid and warm habitats. It is commonly found growing as a weed in disturbed sites, gardens, rice paddies, pastures, orchards, abandoned lands, and along roadsides (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; PROTA, 2015). This species is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds where it is listed as an environmental and agricultural weed with moderate economic impacts principally in rice paddies and sugarcane plantations (Randall, 2012). It produces large numbers of sticky seeds which can be dispersed by wind, water, and as a contaminant in farm machinery, farm produce, soil, or adhered to clothes and animal fur (Smith, 1981; PROTA, 2015). Currently, C. viscosa is listed as invasive in India, Singapore, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Galapagos Islands, and on several islands in the Pacific Ocean such Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, and Papua New Guinea among others (Waterhouse, 1993; Kairo et al., 2003; Chandra, 2012; PIER, 2015; Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2015). 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Capparidales
  •                         Family: Capparaceae
  •                             Genus: Cleome
  •                                 Species: Cleome viscosa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Cleome is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cleomaceae. Previously this genus had been placed in the family Capparaceae, until DNA studies found that Cleomaceae genera are more closely related to Brassicaceae than Capparaceae (Stevens, 2012). The APGII System allowed for Cleomaceae to be included in the Brassicaceae, and APGIII still recognises Cleomaceae for the genus Cleome. [N.B. Taxonomic tree is awaiting updating from Capparaceae to Cleomaceae.]

The family Cleomaceae includes about 12 genera and 250 species distributed in tropical and warm temperate regions (The Plant List, 2013). Members of this family are herbaceous or shrubby plants with palmately compound leaves; the flowers have four clawed petals, six stamens, and two carpels; the gynoecium has a gynophore, the stamens have long filaments, and the dehiscent fruit has a persistent, loop-like woody placenta that remains on the plant after the fruit valves have fallen off (Stevens, 2012).

Description

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The following description is taken from Flora of China Editorial Committee (2015):

C. viscosa is an annual herb, up to 160 cm tall. Stems simple or branched, ± glandular hirsute, viscous. Petiole 1.5–4.5(–8) cm, glandular hirsute; leaflets 3 or 5; leaflet blades ovate to oblanceolate-elliptic, (0.6–)2–6 × 0.5–3.5 cm, both surfaces glandular hirsute, margin entire to glandular ciliate, apex acute to obtuse. Inflorescences 5–10 cm but 10–15 cm in fruit; bracts 1–2.5 cm, palmately compound, 3-foliolate, often deciduous, glandular hirsute. Pedicel 0.6–3 cm, glandular hirsute. Inflorescences 3–6-flowered. Sepals green, equal, distinct, 5–10 × 0.8–1.2 mm, lanceolate, persistent, glandular hirsute, base cuneate, margin entire. Petals bright yellow, basally sometimes purple, arranged in an adaxial semicircle before anthesis but radially arranged at anthesis, 7–14 × 3–4 mm, oblong to ovate, clawed. Stamens (dimorphic, 4–10 adaxial ones much shorter with a swelling below anthers) green, 5–9 mm; anthers green, 1.4–3 mm. Pistil 6–10 mm, densely glandular; style 1–1.2 mm; stigma capitate. Fruit capsule 3–10 cm × 2–4 mm, strongly ridged longitudinally, dehiscing only partway from apex to base, glandular pubescent or essentially glabrous. Seeds 25–40 (up to 100) per capsule, light brown, 1.2–1.8 × 1–1.2 mm, compressed spherical, transversely finely ridged. 

Distribution

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C. viscosa is probably native to Asia, but now has a pantropical distribution and is naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions in Asia, Africa, the Americas, and Oceania (Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; PIER, 2015; USDA-ARS, 2015).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BhutanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
CambodiaPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015Listed as both native and introduced
Chagos ArchipelagoPresentIntroduced Invasive Rivers, 2004
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AnhuiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
-FujianPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
-GuangdongPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
-GuangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
-HainanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
-Hong KongPresentNativeWu, 2001
-HubeiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
-HunanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
-JiangxiPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
-YunnanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
-ZhejiangPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentNativeOrchard, 1993
IndiaPresent
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-AssamPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-ManipurPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-MeghalayaPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-MizoramPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-NagalandPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-SikkimPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-TripuraPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
-UttarakhandPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra, 2012
IndonesiaPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
JapanPresentIntroduced Invasive Mito and Uesugi, 2004
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentIntroduced Invasive Mito and Uesugi, 2004
LaosPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
MalaysiaPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015Listed as both native and introduced
MaldivesPresentPIER, 2015
NepalPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
PakistanPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
PhilippinesPresentWaterhouse, 1993
SingaporePresentIntroduced Invasive Chong et al., 2009
Sri LankaPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
TaiwanPresentNativeFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
ThailandPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015
VietnamPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2015

Africa

BeninPresentPROTA, 2015
CameroonPresentPROTA, 2015
Cape VerdePresentPROTA, 2015
ChadPresentPROTA, 2015
EgyptPresentPROTA, 2015
EthiopiaPresentPROTA, 2015
GambiaPresentPROTA, 2015
GhanaPresentPROTA, 2015
GuineaPresentPROTA, 2015
Guinea-BissauPresentPROTA, 2015
MadagascarPresentPROTA, 2015
MaliPresentPROTA, 2015
MauritaniaPresentPROTA, 2015
MauritiusPresentHolm et al., 1979Weed
NigerPresentPROTA, 2015
NigeriaPresentPROTA, 2015
SenegalPresentPROTA, 2015
SeychellesPresentIntroduced Invasive Fosberg, 1983
SudanPresentPROTA, 2015

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedTucker and Vanderpool, 2010Naturalized in Campeche, Chiapas, Colima, Oaxaca, Sinaloa, Sonora, Veracruz, Yucatan
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2015Naturalized
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2015Naturalized
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2015Naturalized
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2015Naturalized
-MarylandPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2015Naturalized
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2015Naturalized
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2015Naturalized
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2015Naturalized

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
ArubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
BarbadosWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
BelizePresentIntroducedCochrane and Iltis, 2015Naturalized
BonairePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Guana, Tortola, Virgin Gorda
CaribbeanPresentSchotman, 1989
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedCochrane and Iltis, 2015Naturalized
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
CuraçaoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
DominicaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive Kairo et al., 2003
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedCochrane and Iltis, 2015Naturalized
GrenadaWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
GuadeloupeWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedCochrane and Iltis, 2015Naturalized
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentIntroducedCochrane and Iltis, 2015Naturalized
JamaicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
MartiniqueWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
MontserratWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedCochrane and Iltis, 2015Naturalized
PanamaPresentIntroducedCochrane and Iltis, 2015Naturalized
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
SabaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Saint Kitts and NevisWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Saint LuciaWidespreadIntroducedGraveson, 2012Naturalized- very common
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesWidespreadIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Sint EustatiusPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Sint MaartenPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012St Croix. St John, St Thomas

South America

EcuadorPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008
VenezuelaPresentHokche et al., 2008; Villarreal et al., 2010

Oceania

Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2015
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive Smith, 1981
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Florence et al., 2013
GuamPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015
KiribatiPresentIntroduced Invasive Space and Imada, 2004
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedHerrera et al., 2010
NauruPresentIntroduced Invasive Thaman et al., 1994
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive MacKee, 1994
NiuePresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Fosberg, 1975
PalauPresentIntroduced Invasive Space et al., 2003
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015
SamoaPresentWhistler, 1988
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Hancock and Henderson, 1988

History of Introduction and Spread

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There is very little information available about the history of introduction of C. viscosa, but it is highly probable that this species was introduced accidentally as a contaminant or as a weed in nursery materials (Holm et al., 1979). In the USA, it was recorded in the late 1800s. In the West Indies, herbarium collections shown that this species was first collected in 1878 in Martinique; 1882 in the U.S. Virgin Islands (i.e., St Thomas) and in 1892 in Guadeloupe (US Herbarium Collection). C. viscosa was already established on the Windward Caribbean Islands at the beginning of the 20th century (Burg et al., 2012). 

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of C. viscosa is moderate to high. This species produces large numbers of sticky seeds that can be easily dispersed by wind, water and machinery associated to human activities and has the potential to grow as a weed in ruderal areas, and agricultural and pasture lands. Thus, C. viscosa has the potential to spread much further into new habitats.

Habitat

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C. viscosa grows in warm and wet conditions on sandy soils, but sometimes on calcareous and rocky soils (Graveson, 2012; PROTA, 2015). It is naturalized in arid and dry lowlands in the Galápagos Islands (McMullen, 1999). It is locally abundant as a naturalized weed in cultivated fields and in ruderal areas and grasslands from sea level up to 1000 m (PIER, 2015). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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C. viscosa is a weed in ruderal areas, woodland, grassland, rice paddies, and sugarcane plantations (Holm et al., 1979; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015; PROTA, 2015).

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for C. viscosa varies from 2n = 20, 2n = 34, to 2n = 60 (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015).

Reproductive Biology and Phenology

C. viscosa has hermaphroditic small yellow flowers. The flowers are ephemeral, opening in the morning and closing in the afternoon and they are visited and likely pollinated by bees (USDA-NRCS, 2015). In China, C. viscosa has been recorded flowering from July to September and fruiting in October (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015).

Longevity

C. viscosa is a fast-growing annual herb. The seeds have no dormancy and germinate readily after shedding. Plants start flowering 3–4 weeks after germination and the life cycle is about 3 months (USDA-ARS, 2015; PROTA, 2015).

Environmental Requirements

C. viscosa grows best in humid and hot habitats on sandy soils, but also on calcareous and rocky soils.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 14 28

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall3002000mm; lower/upper limits

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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C. viscosa spreads by seeds, which can be dispersed by wind, gravity, water, and as a contaminant in farm machinery, farm produce and soil, or adhered to human clothes or animal fur (Holm et al., 1979; PIER, 2015; PROTA, 2015). 

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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C. viscosa is a weed with economic impacts in crops such as rice and sugarcane, as well as being a problem in pastures and gardens (PIER, 2015; PROTA, 2015). 

Environmental Impact

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C. viscosa is an environmental weed in woodlands, grasslands, ruderal sites, roadsides, and coastal forests where it has the potential to outcompete native vegetation (Kairo et al., 2003; Chandra, 2012; Randall, 2012; PIER, 2015; Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodriguez, 2015).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Loss of medicinal resources
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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In tropical Africa, C. viscosa is occasionally used as a leaf vegetable. The bitter leaves are eaten fresh, dried or cooked. In India the seeds, which have a pleasant flavour, are used as a condiment substitute for mustard seed and cumin in the preparation of pickling spices, sausages, vegetables, curries and pulses. In Sumatra, the dried and powdered leaves and seeds are added to tobacco to enhance its narcotic properties (Windadri, 2001). In Asia (southern China, Guam, India), leaves and seeds are used medicinally to treat infections, fever, rheumatism and headaches (PROTA, 2015). 

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Small infestations of C. viscosa can be controlled by hand. Herbicide control includes the use of mono-linuron, trifluralin, chlorbromuron, atrazine, prometryne, terbutryne, metribuzin, diuron, and oxadiazon.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Burg WJ van der; Freitas J de; Debrot AO; Lotz LAP, 2012. Naturalised and invasive alien plant species in the Caribbean Netherlands: status distribution, threats, priorities and recommendations. Report of a joint IMARES/CARMABI/PRI project. Wageningen, Netherland: Plant Research International, 82 pp. http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/C185-11%20Invasive%20plants%20Dutch%20Caribbean.pdf

Chandra SK, 2012. Invasive Alien Plants of Indian Himalayan Region- Diversity and Implication. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3:177-184.

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation, unpaginated.

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Cochrane TS; Iltis HH, 2015. Cleomaceae. Flora Mesoamericana [ed. by Davidse, G. \Sousa Sánchez, M. \Knapp, S. \Chiang Cabrera, F.]., México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2015. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Fosberg FR, 1975. The Maldive Islands, Indian Ocean. Atoll Research Bulletin No. 58:37 pp.

Fosberg FR, 1983. Natural History of Cousin Island. Atoll Research Bulletin, 273-281. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/39968914

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Hancock IR; Henderson CP, 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin - Dodo Creek Research Station, No. 7. Honiara, Solomon Islands ii + 203 pp.

Herrera K; Lorence DH; Flynn T; Balick MJ, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Lawai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 146 pp.

Hokche O; Berry PE; Huber O, 2008. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela (New catalogue of the vascular flora of Venezuela). Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela, 860 pp.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Kairo M; Ali B; Cheesman O; Haysom K; Murphy S, 2003. Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International, 132 pp. http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/Kairo%20et%20al,%202003.pdf

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated.

McMullen CK, 1999. Flowering plants of the Galápagos. Ithaca, New York, USA: Comstock Publisher Assoc., 370 pp.

Mito T; Uesugi T, 2004. Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and the new regulation for prevention of their adverse effects. Global Environmental Research, 8(2):171-191.

Orchard AE, 1993. Flora of Australia. Vol. 50, Oceanic islands 2. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

PIER, 2015. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2015. PROTA4U web database. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.info

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Rivers J, 2004. Botanical survey update of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipelago, British Indian Ocean Territory. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Pacific, 16 pp.

Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp.

Smith AC, 1981. Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only). Volume 2. 1981, 818 pp.; many pl. (8 col.).

Space JC; Imada CT, 2004. Report to the Republic of Kiribati on invasive plant species on the islands of Tarawa, Abemama, Butaritari and Maiana. Cont. no. 2003-006 to the Pac. Biol. Surv. USDA Forest Service and Bishop Museum, Honolulu.

Space JC; Waterhouse BM; Miles JE; Tiobech J; Rengulbai K, 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service.

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Links to Websites

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Plant Resources of Tropical Africahttp://www.prota.org/

Contributors

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30/04/15 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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