Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Cleome rutidosperma
(fringed spiderflower)

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Datasheet

Cleome rutidosperma (fringed spiderflower)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cleome rutidosperma
  • Preferred Common Name
  • fringed spiderflower
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. rutidosperma is a common herb that grows as a weed in disturbed and ruderal habitats, principally in areas with humid and hot environmental conditions. It is often found as a weed of disturbed ground, roadsi...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cleome rutidosperma (Consumption weed); habit and flower. India. June 2013.
TitleHabit and flower
CaptionCleome rutidosperma (Consumption weed); habit and flower. India. June 2013.
Copyright©Vengolis/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cleome rutidosperma (Consumption weed); habit and flower. India. June 2013.
Habit and flowerCleome rutidosperma (Consumption weed); habit and flower. India. June 2013.©Vengolis/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cleome rutidosperma (Consumption weed); close-up of flower. India. June 2013.
TitleFlower
CaptionCleome rutidosperma (Consumption weed); close-up of flower. India. June 2013.
Copyright©Vengolis/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cleome rutidosperma (Consumption weed); close-up of flower. India. June 2013.
FlowerCleome rutidosperma (Consumption weed); close-up of flower. India. June 2013.©Vengolis/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cleome rutidosperma (Consumption weed); infestation. India. June 2013.
TitleHabit
CaptionCleome rutidosperma (Consumption weed); infestation. India. June 2013.
Copyright©Vengolis/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cleome rutidosperma (Consumption weed); infestation. India. June 2013.
HabitCleome rutidosperma (Consumption weed); infestation. India. June 2013.©Vengolis/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cleome rutidosperma (Consumption weed); seedpod. India. June 2013.
TitleFruit
CaptionCleome rutidosperma (Consumption weed); seedpod. India. June 2013.
Copyright©Vengolis/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cleome rutidosperma (Consumption weed); seedpod. India. June 2013.
FruitCleome rutidosperma (Consumption weed); seedpod. India. June 2013.©Vengolis/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cleome rutidosperma DC.

Preferred Common Name

  • fringed spiderflower

Other Scientific Names

  • Cleome ciliata Schum. & Thonn.
  • Cleome guineensis Hook. f.
  • Cleome rutidosperma var. burmannii (Wight & Arn.) Siddiqui & S.N.Dixit
  • Cleome rutidosperma var. hainanensis J.L. Shan
  • Cleome thyrsiflora De Wild & T. Durand.

International Common Names

  • English: spindletop (Philippines)
  • Spanish: jasmin del rio
  • French: mouzambe rampant
  • Chinese: zhou zi bai hua cai

Local Common Names

  • Australia: fringed spider flower; spiderplant
  • Brazil: musambe
  • Cameroon: lovanga
  • Congo Democratic Republic: batina-ba-baku; benshami; bokoka; bokuma; bonsambili; bosambi; ietete; intenga; kapalapala; lilila; lisalankanga; mabumbu; matundo; montende-minu; musaka; sofi-n'seke; yonde-ya-okombo
  • Gabon: dougo dougo
  • Germany: Kleome, Runzelsamige
  • Ghana: nanjinda; tete
  • Lesser Antilles: consumption weed; mouzambe rampant; petit acaya blanc
  • Malaysia/Peninsular Malaysia: maman; seru walai
  • Mexico: jazmín de río
  • Nigeria: àgbàlálà; ákídìmmoó; etare; èyà kapangi; garseya; kàlá àwòù ègïnà; kinaski ciile

EPPO code

  • CLERT (Cleome rutidosperma)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. rutidosperma is a common herb that grows as a weed in disturbed and ruderal habitats, principally in areas with humid and hot environmental conditions. It is often found as a weed of disturbed ground, roadsides, gardens, crops and abandoned lands, and has also been found growing as an epiphyte on trees, stone walls and cliff faces. This species is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) where it is considered to have moderate economic impacts in a wide range of crops, due to its scrambling habit that smothers and stunts young crop plants. C. rutidosperma has been listed as invasive in China, Malaysia, India, Thailand, Vietnam, Australia, and the Domican Republic (Waterhouse and Mitchell, 1998; Kairo et al., 2003; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014, USDA-ARS, 2014). This species has had considerable environmental impacts in South East Asia and Australia. C. rutidosperma also has the potential to be moderately problematic in intensive cropping areas, greenhouses and nurseries. 

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Capparidales
  •                         Family: Capparaceae
  •                             Genus: Cleome
  •                                 Species: Cleome rutidosperma

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Cleome is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cleomaceae, placed in the order Brassicales. Previously this genus had been placed in the family Capparaceae, until DNA studies found that a group of genera which now make up Cleomaceae are more closely related to Brassicaceae than Capparaceae (Stevens, 2012). Cleomaceae is a family of plants that includes 10 genera and about 300 species distributed in tropical and warm temperate regions. Members of this family are herbaceous or shrubby plants with palmately compound leaves, the inflorescence is racemose, the flowers have four clawed petals, six stamens, and two carpels; the gynoecium has a gynophore, the stamens have long filaments, and the dehiscent fruit has a persistent, loop-like woody placenta that remains on the plant after the fruit valves have fallen off (Stevens, 2012).

The taxonomic tree reflects the CAB Thesaurus, in which the genus Cleome is still listed as being in the Capparaceae. The APG III system. allows for Cleomaceae to be included in the Brassicales: the CAB Thesaurus currently continues to use the Cronquist system.

Description

Top of page Annual herb, up to 1 m tall, widely branched, erect or sometimes spreading. Subglabrous, pubescent or villous. Alternate leaves 3 (5) palmatisect; rhomboid-elliptic to lanceolate leaflets, generally asymmetric, the central 0.5-6 x 0.2-2.5 cm, the lateral smaller, acute to acuminate at the apex, cuneate at the base, ciliolate-serrulate margins; conspicuous nerves specially prominent below; petiole, up to 7 cm.

Flowers in the axil of leaf-like trifoliate bracts; pedicels in flower up to 2.5 cm, in fruit to 3.5 cm. Narrowly lanceolate sepals 4, 2-5 x ca 0.5 mm, subglabrous to sparsely pubescent, often with glandular hairs. Petals 4, white, pink, lilac, violet or blue, 7-12 x 1.5-3 mm, narrowed into a basal claw; oblanceolate to elliptic lamina, acute or obtuse at the apex, apiculate. Stamens 6; filaments 5-9 mm, anthers 1-3 mm. Ovary linear, cylindrical, 3-10 mm long, with a gynophore ca 1.5 mm; glabrous or with some short hairs and sessile glands; very short style; capitate or truncate stigma, papillose.

Capsule 2.5-7.5 x 0.2-0.5 cm, on a gynophore to 13 mm long, linear-ellipsoid, sometimes slightly torulose, glabrous or glabrescent; beak 2-8 mm; valves with prominent longitudinal anastomosing nerves. Subglobose seeds, slightly laterally compressed, up to 2 mm in diameter, with longitudinal striations and prominent transverse ridges; glabrous, reddish-brown, dark brown or black; whitish elaiosome present.

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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C. rutidosperma is native to tropical Africa and has been introduced and become naturalized in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, the Americas and the West Indies (PROTA, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). 

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

Brunei DarussalamWidespreadHolm et al., 1991
CambodiaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1991; Waterhouse and Mitchell, 1998
Chagos ArchipelagoPresentIntroduced Invasive Orchard, 1993
ChinaPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Naturalized
-AnhuiPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Naturalized
-GuangdongPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Naturalized
-GuangxiPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Naturalized
-HainanPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Naturalized
-Hong KongPresentIntroducedCorlett, 1995; Wu, 2001Naturalized
-YunnanPresentIntroduced Invasive Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Naturalized
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentIntroduced Invasive Rivers, 2004
IndiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra-Sekar, 2012
-Andhra PradeshPresentIntroducedHooker, 1872
-Arunachal PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra-Sekar, 2012
-AssamPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra-Sekar, 2012
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra-Sekar, 2012
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra-Sekar, 2012
-ManipurPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra-Sekar, 2012
-MeghalayaPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra-Sekar, 2012
-MizoramPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra-Sekar, 2012
-NagalandPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra-Sekar, 2012
-OdishaPresentIntroducedJena et al., 2009
-SikkimPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra-Sekar, 2012
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedHooker, 1872
-TripuraPresentIntroduced Invasive Chandra-Sekar, 2012
-UttarakhandPresentIntroduced Invasive
-West BengalPresentIntroducedBose et al., 2005
IndonesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Waterhouse and Mitchell, 1998
-JavaPresentIntroducedJacobs, 1960
-KalimantanWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Jacobs, 1960; Holm et al., 1991; Waterhouse and Mitchell, 1998
-SumatraPresentIntroduced Invasive Jacobs, 1960; Baker and Brink, 1963; Philcox, 1996; Waterhouse and Mitchell, 1998
MalaysiaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Elffers et al., 1964; Kers, 1986; Teng and Teh, 1990; Ismail et al., 1995; Waterhouse and Mitchell, 1998
-Peninsular MalaysiaWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Turner, 1995; Waterhouse and Mitchell, 1998
-SabahWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1991; Waterhouse and Mitchell, 1998
-SarawakWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Jacobs, 1960; Holm et al., 1991; Waterhouse and Mitchell, 1998
MyanmarPresentIntroduced Invasive Jacobs, 1960; Philcox, 1996
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced Invasive Jacobs, 1960; Pamplona et al., 1988; Holm et al., 1991; Philcox, 1996; Waterhouse and Mitchell, 1998
SingaporeWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Jacobs, 1960; Wild, 1960; Turner, 1995; Waterhouse and Mitchell, 1998
Sri LankaPresentKers, 1986; Philcox, 1996
TaiwanPresentIntroduced Invasive Su and Kao, 2005; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Naturalized
ThailandPresentIntroduced Invasive Jacobs, 1960; Holm et al., 1991; Philcox, 1996; Waterhouse and Mitchell, 1998
VietnamWidespreadIntroduced Invasive Holm et al., 1991; Waterhouse and Mitchell, 1998

Africa

AngolaPresentNativeElffers et al., 1964; Berhaut, 1974
BeninPresentBerhaut, 1974; Holm et al., 1991
CameroonPresentNativeWild, 1960; Berhaut, 1974; Kers, 1986
Cape VerdePresentDuarte, 1995
Central African RepublicPresentNativeBerhaut, 1974
CongoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentNativeHauman and Wilczek, 1951; Wild, 1960; Holm et al., 1991
Côte d'IvoirePresentNativeBerhaut, 1974; Holm et al., 1991
Equatorial GuineaPresentNativeFernández, 1992
GabonPresentNativeBerhaut, 1974; Kers, 1987
GhanaPresentNativeBerhaut, 1974; Holm et al., 1991
GuineaPresentNativeElffers et al., 1964; Berhaut, 1974; Holm et al., 1991
LiberiaPresentNativeBerhaut, 1974; Holm et al., 1991
MozambiquePresent
NigerPresentBerhaut, 1974
NigeriaPresentNativeBerhaut, 1974; Unamma and Melifonwu, 1988; Holm et al., 1991
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentExell, 1973
SenegalPresentBerhaut, 1974; Holm et al., 1991; Duarte, 1995
Sierra LeonePresentNativeBerhaut, 1974
SudanWidespreadNativeElffers et al., 1964; Berhaut, 1974; Holm et al., 1991
TanzaniaPresentNativeElffers et al., 1964; Holm et al., 1991
TogoPresentNativeBerhaut, 1974
UgandaPresentNativeWild, 1960; Elffers et al., 1964; Holm et al., 1991
ZambiaPresentNativeWild, 1960; Elffers et al., 1964; Holm et al., 1991

North America

MexicoPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalized
USA
-FloridaPresentIntroducedPhilcox, 1996; USDA-ARS, 2014Naturalized
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2014Naturalized

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Tortola, Virgin Gorda
CubaPresentIntroduced
DominicaPresentIntroduced
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced Invasive Kairo et al., 2003
GrenadaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentIntroducedStandley, 1931; Philcox, 1996
JamaicaWidespreadIntroducedWoodson and, 1948; Holm et al., 1991
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
MontserratPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
PanamaPresentIntroducedWoodson and, 1948; Philcox, 1996
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced Invasive Woodson and, 1948; Singh et al., 1974

South America

BrazilPresentIntroducedPhilcox, 1996
-AmapaPresentIntroducedMarques, 2014
-ParaPresentIntroducedMarques, 2014
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedRuiz-Zapata, 1989; Hokche et al., 2008Weed

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Waterhouse et al., 2003
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced Invasive Waterhouse et al., 2003
NauruPresentIntroduced Invasive Thaman et al., 1994

History of Introduction and Spread

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There is very little information available about the history of introduction of C. rutidosperma. According to Holm et al. (1991), it is highly probable that this species was introduced accidentally as a contaminant or as a weed in nursery materials. In Australia, it was discovered in August 2000, near Darwin's Fort Hill. Three months later, following a public awareness campaign, it was discovered at a further four sites. These populations were estimated to have been present approximately 10 years before their discovery (Mitchell and Schmid, 2002). By 2001 it was known to be present at sixteen sites in rural and suburban Darwin (Schmid, 2001). It is not known if these additional populations were the result of natural or human mediated dispersal from the known infestations or if they had just previously escaped detection. In the West Indies, herbarium collections shown that this species was first collected in Jamaica in 1903 (US Herbarium Collection). 

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of C. rutidosperma is moderate to high. This species is easily dispersed by insects, water and machinery associated to human activities and has the potential to grow as a weed in ruderal areas, agriculture and pasture lands. It has been listed as a weed in crops and nurseries in Asia, Australia and the Caribbean (Holm et al., 1991) and has the potential to spread much further. 

Habitat

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C. rutidosperma grows principally at low altitudes in ruderal, humid, hot conditions. It occurs up to 400 m altitude, in areas with an annual rainfall of 1700–3000 mm. Occasionally it is found as a weed up to 1200 m altitude. It is present in many types of habitat, including water margins, swamps, coastal sands, coastal forests, cultivated fields, fallow ground, roadsides and waste ground or disturbed areas. In the Lesser Antilles, it occurs in areas with high annual rainfall of 1700-2500 mm (Fournet and Hammerton, 1991), and in Cameroon it occurs at rainfall of 1700-3000 mm (Kers, 1986). In China, it grows between paddy fields, streamsides, and wetlands at elevations from near sea level to 200 m (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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C. rutidosperma has been well documented as a weed in Asia, particularly in Malaysia and the Philippines (Kostermans et al., 1987; Pamplona et al., 1988; Turner, 1995). It is also widespread in Africa and Central America, but in these areas its occurrence as a weed is less well known. It is especially troublesome in irrigated fields and in immature plantations and, in addition to the crops listed, often infests vegetable fields.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

C. rutidosperma has a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 30 (Ruiz-Zapata et al., 1996).

Physiology and Phenology

C. rutidosperma is an annual species reproducing solely by seed. In Africa, within its native distribution range, flowering and fruiting plants of C. rutidosperma can be found throughout the year, although most abundantly in the rainy season (PROTA, 2014). In China, this species has been recorded flowering and fruiting from June to September (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). In North America, it flowers almost all year-round (USDA-NRCS, 2014). Laboratory germination studies showed optimal germination at 30°C (23%), and no seed germination at 20 and 40°C (Fantastico and Mercado,1985). Continuous light promoted germination, and seeds were unable to germinate at soil depths in excess of 5 cm. Gibberellic acid, auxin and potassium nitrate enhanced growth and germination. Emergence in the field is stimulated by soil cultivation (Fantastico and Mercado, 1985).

Environmental Requirements

C. rutidosperma grows best in humid and hot habitats with mean temperatures of 21-24°C and average rainfall of 1600-2000 mm. This species is intolerant of cold, frosts and drought and plants die after 2 days of temperature below freezing. 

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Soil Tolerances

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Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Sivapragasam and Chua (1997) recorded larvae of Hellula undalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in cabbage crops and in C. rutidosperma. Mamaril and Alberto (1989) observed the parasitic nematodes Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita in vegetable crops and in various weeds, such as C. rutidosperma. Under controlled conditions, Singh et al. (1974) recorded the parasite Rotylenchulus reniformis (Nematoda). The above-mentioned natural enemies of C. rutidosperma are also present in the crops, making them ineffective in the biological control of this weed. Mamaril and Alberto (1989) remarked on the importance of C. rutidosperma as an alternative host to nematodes including M. javanica and M. incognita. In a case study in the Philippines, C. rutidosperma enabled the survival of nematodes during the rice planting season.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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C. rutidosperma spreads by seeds. Seed dispersal is myrmecochorous, ants being attracted to the seeds by the fatty elaiosome (Jacobs, 1960; Ruiz-Zapata and Escala, 1995). Seeds can also be dispersed by wind, gravity, water, and as a contaminant in farm machinery, farm produce, and soil. 

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionWeed in agricultural land Yes Yes Holm et al., 1991
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Yes PIER, 2014
Medicinal useUsed in traditional African medicine Yes Yes PROTA, 2014

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds as contaminants Yes Yes PIER, 2014
Host and vector organismsSeeds dispersed by ants Yes PIER, 2014
Soil, sand and gravelSeed contaminant Yes Yes PIER, 2014

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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C. rutidosperma is a common weed with economic impacts in a wide range of crops, where its scrambling habit smothers and stunts young crop plants. 

Punzalan and Cruz (1981) studied the effects of the duration of weed competition on sugarcane yields in the Philippines, where C. rutidosperma is one of the four most important weeds. They concluded that competition from a mixed weed community which included C. rutidosperma for one month after planting had no adverse effects on yield; after two months the yields were reduced by 15%. Competition for the whole season resulted in a yield reduction of 55%.

C. rutidosperma is an alternative host to nematodes including Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita (Mamaril and Alberto, 1989), and has been reported in the Philippines as enabling the survival of nematodes during the rice planting season.

Environmental Impact

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C. rutidosperma is an environmental weed in disturbed ground, roadsides, gardens, and abandoned land as well in natural and seminatural coastal forest where it has the potential to outcompete native vegetation (Kairo et al., 2003; Randall, 2012). 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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The leaves of C. rutidosperma are collected from the wild and eaten as a cooked vegetable or added to soup. The plant is frequently used in traditional medicine (Berhaut, 1974: Burkhill, 1985; Akah and Nwambie, 1993). Leaf sap is applied in Ghana, Gabon and DR Congo to cure earache and deafness. In Ghana a leaf extract is used to treat irritated skin and in Nigeria it is used to treat convulsions.

Pollen of this species was found present in honey from Malaysia (Maishihah and Kiew, 1989). In Malaysia, C. rutidosperma is planted around field edges as part of insect control programs (PROTA, 2014). 

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora
  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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In Africa, it may be difficult to distinguish between C. rutidosperma and Cleome iberidella. The latter has narrower leaves, a pubescent fruit and longitudinal thickenings between the nerves.

It may also be confused with Cleome viscosa and Cleome gynandra, other common weedy species. C. viscosa is a native of the Old World, probably originating in Asia. It is now widespread in tropical regions throughout the world. It differs from C. rutidosperma in having a viscid and stinking indumentum, yellow flowers and more than eight stamens.

C. gynandra is also widely distributed in tropical regions of the world, probably being native to Africa and Asia. The main characteristic that distinguishes C. gynandra from C. rutidosperma is the insertion of the stamens. In C. gynandra these are inserted on a long stalk (androphore) which exceeds the petals in length.

Prevention and Control

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Cultural Control

Fantastico and Mercado (1985) recommended thick mulching as a means to prevent the emergence of C. rutidosperma seedlings. In maize crops in the Philippines, Pamplona et al. (1988) used integrated cultural control techniques (high crop density, application of fertiliser to promote crop establishment and interrow culture) coupled with the application of herbicides to control C. rutidosperma. Similar techniques have been recommended in cotton (Paller and Lijauco, 1981). In Nigeria, Unamma and Melifonwu (1988) recommended four weekly hand weedings for the first 8-12 weeks after sowing of white yam crops.

Chemical Control

In Malaysia, Liu Sin (1979) successfully controlled C. rutidosperma in cover crops (Pueraria phaseoloides, Centrosema pubescens, Calopogonium caeruleum and Mucuna pruriens) using neburon and napropamide. In mature oil palm in Malaysia, Teng and Teh (1990) obtained 75% control of the dominant weeds, including C. rutidosperma, with glyphosate + dicamba. Paraquat + diuron achieved only 25% control.

In the Philippines, this weed was completely controlled in mung bean (Vigna radiata) by an application of bentazon (Madrid and Manimtim, 1978a). In soyabean, control was achieved with oxadiazon (Madrid and Manimtim, 1978b), but this herbicide severely injured the crop. Pamplona (1981) successfully used glyphosate and glufosinate to achieve control within 30 days in stands of two year old rubber trees. Cultural control coupled with pre-emergence application of atrazine, pendimethalin, butachlor, cyanazine and trifluralin, or post-emergence application of 2,4-D and MCPA controlled C. rutidosperma and other weeds in maize in the Philippines (Pamplona et al., 1988).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

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27/06/14 Updated by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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