Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Claviceps purpurea
(ergot)

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Datasheet

Claviceps purpurea (ergot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 18 December 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Claviceps purpurea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • ergot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ergots and ergotized barley.
TitleBarley ergots
CaptionErgots and ergotized barley.
CopyrightISU
Ergots and ergotized barley.
Barley ergotsErgots and ergotized barley.ISU
Healthy, high density barley.
TitleHealthy barley
CaptionHealthy, high density barley.
CopyrightISU
Healthy, high density barley.
Healthy barleyHealthy, high density barley.ISU
Rye ergot in flower.
TitleSymptoms on flowers
CaptionRye ergot in flower.
CopyrightISU
Rye ergot in flower.
Symptoms on flowersRye ergot in flower.ISU
Ergot symptoms on rye ears.
TitleSymptoms on rye
CaptionErgot symptoms on rye ears.
CopyrightThorsten Kraska, University of Bonn, Germany
Ergot symptoms on rye ears.
Symptoms on ryeErgot symptoms on rye ears. Thorsten Kraska, University of Bonn, Germany
Ergot symptoms on wheat ear.
TitleSymptoms on wheat
CaptionErgot symptoms on wheat ear.
CopyrightThorsten Kraska, University of Bonn, Germany
Ergot symptoms on wheat ear.
Symptoms on wheatErgot symptoms on wheat ear. Thorsten Kraska, University of Bonn, Germany
Ergot symptoms on rye ear.
TitleSymptoms on rye
CaptionErgot symptoms on rye ear.
CopyrightThorsten Kraska, University of Bonn, Germany
Ergot symptoms on rye ear.
Symptoms on ryeErgot symptoms on rye ear. Thorsten Kraska, University of Bonn, Germany
The honeydew stage precedes the sclerotial stage. Drops of clear to amber or tan liquid (honeydew) exude from infected flowers.
TitleErgot honeydew
CaptionThe honeydew stage precedes the sclerotial stage. Drops of clear to amber or tan liquid (honeydew) exude from infected flowers.
CopyrightUSDA
The honeydew stage precedes the sclerotial stage. Drops of clear to amber or tan liquid (honeydew) exude from infected flowers.
Ergot honeydewThe honeydew stage precedes the sclerotial stage. Drops of clear to amber or tan liquid (honeydew) exude from infected flowers.USDA
Elongated, straight to curved, black to purplish-black bodies emerge from the glumes. Each ergot is one to several times longer than the host seed.
TitleErgot on Festuca
CaptionElongated, straight to curved, black to purplish-black bodies emerge from the glumes. Each ergot is one to several times longer than the host seed.
CopyrightUSDA
Elongated, straight to curved, black to purplish-black bodies emerge from the glumes. Each ergot is one to several times longer than the host seed.
Ergot on FestucaElongated, straight to curved, black to purplish-black bodies emerge from the glumes. Each ergot is one to several times longer than the host seed.USDA
C. purpurea sclerotia are 2-25 mm with hard, purple-black rind. Spherical stromata (2 mm diameter) arise from a sclerotium singly or in small clusters; they are supported by stalks (5-25 mm) and each contain about 200 perithecia.
TitleGerminating sclerotium (ergot)
CaptionC. purpurea sclerotia are 2-25 mm with hard, purple-black rind. Spherical stromata (2 mm diameter) arise from a sclerotium singly or in small clusters; they are supported by stalks (5-25 mm) and each contain about 200 perithecia.
CopyrightUSDA
C. purpurea sclerotia are 2-25 mm with hard, purple-black rind. Spherical stromata (2 mm diameter) arise from a sclerotium singly or in small clusters; they are supported by stalks (5-25 mm) and each contain about 200 perithecia.
Germinating sclerotium (ergot)C. purpurea sclerotia are 2-25 mm with hard, purple-black rind. Spherical stromata (2 mm diameter) arise from a sclerotium singly or in small clusters; they are supported by stalks (5-25 mm) and each contain about 200 perithecia.USDA

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul., 1853 (teleomorph)

Preferred Common Name

  • ergot

Other Scientific Names

  • Claviceps microcephala (Wallr.) Tul., 1853 (teleomorph)
  • Claviceps sesleriae Stäger
  • Claviceps setulosa (Quel.) Sacc.
  • Cordyceps setulosa Quel.
  • Sphacelia segetum Lév., 1827 (anamorph)

International Common Names

  • Spanish: cornezuelo del centeno
  • French: ergot de siegle
  • Portuguese: cravagem de centeio

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Mutterkorn
  • Netherlands: moederkorn
  • Sweden: mjöldryga

EPPO code

  • CLAVPU (Claviceps purpurea)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
  •                         Order: Hypocreales
  •                             Family: Clavicipitaceae
  •                                 Genus: Claviceps
  •                                     Species: Claviceps purpurea

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Feb 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GuineaPresent
KenyaPresent
MalawiPresent
MauritaniaPresent
MauritiusPresent
MoroccoPresent
Saint HelenaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Tristan da CunhaPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

ArmeniaPresent
ChinaPresent
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IranPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
KazakhstanPresent
KyrgyzstanPresent
NepalPresent
North KoreaPresent
PhilippinesPresent
South KoreaPresent
TurkeyPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
BelarusPresent
BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresent
CzechiaPresentOriginal citation: Caga? et al. (2006)
CzechoslovakiaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
DenmarkPresent
Faroe IslandsPresent
FinlandPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresentIntroduced2001
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
IcelandPresent
IrelandPresentIntroduced1960
ItalyPresent
LithuaniaPresentOriginal citation: Mikaliu¯naite and Dabkevicius (2007)
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedFirst reported: 1990 - 1999
NorwayPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-SiberiaPresent
SpainPresent
-Canary IslandsPresent
SwedenPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

CanadaPresent
MexicoPresentOriginal citation: Jimenez et al., 1993
United StatesPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-New JerseyPresentOriginal citation: Fisher et al. (2005)
-OregonPresent
-WashingtonPresentOriginal citation: Fisher et al. (2005)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New ZealandPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
ChilePresent
ColombiaPresent
PeruPresent
UruguayPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / black fungal spores
Inflorescence / honeydew or sooty mould
Seeds / galls

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acylomus pugetanus Predator
Cerebella andropogonis Pathogen
Fusarium roseum `Gibbosum' Pathogen
Gibberella acuminata Pathogen
Gibberella fujikuroi Pathogen
Gibberella pulicaris Pathogen
Leuconostoc mesenteroides Pathogen

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx fungi/hyphae; fungi/sclerotia; fungi/spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) fungi/sclerotia Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
Wood

References

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Alain D, 1995. Diseases of wheat in Quebec in 1994. Inventaire des Maladies des Plantes au Canada, 75:130.

Alderman SC, 1991. Assessment of ergot and blind seed diseases of grasses in the Willamette Valley of Oregon. Plant Disease, 75(10):1038-1041

Alderman SC, 1991. Distribution of Claviceps purpurea, Gloeotinia temulenta, and Anguina agrostis among grasses grown for seed in Oregon in 1989. Journal of Applied Seed Production, 9:44-48

Alderman SC, 1993. Aerobiology of Claviceps purpurea in Kentucky bluegrass. Plant Disease, 77(10):1045-1049

Alderman SC; Coats DD; Crowe FJ; Butler MD, 1998. Occurrence and distribution of ergot and estimates of seed loss in Kentucky bluegrass grown for seed in central Oregon. Plant Disease, 82(1):89-93; 22 ref.

Bacon CW; Luttrell ES, 1982. Competition between ergots of Claviceps purpurea and rye seed for photosynthates. Phytopathology, 72:1332-1336.

Bailey KL; Duczek LJ; Jones-Flory L; Kutcher R; Fernandez MR; Hughes GR; Kirkham C; Mortensen K; Boyetchko S; Burnett P; Orr D, 1993. Saskatchewan/Central Alberta wheat disease survey 1992. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 73:75-78.

Bekesy N, 1956. Ein Beitrag zur Biologie des Mutterkorns. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 26:49-56.

BovT FJ, 1970. The story of ergot. Basel (Switzerland): S Karger.

Brady LR, 1962. Phylogenetic distribution of parasitism by Claviceps species. Lloydia, 25:1-36.

Brede AD; Willard WE, 1993. Registration of 'NuStar' Kentucky bluegrass. Crop Science, 33(6):1414-1415; 2 ref.

Brede AD; Williams RR, 1992. Control of ergot in Kentucky bluegrass seed production, 1991. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, 47:296.

Brentzel WE, 1947. Studies on ergot of grains and grasses. North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, 348:1-20.

Bretag TW, 1985. Control of ergot by a selective herbicide and stubble burning. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 85(2):341-343

Bretag TW; Merriman PR, 1981. Effect of burial on survival of sclerotia and production of stromata by Claviceps purpurea. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 77(3):658-660

Bretag TW; Merriman PR, 1981. Epidemiology and cross-infection of Claviceps purpurea. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 77(1):211-213

Brown AM, 1947. Ergot of cereals and grasses. Canadian Phytopathological Society, 15:15.

Busch R; McVey D; Wiersma J; Warnes D; Wilcoxson R; Youngs V, 1990. Registration of 'Vance' wheat. Crop Science, 30(3):749.

Butler MD; Alderman SC; Hammond PC; Berry RE, 2001. Association of insects and ergot (Claviceps purpurea) in Kentucky bluegrass seed production fields. Journal of Economic Entomology, 94(6):1471-1476; 21 ref.

Butler MD; Crowe FJ; Coats DD, 1994. Evaluation of fungicides for ergot control in Kentucky bluegrass, 1992. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests, 49:343.

Caga? B; Machác J; Frydrych J; Machác R, 2006. Occurrence of biotic harmful agents in Czech grass seed production (1995-2004). Plant Protection Science, 42(2):58-65. http://www.cazv.cz

Caga? B; Machác R, 2002. Different pathogenicity of ergot isolates (Claviceps purpurea [Fr.] Tul.) on Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Plant Protection Science, 38(1):18-22.

Cagas B, 1984. Fusarium heterosporum Nees ex Fr. as a parasite of ergot (Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul.) on grasses. Sborník úVTIZ, Ochrana Rostlin, 20(3):228; [1 fig.]; 2 ref.

Cagas B, 1992. Seed yield and diseases in Kentucky bluegrass after fungicide application. Journal of Applied Seed Production, 10:11-14

Cagas B, 1992. Suppression of germination of ergot sclerotia (Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul.) in grass seed by fungicidal treatment. Sbornik UVTIZ, Ochrana Rostlin, 28(3):177-183

Campbell WP, 1957. Studies on ergot infection in Gramineous hosts. Canadian Journal of Botany, 35:315-320.

Campbell WP, 1958. Infection of barley by Claviceps purpurea. Canadian Journal of Botany, 36:615-619.

Campbell WP, 1959. Inhibition of starch formation by Claviceps purpurea. Phytopathology, 49:451-452.

Campbell WP; Freisin; HA, 1959. The control of ergot in cereal crops. Plant Disease Reporter, 43:1266-1267.

Campbell WP; Tyner; LE, 1959. Comparison of degree and duration of susceptibility of barley to ergot and true loose smut. Phytopathology, 49:348-349.

Chalaud G, 1941. Sur la biologie Fusarium hetersoporum Nees (F. Lolii W. G. Smith) Saac.). Bulletin Sociéte Scientifique de Bretagne, 17:127-136.

Chastain TG, 1992. Relationship of ergot to Kentucky bluegrass seed production and quality. Journal of Applied Seed Production, 10:7-10

Chelkowski J; Kwasna H, 1986. Colonization of Claviceps purpurea sclerotia on triticale by fusaria in 1985. Journal of Phytopathology, 117(1):77-78; 7 ref.

Cherewick WJ, 1953. Association of ergot with loose smut of wheat and barley. Phytopathology, 43:461-462.

Chester KS; Lefebvre CL, 1942. Ergot epiphytotic in southwestern pastures. Plant Disease Reporter, 26:408-410.

Cholango-Martinez, L. P., Halliday, J. R., Hucl, P. J., Kutcher, H. R., 2019. First report of ergot (Claviceps purpurea) on canary grass (Phalaris canariensis) in Saskatchewan, Canada. Plant Disease, 103(10), 2682-2682. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-11-18-2083-PDN

CMI, 1973. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 10, edition 4. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Colotelo N; Cook W, 1977. Perithecia and spore liberation of Claviceps purpurea: scanning electron microscopy. Canadian Journal of Botany, 55(9):1257-1259

Conway KE; Taliaferro CM, 1990. Occurrence of Claviceps purpurea and hyperparasites on bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) and old world bluestem (Bothriochloa spp.). Phytopathology, 80:1043.

Cooke RC; Mitchell DT, 1966. Sclerotium size and germination in Claviceps purpurea. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 49:95-100.

Cooke RC; Mitchell DT, 1967. Germination pattern and capacity for repeated stroma formation in Claviceps purpurea. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 50:275-283.

Corbett K; Dickerson AG; Mantle PG, 1974. Metabolic studies on Claviceps purpurea during parasitic development on rye. Journal of General Microbiology, 84:39-58.

Cunfer B; Mathre DE; Hockett EA, 1974. Diversity of reaction to ergot among male-sterile barleys. Plant Disease Reporter, 58:679-682.

Cunfer B; Mathre DE; Hockett EA, 1975. Factors influencing the susceptibility of male sterile barley to ergot. Crop Science, 15(2):194-196

Cunfer BM, 1974. Biological control of Claviceps purpurea by Fusarium sp. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 1:26.

Cunfer BM, 1975. Colonization of ergot honeydew by Fusarium heterosporum. Phytopathology, 65(12):1372-1374

Cunfer BM, 1976. Inhibition of conidial germination by Claviceps purpurea honeydew fluid. Canadian Journal of Botany, 54(22):2541-2545

Cunfer BM, 1989. Fusaria as hyperparasites of Claviceps species. Fusarium: mycotoxins, taxonomy and pathogenicity, 387-397; [Topics in Secondary Metabolism, Volume 2.]; 32 ref.

Cunfer BM; Seckinger A, 1977. Survival of Claviceps purpurea and C. paspali sclerotia. Mycologia, 69(6):1142-1148

Dabkevicius Z; Mikaliu¯naite R, 2006. The effect of fungicidal seed treaters on germination of rye ergot (Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul.) sclerotia and on ascocarp formation. Crop Protection, 25(7):677-683.

Dabkevicius Z; Semaskiene R, Taborsky V (ed. ), Polak J (ed.), Lebeda A (ed.), Kudela V, 2002. Control of ergot (Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul.) ascoscarpus formation under the impact of chemical and biological seed dressing. Disease resistance in plant pathology. Proceedings of the 6th Conference of European Foundation for Plant Pathology, Prague, Czech Republic, 8-14 September 2002. Plant Protection Science, 38(2):681-683.

Darlington LC; Carroll TW; Mathre DE, 1976. Enhanced susceptibility of barley to ergot as a result of barley stripe mosaic virus infection. Plant Disease Reporter, 60(7):584-587

Darlington LC; Mathre DE, 1976. Resistance of male sterile wheat to ergot as related to pollination and host genotype. Crop Science, 16(5):728-730

Darlington LC; Mathre DE; Johnston RH, 1977. Variation in pathogenicity between isolates of Claviceps purpurea. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 57(3):729-733

Dennis RWG, 1968. British Ascomycetes. Stuttgart, Germany: J Cramer.

Eken, C., Pazoutova, S., Honzatko, A., Yıldız, S., 2006. First report of Alopecurus arundinaceus, A. myosuroides, Hordeum violaceum, and Phleum pratense as hosts of Claviceps purpurea population G2 in Turkey. Journal of Plant Pathology, 88(1), 121. http://www.agr.unipi.it/sipav/jpp/index.html

Esser K; Tudzynski P, 1978. Genetics of the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea. I. Proof of a monoecious life cycle and segregation patterns for mycelial morphology and alkaloid production. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 53:145-149.

Evans IR; Maurice DC; Penney DC; Sloberg ED, 1993. Wheat diseases and copper nutrition. Better Crops, Winter 1993/94:6-8.

Fajardo JE; Dexter JE; Roscoe MM; Nowicki TW, 1995. Retention of ergot alkaloids in wheat during processing. Cereal Chemistry, 72:291-298.

Filatova IA, 2004. To find the cause and eliminate it!. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No.7:4-5.

Fisher AJ; DiTomaso JM; Gordon TR, 2005. Intraspecific groups of Claviceps purpurea associated with grass species in Willapa Bay, Washington, and the prospects for biological control of invasive Spartina alterniflora. Biological Control, 34(2):170-179. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10499644

Fisher AJ; DiTomaso JM; Gordon TR; Aegerter BJ; Ayres DR, 2007. Salt marsh Claviceps purpurea in native and invaded Spartina marshes in Northern California. Plant Disease, 91(4):380-386. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Fisher AJ; Gordon TR; Ditomaso JM, 2005. Geographic distribution and diversity in Claviceps purpurea from salt marsh habitats and characterization of Pacific coast populations. Mycological Research, 109(4):439-446.

Frauenstein K, 1970. The major fungal pathogens of bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) in the GDR. Nachrichtenblatt fur den Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienst, 24:5-9.

Frison EA; Sadio D, 1987. Diseases of sorghum and millet in Mauritania. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 35(2):55-61

Fuentes SF; de la Isla ML; Ullstrup AJ; Rodriguez AE, 1964. Claviceps gigantea, a new pathogen of maize in Mexico. Phytopathology, 54:379-381.

Gay CN; Shattock RC, 1980. Fusarium heterosporum and Claviceps purpurea on Lolium perenne. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 74(3):537-542

Gilles KA; Sibbitt LD; Kiesling RL, 1972. Ergot: a recurring problem of grasses and small grains. North Dakota Farm Research, 29:12-14.

Goidanich G, 1954. Unusual incidence of diseases affecting economic plants in northern Italy. FAO. Plant Protection Bulletin, 3:4-7.

Golcz L; Zalecki R, 1977. Effect of increasing doses of nitrogen in soil of various moisture content and pH value on the quantity and quality of ergot crop. Herba Polonica, 23:143-147.

Gray AJ; Drury M; Raybould AF, 1990. Spartina and the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea - a singular contest ? Pests, pathogens and plant communities [edited by Burdon, J.J.; Leather, S.R.] Oxford, UK; Blackwell Scientific Publications, 63-79

Hadley G, 1968. Development of stromata in Claviceps purpurea. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 51:763-769.

Hanlin RT, 1990. Illustrated genera of Ascomycetes. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, viii + 263 pp.

Hanna WF, 1938. The association of bunt with loose smut of ergot. Phytopathology, 28:142-146.

Hardison JR, 1972. Prevention of ascocarp formation in Claviceps purpurea by fungicides applied over sclerotia at the soil surface. Phytopathology, 62(6):609-611

Hardison JR, 1975. Chemical prevention of ascocarp formation in Claviceps purpurea. Phytopathology, 65(4):502-503

Hardison JR, 1977. Chemical control of ergot in field plots of Lolium perenne. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(10):845-848

Hardison JR, 1980. Role of fire for disease control in grass seed production. Plant Disease, 64(7):641-645

Hardison JR, 1987. Biological control of ergot and blind seed disease by microbial decomposition of sclerotia stimulated by treatment with monocarbamide dihydrogen sulfate. Phytopathology, 77:1239.

Harper FR; Seaman WL, 1980. Ergot of rye in Alberta: estimation of yield and grade losses. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 2(4):222-226

Hornok L; Walcz I, 1983. Fusarium heterosporum, a highly specialized hyperparasite of Claviceps purpurea. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 80(2):377-380

Jenkinson JG, 1958. Ergot infection of grasses in the south-west of England. Plant Pathology, 7:81-85.

Jimenez E M; Leyva Mir SG, 1993. Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul., causal organism of the common ergot or cornezuelo in salty grass Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene, in Lago de Texcoco, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatologia, 11(1):98-102

Johnston WJ; Golob CT; Sitton JW; Schultz TR, 1996. Effect of temperature and postharvest field burning of Kentucky bluegrass on germination of sclerotia of Claviceps purpurea. Plant Disease, 80(7):766-768; 14 ref.

Johnston WJ; Schultz TR; Golab CT; Maguire JD, 1991. Thermal sanitation with a mobile-field burner for ergot control in Kentucky bluegrass seed fields. Hortscience, 26:80.

Johnston WJ; Sitton JW; Golob CT, 1997. Control of ergot in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) seed production using adjuvants. Journal of Applied Seed Production, 15:99-102; 19 ref.

Jungehnlsing U; Tudzynski P, 1997. Analysis of genetic diversity in Claviceps purpurea by RAPD markers. Mycological Research, 101(1):1-6; 23 ref.

Kamphues J; Drochner W, 1991. Feed contamination with ergot - a contribution to the detection of ergot related health problems. Tierärztliche Praxis, 19(1):1-7; 20 ref.

Karhuvaara L, 1960. On the parasites of the sclerotia of some fungi. ACTA Agriculturae Scandinavica, 10:2-3.

Kirchoff H, 1929. BeitrSge zur Biologie und Physiologie des Mutterkornpilzes. [Contributions to the biology and physiology of the ergot fungus.] Centralbl. für Bakt., (Ab 2 lxxvii, 15-24):310-369.

Komersova I; Ludvik J; Majer J, 1969. The ultrastructure of spores of Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. Folia Microbiologia, 14:141-144.

Kondaiah, R. H., Sreeramulu, A., 2014. Survey on fungal diseased crops in Cuddapah District of Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences, 4(1), 244-251. http://www.cibtech.org/J%20LIFE%20SCIENCES/PUBLICATIONS/2014/Vol-4-No-1/JLS-040-078-SREERAMULU-SURVEY-PRADESH.pdf

Koric B, 2008. Rye ergot [Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul.]. (Razova glavnica [Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul.].) Glasilo Biljne Za?tite, 8(6):401-404.

Kossobutzky MI, 1929. Ergot (Claviceps purpurea Tul.) in the Votyaks' Autonomous Region in the years 1926 to 1928.]. Leningrad: Pamphlet issued by [Votyaks Regional Plant Protection Stat. and Scient Soc. for the study of the Votyaks Region.

Lambert DH; McIlveen WD, 1976. Acylomus sp. infesting ergot sclerotia. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 69(1):34

Langdon RFN, 1954. The origin and differentiation of Claviceps species. University of Queensland Papers, 3:61-68.

Latch GCM, 1966. Fungus diseases of ryegrass in New Zealand. II. Foliage, root, and seed diseases. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 9:808-819.

Lemon KM, 1992. Dispersal of the ergot fungus Claviceps pupurea by the lauxaniid fly Minettia lupulina. Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 100(1):182-184

Leyva-Mir SG; Hernández-Bautista A; Mariscal-Amaro LA; Villaseñor-Mir HE; Huerta-Espino J, 2010. Identification of the ergot (Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul.) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Nanacamilpa, Tlaxcala, Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatología, 28(1):64-66. http://www.sociedadmexicanadefitopatologia.org/archives/rmf_28_1_articulo_8.pdf

Lorenz K, 1979. Ergot on cereal grains. CRC Critical Review of Food Science and Nutrition, 11:311-354.

Loveless AR; Peach JM, 1974. Evidence for the genotypic control of spore size in Claviceps purpurea. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 63(3):612-616

Loveless AR; Peach JM, 1986. Evidence from ascospores for host restriction in Claviceps purpurea. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 86(4):603-610

Lucca Filho OA; Pierobom CR; Porto MDde M; Dutra LMC, 1999. Occurrence of Claviceps purpurea sclerotia in ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) seeds produced in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Sementes, 21(1):269-272; 8 ref.

Luttrell ES, 1980. Host-parasite relationships and development of the ergot sclerotium in Claviceps purpurea. Canadian Journal of Botany, 58(8):942-958

Maluszynska E, 1992. Occurrence of ergot (Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul.) in seed material of winter triticale ( Triticosecale Wittmack). Biuletyn Instytutu Hodowli i Aklimatyzacji Roslin, No. 184:3-10

Mantle PG, 1965. Hypercapsulated growth of Leuconostoc mesenteroides in the sphacelial stage of Claviceps purpurea. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 31:414-422.

Mantle PG, 1969. The role of alkaloids in the poisoning of mammals by sclerotia of Claviceps spp. Journal of Stored Products Research, 5:237-244.

Mantle PG; Shaw S, 1976. Role of ascospore production by Claviceps purpurea in aetiology of ergot diseases in male sterile wheat. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 67(1):17-22

Mantle PG; Shaw S; Doling DA, 1977. Role of weed grasses in the etiology of ergot disease in wheat. Annals of Applied Biology, 86(3):339-351

Mantle PG; Swan DJ, 1995. Effect of male sterility on ergot disease spread in wheat. Plant Pathology, 44(2):392-395

Marchionatto JB, 1949. Hongos exoticos. Lilloa, 21:135-153.

Markhasseva VA, 1936. A method for the prognosis of the development of ergot (Claviceps purpurea Tul.). Summary of Science Research at Workers' Institute for Plant Protection, Leningrad, 1935:535-537.

Marshall GM, 1960. The incidence of certain seed-borne diseases in commercial seed samples. II Ergot, Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul., in cereals. Annals of Applied Biology, 48:19-26.

Maruzella JC; Balter J, 1959. The action of essential oils on phytopathogenic fungi. Plant Disease Reporter, 43:1143-1147.

Mellado MZ, 1987. Porcifin cultivar de triticale invernal para la zona centro sur de Chile. Agricultura Technica (Chile), 47:63-64.

Mielke H, 1993. Investigations on the control of ergot. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 45(5-6):97-102

Mikaliu¯naite R; Dabkevicius Z, 2006. Efficacy of seed treaters on the germination of ergot (Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul.) sclerotia and stroma formation. Agronomy Research [International Conference on Development of Environmentally Friendly Plant Protection, Pühajärve, Estonia, 5-7th September 2006.], 4(Special Issue):303-306.

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Minz G; Gerechter Z; Avizohar-Hershenson Z, 1960. Inoculation experiments with ergot on wheat and wild grasses. KTAVIM (Quarterly Journal of the Agricultural Research Station Beit Dagon - Rehovot, Israel), 10:29-32.

Mitchell DT; Cooke RC, 1968. Some effects of temperature on germination and longevity of sclerotia in Claviceps purpurea. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 51:721-729.

Moreno R; Pederson VD; Schultz JT, 1971. Transmission of Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) conidia by the cabbage looper moth Trichoplusia ni (Hubner). Proceedings of the North Dakota Academy of Science, 24:11-14.

Mower RL; Hancock JG, 1975. Mechanism of honeydew formation by Claviceps species. Canadian Journal of Botany, 53:2826-2834.

Mower RL; Hancock JG, 1975. Sugar composition of ergot honeydews. Canadian Journal of Botany, 53(23):2813-2825

Mower RL; Snyder WC; Hancock JG, 1975. Biological control of ergot by Fusarium. Phytopathology, 65(1):5-10

Muhle E; Frauenstein K, 1962. Untersuchungen zur physiologischen specialisierung des auf Lolium perenne L. auftretenden Mutterkorns Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie II, 115:169-175.

Naylor REL; Munro LM, 1992. Effects of nitrogen and fungicide applications on the incidence of ergot (Claviceps purpurea) in triticale. Tests of Agrochemicals and Cultivars, No. 13:28-29

Oeser B; Tudzynski P, 1989. The linear mitochondrial plasmid pClK1 of the phytopathogenic fungus Claviceps purpurea may code for a DNA polymerase and an RNA polymerase. Molecular and General Genetics, 217(1):132-140

Pageau D; Collin J; Wauthy JM, 1994. A note on the resistance of soft wheat, durum wheat and triticale to ergot. Phytoprotection, 75(1):45-49

Pageau D; Collin J; Wauthy JM, 1994. Evaluation of barley cultivars for resistance to ergot fungus, Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 74(3):663-665; 10 ref.

Pandotra VR; Thakur RN; Sastry KSM, 1986. Application of nitrogen, phosphorus and potash fertilizers to rye in relation to the yield of ergot sclerotia. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 16(3):283-285

Pandotra VR; Thakur RN; Sastry KSM, 1987. Screening of triticale cultivars against ergot (Claviceps purpurea) infection. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 17(1):57-58

Plante EC; Sutherland KL, 1943. Journal of the Australia Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, 16:28.

Platford RG; Bernier CC, 1970. Resistance to Claviceps purpurea in spring and durum wheat. Nature, 226:770.

Platford RG; Bernier CC, 1976. Reaction of cultivated cereals to Claviceps purpurea. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 56(1):51-58

Porter JK; Bacon CW; Plattner RD; Arrendale RF, 1987. Ergot peptide alkaloid spectra of Claviceps-infected tall fescue, wheat, and barley. Journal of Food Chemistry, 35:359-361.

Preece TF; Pettit TR; Biggs DT, 1994. Fusarium heterosporum growing on ergots (Claviceps purpurea) in spikelets of common cord-grass (Spartina anglica) in the Isle of Wight. Mycologist, 8(1):9-11; 17 ref.

Puhl T; Suty-Heinze A; Adam N, 2007. Control of ergot by seed treatment. (Mutterkornbekämpfung - bei der Saatguthygiene fängt es an.) Gesunde Pflanzen, 59(4):147-150. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=110370

Puranik SB; Mathre DE, 1971. Biology and control of ergot on male sterile wheat and barley. Phytopathology, 61:1075-1080.

Rapilly F, 1968. Studies on ergot of wheat: Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. Annales dew Epiphyties, 19:305-329.

Rashtra Vardhana, 2017. Plant's diseases of district Ghaziabad and adjacent areas. Plant Archives, 17(1), 727-732. http://www.plantarchives.org/PDF%2017-1/727-732%20(3511).pdf

Raybould AF; Gray AJ; Clarke RT, 1998. The long-term epidemic of Claviceps purpurea on Spartina anglica in Poole Harbour: pattern of infection, effects on seed production and the role of Fusarium heterosporum. New Phytologist, 138(3):497-505; 49 ref.

Riggs RK; Henson L; Chapman RA, 1968. Infectivity of and alkaloid production by some isolates of Claviceps purpurea. Phytopathology, 58:54-55.

Rochelmeyer H, 1949. Die Systematik der Clacicipiteae und ihre Bedutung fur die Gewinnung von Mutterkorn. Die Pharmazie, 4:326-333.

Ruokola AL, 1962. Additional results from ergot field trials at Viik experimental farm. The Journal of the Scientific Agricultural Society of Finland, 34:121-131.

Rykard DM; Luttrell ES; Bacon CW, 1984. Conidiogenesis and conidiomata in the Clavicipitoidep. Mycologia, 76(6):1095-1103

Saha JC; Bhattacharjee SK, 1945. Artificial production of ergot in the tropical plains of Bengal. Nature, 156:363-364.

Schultz TR; Johnston WJ; Golob CT; Maguire JD, 1993. Control of ergot in Kentucky bluegrass seed production using fungicides. Plant Disease, 77(7):685-687

Schwarting AE; Hiner LD, 1945. A study of domestic ergot of wheat and rye. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Science Edition, 34:11-16.

Scott PM; Lawrence GA, 1980. Analysis of ergot alkaloids in flour. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 28:1258-1261.

Seaman WL, 1980. Ergot of grains and grasses. Agriculture Canada Publication, 1438:1-14.

Seymour EK; McFarland FT, 1921. Loss from rye ergot. Phytopathology, 11:385-389.

Shaw BI; Mantle PG, 1980. Host infection by Claviceps purpurea. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 75(1):77-90

Shaw BI; Mantle PG, 1980. Parasitic differentiation of Claviceps purpurea. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 75(1):117-121

Shaw S, 1986. Evaluation of Baytan for control of ergot contaminants in cereal seed. Pflanzenschutz-Nachrichten Bayer, 39(1):47-70

Shaw S, 1987. Further evaluation of triadimenol seed treatments for the control of ergot in cereal seed. British Crop Protection Council Monograph, 39:105-112.

Shelby RA; Kelley VC, 1992. Detection of ergot alkaloids from Claviceps species in agricultural products by competitive ELISA using a monoclonal antibody. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 40(6):1090-1092

Simojoki P, 1991. Boron deficiency in barley. Annales Agriculturae Fenniae, 30:389-404.

Singh BP, 1981. A new species of insect that feeds on ergot sclerotia. Phytopathology, 71:255.

Skalicky V; Stary F, 1962. Beitrag zur Taxonomie und Nomenklatur der Gattung Claviceps Tul. Preslia, 34:229-244.

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Sprague R, 1950. Diseases of cereal grasses in North America. New York, USA: The Ronald Press Company.

Steiner WE Jr; Singh BP, 1987. Redescription of an ergot beetle, Acylomus pugetanus Casey, with immature stages and biology (Coleoptera: Phalacridae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 89(4):744-758

StSger R, 1903. Infectionsversuche mit Gramineen-bewohnenden Claviceps-Arten. Botanische Zeitung, 6/7:111-158.

StSger R, 1922. Beitag zur Verbreitungsbiologie Claviceps-Sklerotien. Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, 56:329-339.

Stuhr ET; Christensen BE; Wong; E, 1943. Assay of Oregon Ergot. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 32:241-244.

Swan DJ; Mantle PG, 1991. Parasitic interactions between Claviceps purpurea strains in wheat and an acute necrotic host response. Mycological Research, 95(7):807-810

Tudzynski P; Esser K; Groschel H, 1982. Genetics of the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea. Part 2: Exchange of genetic material via meiotic recombination. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 61(2):97-100

Vizoso JH; Coley-Smith JR; Swetez V, 1984. Overwintering of the conidial stage of Claviceps purpurea on Poa annua. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 82(2):342-343

Vladimirsky SV, 1939. Geographical distribution and zones of injurious influence of ergot on rye in the USSR. Sovetsk. Bot., 5:77-87.

Watkins JE; Littlefield LJ, 1976. Relationship of anthesis in Waldron wheat to infection by Claviceps purpurea. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 66(2):362-363

Weniger W, 1924. Ergot and its control. North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, 176.

Weston WARD; Taylor RE, 1942. Observations on ergot in cereal crops. Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 32:457-466.

Willingale J; Mantle PG, 1987. Interaction between Claviceps purpurea and Tilletia caries in wheat. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 89(2):145-153

Wood G; Coley-Smith JR, 1980. The effectiveness of fungicides used against Claviceps purpurea attacking male-sterile barley in field trials. Annals of Applied Biology, 96(2):169-175

Wood G; Coley-Smith JR, 1982. Epidemiology of ergot disease (Claviceps purpurea) in open-flowering male-sterile cereals. Annals of Applied Biology, 100(1):73-82

Zg=rkiewicz A, 1987. Chemical control of ergot (Claviceps purpurea Tul.) on meadow grass (Poa pratensis L.). Prace Naukowe Instytutu Ochrony Ros^acute~lin, 29(1):179-195; 18 ref.

Zhukovsky A, 2006. Winter triticale diseases in Belarus. (Choroby pszenzyta ozimego w Biaorusi.) Progress in Plant Protection, 46(2):719-722. http://www.ior.poznan.pl/wydaw/Wyd-PO.htm

Distribution References

Alderman S C, 1991. Distribution of Claviceps purpurea, Gloeotinia temulenta, and Anguina agrostis among grasses grown for seed in Oregon in 1989. Journal of Applied Seed Production. 44-48.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cholango-Martinez L P, Halliday J R, Hucl P J, Kutcher H R, 2019. First report of ergot (Claviceps purpurea) on canary grass (Phalaris canariensis) in Saskatchewan, Canada. Plant Disease. 103 (10), 2682-2682. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-18-2083-PDN

Eken C, Pazoutova S, Honzatko A, Yıldız S, 2006. First report of Alopecurus arundinaceus, A. myosuroides, Hordeum violaceum, and Phleum pratense as hosts of Claviceps purpurea population G2 in Turkey. Journal of Plant Pathology. 88 (1), 121. http://www.agr.unipi.it/sipav/jpp/index.html

Fisher A J, DiTomaso J M, Gordon T R, Aegerter B J, Ayres D R, 2007. Salt marsh Claviceps purpurea in native and invaded Spartina marshes in Northern California. Plant Disease. 91 (4), 380-386. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-4-0380

Frison E A, Sadio D, 1987. Diseases of sorghum and millet in Mauritania. (Les maladies du sorgho et du mil en Mauritanie.). FAO Plant Protection Bulletin. 35 (2), 55-61.

Kondaiah R H, Sreeramulu A, 2014. Survey on fungal diseased crops in Cuddapah District of Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences. 4 (1), 244-251. http://www.cibtech.org/J%20LIFE%20SCIENCES/PUBLICATIONS/2014/Vol-4-No-1/JLS-040-078-SREERAMULU-SURVEY-PRADESH.pdf

Korić B, 2008. Rye ergot [Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul.]. (Ražova glavnica [Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul.].). Glasilo Biljne Zaštite. 8 (6), 401-404.

Rashtra Vardhana, 2017. Plant's diseases of district Ghaziabad and adjacent areas. Plant Archives. 17 (1), 727-732. http://www.plantarchives.org/PDF%2017-1/727-732%20(3511).pdf

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

UK, CAB International, 1973. Claviceps purpurea. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 10. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20056500010

Zhukovsky A, 2006. Winter triticale diseases in Belarus. (Choroby pszenżyta ozimego w Białorusi.). Progress in Plant Protection. 46 (2), 719-722. http://www.ior.poznan.pl/wydaw/Wyd-PO.htm

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