Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cladosporium cucumerinum
(scab of cucurbits)

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Datasheet

Cladosporium cucumerinum (scab of cucurbits)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cladosporium cucumerinum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • scab of cucurbits
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Fruit of pumpkin with scab lesions caused by C. cucumerinum. (Courtesy T.A. Thomas).
TitleSymptoms on pumpkin fruit
CaptionFruit of pumpkin with scab lesions caused by C. cucumerinum. (Courtesy T.A. Thomas).
CopyrightThomas A. Zitter
Fruit of pumpkin with scab lesions caused by C. cucumerinum. (Courtesy T.A. Thomas).
Symptoms on pumpkin fruitFruit of pumpkin with scab lesions caused by C. cucumerinum. (Courtesy T.A. Thomas).Thomas A. Zitter
Fruit of summer squash infected by C. cucumerinum. Note the velvety and olive colour lesions.
(Courtesy T.A. Thomas)
TitleSymptoms on summer squash fruit
CaptionFruit of summer squash infected by C. cucumerinum. Note the velvety and olive colour lesions. (Courtesy T.A. Thomas)
CopyrightThomas A. Zitter
Fruit of summer squash infected by C. cucumerinum. Note the velvety and olive colour lesions.
(Courtesy T.A. Thomas)
Symptoms on summer squash fruitFruit of summer squash infected by C. cucumerinum. Note the velvety and olive colour lesions. (Courtesy T.A. Thomas) Thomas A. Zitter
(Courtesy T.A. Thomas).
TitleA culture of C. cucumerinum on potato dextrose agar.
Caption(Courtesy T.A. Thomas).
CopyrightThomas A. Zitter
(Courtesy T.A. Thomas).
A culture of C. cucumerinum on potato dextrose agar.(Courtesy T.A. Thomas).Thomas A. Zitter
(Courtesy T.A. Thomas).
TitleConidiophores and conidia
Caption(Courtesy T.A. Thomas).
CopyrightThomas A. Zitter
(Courtesy T.A. Thomas).
Conidiophores and conidia(Courtesy T.A. Thomas).Thomas A. Zitter
TitleLeaf of summer squash infected by C. cucumerinum
Caption
CopyrightThomas A. Zitter
Leaf of summer squash infected by C. cucumerinumThomas A. Zitter

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cladosporium cucumerinum Ellis & Arthur

Preferred Common Name

  • scab of cucurbits

Other Scientific Names

  • Cladosporium cucumeris A.B. Frank
  • Cladosporium scabies Cooke
  • Macrosporium cucumerinum Ellis & Everh.
  • Macrosporium melophthorum (Prill. & Delacr.) Rostr.
  • Scolicotrichum melophthorum Prill. & Delacr.

International Common Names

  • English: fruit blight of cucumber; grey anthracnose of cucurbits; gummosis of cucumber; gummosis of cucurbits; leaf blight of cucumber; pox of cucurbits; scab of cucumber; spotting of cucumber
  • Spanish: cladosporiosis del pepino
  • French: cladosporiose des cucurbitacées; cladosporiose du concombre; gale du concombre; nuile du concombre; nuile du melon; nuile grise du concombre
  • Portuguese: cladosporiose das cucurbitáceas

Local Common Names

  • China: huang-gua heixing-bing; hulu heixing-bing
  • Czechoslovakia (former): cern okurková; gumóza okurek
  • Germany: gummifluss der gurke; Gurkenkraetze
  • Greece: cladosporiosi tis aggourias; cladosporiosi ton colokinthoidon
  • Italy: cladosporiosi delle cetriolo; cladosporiosi delle cucurbitacee
  • Japan: kyuuri kurohoshi-byo; urirui kurohoshi-byo
  • Netherlands: vruchtvuur in komkommerachtige
  • Russian Federation: gummoz ogurtzov; gummoz tykv; parsha ogurtzov; parsha tykv
  • Slovakia: cern uhorky

EPPO code

  • CLADCU (Cladosporium cucumerinum)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Dothideomycetidae
  •                         Order: Capnodiales
  •                             Family: Davidiellaceae
  •                                 Genus: Cladosporium
  •                                     Species: Cladosporium cucumerinum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BhutanPresentCMI, 1988
ChinaPresentCMI, 1988; Pan et al., 1997; Zhang et al., 1997
-JilinWidespreadYuan, 1989
IndiaPresentCMI, 1988
IranPresentIMI Herbarium, undated
IsraelPresentEllis and Holliday, 1972; CMI, 1988
JapanPresentCMI, 1988
Korea, Republic ofPresentCMI, 1988; Lee et al., 1997
LebanonPresentEllis and Holliday, 1972; CMI, 1988
PakistanPresentCMI, 1988
ThailandPresentCMI, 1988
TurkeyPresentCMI, 1988
YemenPresentCMI, 1988

Africa

KenyaPresentCMI, 1988
MauritiusPresentCMI, 1988
MoroccoPresentCMI, 1988
South AfricaPresentCMI, 1988
ZambiaPresentCMI, 1988
ZimbabwePresentCMI, 1988

North America

CanadaPresentCMI, 1988
MexicoPresentCMI, 1988
USAPresentCMI, 1988
-FloridaPresentDougherty and Schuster, 1985
-MainePresentSherf and MacNab, 1975
-MichiganPresentMockaitis et al., 1976
-New YorkPresentSherf and MacNab, 1975
-North CarolinaPresentWinstead et al., 1959; Grand, 1985
-OklahomaPresentPreston, 1945
-OregonPresentShaw, 1973
-TexasPresentSleeth, 1958
-WashingtonPresentGabrielson, 1964; Sherf and MacNab, 1975

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosPresentCMI, 1988
CubaPresentCMI, 1988
El SalvadorPresentCMI, 1988
PanamaWidespreadEllis and Holliday, 1972; CMI, 1988
Puerto RicoPresentCMI, 1988
Trinidad and TobagoWidespreadEllis and Holliday, 1972; CMI, 1988

South America

ChilePresentCMI, 1988

Europe

AustriaPresentBedlan, 1986; CMI, 1988
BelarusPresentNalobova, 2004
BulgariaPresentKosareva, 1986; CMI, 1988
CyprusPresentPhocas, 1986
Czech RepublicPresentLebeda, 1985; Vozenilkova and Zvara, 1990
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentCMI, 1988
DenmarkPresentCMI, 1988
EstoniaPresentCMI, 1988
FinlandPresentCMI, 1988
FrancePresentCMI, 1988; Fabregue et al., 1995
GermanyPresentDehne et al., 1980; CMI, 1988
GreecePresentPantidou, 1973; Demetriades et al., 1979; CMI, 1988; Vakalounakis and Williams, 1990; Vakalounakis and Williams, 1991; Vakalounakis and Klironomou, 1994
HungaryPresentKorosne-Balogh, 1986; Korosne-Balogh, 1987
ItalyPresentFranceschini et al., 1982; Franceschini et al., 1983
LithuaniaPresentCMI, 1988
NetherlandsPresentCMI, 1988
NorwayPresentCMI, 1988
PolandPresentRondomanski et al., 1972; CMI, 1988
PortugalPresentCMI, 1988
RomaniaPresentCMI, 1988
Russian FederationPresentPyzhenkov et al., CMI; Pyzhenkov, 1977; Yurina et al., 1986; Biryukova, 1988; Pyzhenkov et al., 1988; Pyzhenkov et al., 1988
-Central RussiaPresentCMI, 1988
-Northern RussiaPresentCMI, 1988
-Russian Far EastPresentCMI, 1988
-Southern RussiaPresentCMI, 1988
SwedenPresentAxelsson, 1974; CMI, 1988
UKPresentCMI, 1988
Yugoslavia (former)PresentCMI, 1988
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentCMI, 1988

Oceania

French PolynesiaPresentCMI, 1988

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / gummosis
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / lesions
Inflorescence / lesions; flecking; streaks (not Poaceae)
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Whole plant / seedling blight

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Abul-Hayja ZM, 1975. Multiple disease screening and genetics of resistance in cucumber. PhD Thesis. Wisconsin, USA: University of Wisconsin.

Andeweg JM, 1956. The breeding of scab-resistance frame cucumbers in the Netherlands. Euphytica, 5:185-195.

Aptroot A, 2006. Mycosphaerella and its anamorphs: 2. Conspectus of Mycosphaerella. CBS Biodiversity Series, 5. Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Axelsson F, 1974. Weibulls Landora, Skandinaviens for sta offciellt godkanda drivgurka av 'femaletyp'. Agri Hortique Genetica, 32:55-64.

Bailey DM, Burges IM, 1935. Breeding cucumbers resistant to scab. Proceedings of the American Society of Horticultural Science, 32:474-476.

Bedlan G, 1986. The most important fungal diseases of cucumber. Pflanzenschutz, No.9:8-11; [7 fig.].

Biryukova NK, 1988. Cucumber hybrid Topolek. Kartofel' i Ovoshchi, 1:45.

Blancard D, Lecoq H, Pitrat M, Javoy M, 1991. Diseases of Cucurbitaceae: observation, identification, control. Paris, France: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), 301 pp.

Braun U, Crous PW, Dugan FM, Groenewald JZ, Hoog GS de, 2003. Phylogeny and taxonomy of cladosporium-like hyphomycetes, including Davidiella gen. nov., the teleomorph of Cladosporium s.str. Mycological Progress, 2:3-18.

Casaroli D, Garcia DC, Muniz MFB, Menezes NLde, 2006. Health and physiological quality of 'Menina Brasileira' squash seeds. (Qualidade sanitária e fisiológica de sementes de abóbora variedade Menina Brasileira.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 31(2):158-163. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v31n2/30009.pdf

CMI, 1988. Distribution maps of plant diseases, No. 310, Edition 4. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

David JC, 1997. A contribution to the systematics of Cladosporium. Revision of the fungi previously referred to Heterosporium. Mycological Papers, 172:1-157.

De Vries GA, 1952. Contribution to the knowledge of the genus Cladosporium Link. ex Fr. PhD Thesis. Utrecht, Netherlands: University of Utrecht.

Dehne J, Fabig F, Weichold R, 1980. Emppfehlungen zur effektiven Nutzung des Potentials von Gewachshausgurkensorten des DDR-Sortiments. Gartenbau, 11:329-330.

Demetriades S, Panagopoulos C, Stathis P, 1979. Diseases of Cultivated Plants Observed in Greece. Athens, Greece: Benaki Phytopathological Institute.

Dixon GR, 1981. Vegetable Crop Diseases. London, UK: Macmillan Press, 404 pp.

Dixon GR, 1981. Vegetable Crop Diseases. London, UK: Macmillan Press, 404 pp.

Dorozhkin NA, Remneva ZI, Nalobova VL, 1976. Effects of temperature and relative humidity on the development of Cladosporium cucumerinum Ell. & Arth., the pathogen of green mould rot of cucumber. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 10(6):497-503

Dougherty DE, Schuster DJ, 1984. Compatibility of fungicide-insecticide combinations for disease and pickleworm control on honeydew melon. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 97:205-208; [7 tab.]; 8 ref.

Dugan FM, Schubert K, Braun U, 2004. Check-list of Cladosporium names. Schlechtendalia, 11:1-103.

Ellis MB, 1971. Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Ellis MB, Holliday P, 1972. Cladosporium cucumerinum. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 348. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Emmatty DA, Groenewegen C, George BF, 1975. Yield response of resistant and susceptible cucumber cultivars to scab infection. HortScience, 10(6):619

Fabregue C, Malet JC, Henry F, 1995. La cladosporiose des cucurbitacées. Mise au point de la lutte et niveau de residues. Phytoma, 476:35-38.

Farr DF, Bills GF, Chamuris GP, Rossman AY, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 1252 pp.

Farr DF, Bills GF, Chamuris GP, Rossman AY, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 1252 pp.

Franceschini A, Carta C, Fiori M, 1982. Cladosporium disease of squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) grown under cover in Sardinia. Studi Sassaresi, III, 29:413-421

Franceschini A, Carta C, Fiori M, 1983. Control trials against Cladosporium cucumerinum Ell. & Arth., causal agent of Cladosporium disease of vegetable marrow. Studi Sassaresi, III, 30:3-9

Gabrielson RL, 1964. Cucumber scab in Western Washington. Plant Disease Reporter, 48:801-802.

Grand LF, 1985. North Carolina Plant Disease Index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service Technical Bulletin, 240:1-157.

Hammerschmidt R, Acres S, Kuc J, 1976. Protection of cucumber against Colletotrichum lagenarium and Cladosporium cucumerinum. Phytopathology, 66(6):790-793

Heuchert B, Braun U, Schubert K, 2005. Morphotaxonomic revision of fungicolous Cladosporium species (hyphomycetes). Schlechtendalia, 13:1-78.

Ho MHM, Castaneda RF, Dugan FM, Jong SC, 1999. Cladosporium and Cladophialophora in culture: descriptions and an expanded key. Mycotaxon, 72:115-157; 38 ref.

IMI Herbarium, undated. Herbarium specimen. International Mycological Institute (now CABI Bioscience) Herbarium. Egham, UK: CABI Bioscience.

Korosne-Balogh S, 1986. A kecskemeti livme berakouborka. Zoldsegtermesztesi Kutato Intezet Bulletinje, 19:47-51.

Korosne-Balogh S, 1987. Kecskemeti partenokarp berakouborka-hibridek. Zoldsegtermesztesi Kutato Intezet Bulletinje, 20:35-44.

Kosareva GA, 1986. Genetic evaluation of tolerant forms of cucumber. P"rva natsionalna konferentsiya po imunogenetika na rasteniyata, Sofiya, 24-25 yuni, 1986. Dokl. T. 1., 172-176.

Lebeda A, 1985. Resistance of Cucumis sativus cultivars to Cladosporium cucumerinum. Scientia Horticulturae, 26(1):9-15

Lee KY, Young KH, Kang HJ, Ahn KS, Min KB, Cha BJ, 1997. Cucumber scab caused by Cladosporium cucumerinum in Korea. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 13:288-294.

McKemy JM, Morgan-Jones G, 1992. Studies in the genus Cladosporium sensu lato. VII. Concerning Cladosporium cucumerinum, causal organism of crown blight and scab or gummosis of cucurbits. Mycotaxon, 43:163-170

Mockaitis JM, Crum RA, Kivilaan A, 1976. Attempts to change heritable characteristics of Cucumis sativus by grafting. Research Report of the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station, 321:1-4.

Nalobova VL, 2004. Species composition and particularities of the ecology of fungi causing cucumber diseases. Vestsi¯ Natsyyanal'nai Akademi¯i¯ Navuk Belarusi¯. Seryya Bi¯yalagi¯chnykh Navuk, No.2:30-34.

Orth AB, Teramura AH, Sisler HD, 1990. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on fungal disease development in Cucumis sativus. American Journal of Botany, 77(9):1188-1192

Pan HY, Zhang H, Ding L, Shong DB, Wang SB, Chen ZK, Huang WS, 1997. The detection of resistance of cucumber scab to carbendazim. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 24:285-286.

Pantidou ME, 1973. Fungus-host index for Greece. Kiphissia, Greece: Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 382 pp.

Pfaltzer A, 1927. Het vrucht- en bladvuur van de komkommer. PhD Thesis. Utrecht, Netherlands: University of Utrecht.

Phocas CL, 1986. Plant Pathology virology. Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture, Cyprus, for the year 1985. Nicosia, Cyprus: Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 90-92

Preston DA, 1945. Host index of Oklahoma plant diseases. Oklahoma Agricultural College, Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin (suppl.), T-21:1-39.

Pyzhenkov VI, 1977. Initial material for breeding cucumber in the non-chernozem zone of the Russian SSR. Trudy po Prikladnoi Botanike, Genetike i Selektsii, 60(3):119-132

Pyzhenkov VI, Kosareva GA, Davidich NK, 1988. Heterotic cucumber hybrid MOVIR1. Selektsiya i Semenovodstvo (Moskva), No. 4:40-41.

Roberts RG, Robertson JA, Hanlin RT, 1986. Fungi occurring in the achenes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Canadian Journal of Botany, 64(9):1964-1971; 43 ref.

Rondomanski W, Szwejda J, Wegorek W, 1972. Zastosowanie Topsinu M do zwalczania chorob i szkodnikow w uprawie ogorkow inspektowych. Biuletyn Instytutu Ochrony Roslin, 52:227-236.

Schoch C, Shoemaker RA, Seifert KA, Hambleton S, Spatafora JW, Crous PW, 2006. A multigene phylogeny of the Dothideomycetes using four nuclear loci. Mycologia, 98, in press.

Schubert K, 2005. Morphotaxonomic revision of foliicolous Cladosporium species (hyphomycetes). PhD thesis, Martin Luther University, Halle.

Shaw CG, 1973. Host fungus index for the Pacific Northwest. I. Hosts. Bulletin, Washington Agricultural Experimental Station, No. 765.

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Skare NH, Paus F, Raa J, 1975. Production of pectinase and cellulase by Cladosporium cucumerinum with dissolved carbohydrates and isolated cell walls of cucumber as carbon sources. Physiologia Plantarum, 33(3):229-233

Sleeth B, 1958. Cladosporium in melons in South Texas. Plant Disease Reporter, 42:1104.

Staub TH, Kuc J, 1980. Systemic protection of cucumber plants against disease caused by Cladosporium cucumerinum and Colletotrichum lagenarium by prior infection with either fungus. Physiological Plant Pathology, 17(3):389-393

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Vakalounakis DJ, 1993. Inheritance and genetic linkage of fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum race 1) and scab (Cladosporium cucumerinum) resistance genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Annals of Applied Biology, 123(2):359-365; 12 ref.

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Vakalounakis DJ, 1996. Allelism of the Fcu-1 and Foc genes conferring resistance to Fusarium wilt in cucumber. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 102(9):855-858; 9 ref.

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Zitter TA, 1996. Scab. In: Zitter TA, Hopkins DL, Thomas CE, eds. Compendium of Cucumber Diseases. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 15-16.

Distribution Maps

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