Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cladosporium cucumerinum
(scab of cucurbits)

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Datasheet

Cladosporium cucumerinum (scab of cucurbits)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cladosporium cucumerinum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • scab of cucurbits
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Fruit of pumpkin with scab lesions caused by C. cucumerinum. (Courtesy T.A. Thomas).
TitleSymptoms on pumpkin fruit
CaptionFruit of pumpkin with scab lesions caused by C. cucumerinum. (Courtesy T.A. Thomas).
CopyrightThomas A. Zitter
Fruit of pumpkin with scab lesions caused by C. cucumerinum. (Courtesy T.A. Thomas).
Symptoms on pumpkin fruitFruit of pumpkin with scab lesions caused by C. cucumerinum. (Courtesy T.A. Thomas).Thomas A. Zitter
Fruit of summer squash infected by C. cucumerinum. Note the velvety and olive colour lesions.
(Courtesy T.A. Thomas)
TitleSymptoms on summer squash fruit
CaptionFruit of summer squash infected by C. cucumerinum. Note the velvety and olive colour lesions. (Courtesy T.A. Thomas)
CopyrightThomas A. Zitter
Fruit of summer squash infected by C. cucumerinum. Note the velvety and olive colour lesions.
(Courtesy T.A. Thomas)
Symptoms on summer squash fruitFruit of summer squash infected by C. cucumerinum. Note the velvety and olive colour lesions. (Courtesy T.A. Thomas) Thomas A. Zitter
(Courtesy T.A. Thomas).
TitleA culture of C. cucumerinum on potato dextrose agar.
Caption(Courtesy T.A. Thomas).
CopyrightThomas A. Zitter
(Courtesy T.A. Thomas).
A culture of C. cucumerinum on potato dextrose agar.(Courtesy T.A. Thomas).Thomas A. Zitter
(Courtesy T.A. Thomas).
TitleConidiophores and conidia
Caption(Courtesy T.A. Thomas).
CopyrightThomas A. Zitter
(Courtesy T.A. Thomas).
Conidiophores and conidia(Courtesy T.A. Thomas).Thomas A. Zitter
TitleLeaf of summer squash infected by C. cucumerinum
Caption
CopyrightThomas A. Zitter
Leaf of summer squash infected by C. cucumerinumThomas A. Zitter

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cladosporium cucumerinum Ellis & Arthur

Preferred Common Name

  • scab of cucurbits

Other Scientific Names

  • Cladosporium cucumeris A.B. Frank
  • Cladosporium scabies Cooke
  • Macrosporium cucumerinum Ellis & Everh.
  • Macrosporium melophthorum (Prill. & Delacr.) Rostr.
  • Scolicotrichum melophthorum Prill. & Delacr.

International Common Names

  • English: fruit blight of cucumber; grey anthracnose of cucurbits; gummosis of cucumber; gummosis of cucurbits; leaf blight of cucumber; pox of cucurbits; scab of cucumber; spotting of cucumber
  • Spanish: cladosporiosis del pepino
  • French: cladosporiose des cucurbitacées; cladosporiose du concombre; gale du concombre; nuile du concombre; nuile du melon; nuile grise du concombre
  • Portuguese: cladosporiose das cucurbitáceas

Local Common Names

  • China: huang-gua heixing-bing; hulu heixing-bing
  • Czechoslovakia (former): cern okurková; gumóza okurek
  • Germany: gummifluss der gurke; Gurkenkraetze
  • Greece: cladosporiosi tis aggourias; cladosporiosi ton colokinthoidon
  • Italy: cladosporiosi delle cetriolo; cladosporiosi delle cucurbitacee
  • Japan: kyuuri kurohoshi-byo; urirui kurohoshi-byo
  • Netherlands: vruchtvuur in komkommerachtige
  • Russian Federation: gummoz ogurtzov; gummoz tykv; parsha ogurtzov; parsha tykv
  • Slovakia: cern uhorky

EPPO code

  • CLADCU (Cladosporium cucumerinum)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Dothideomycetidae
  •                         Order: Capnodiales
  •                             Family: Davidiellaceae
  •                                 Genus: Cladosporium
  •                                     Species: Cladosporium cucumerinum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
MauritiusPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
MoroccoPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
ZambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
ZimbabwePresentUK, CAB International (1988)

Asia

BhutanPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
ChinaPresentUK, CAB International (1988); Pan HongYu et al. (1997); Zhang ZhongYi et al. (1997)
-JilinPresent, WidespreadYuan (1989)
IndiaPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
IranPresentHerb IMI (Undated)
IsraelPresentEllis and Holliday (1972); UK, CAB International (1988)
JapanPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
LebanonPresentEllis and Holliday (1972); UK, CAB International (1988)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
South KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1988); Lee KiYeol et al. (1997)
ThailandPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
TurkeyPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
YemenPresentUK, CAB International (1988)

Europe

AustriaPresentBedlan (1986); UK, CAB International (1988)
BelarusPresentNalobova (2004)
BulgariaPresentKosareva (1986); UK, CAB International (1988)
CyprusPresentPhocas (1986)
CzechiaPresentLebeda (1985); Voženílková and Zvára (1990)
CzechoslovakiaPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
DenmarkPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
EstoniaPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
FinlandPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
FrancePresentUK, CAB International (1988); Fabrègue et al. (1995)
GermanyPresentDehne et al. (1980); UK, CAB International (1988)
GreecePresentPantidou (1973); Demetriades et al. (1979); UK, CAB International (1988); Vakalounakis and Williams (1991); Vakalounakis and Klironomou (1994); CABI (Undated)
HungaryPresentKorosne-Balogh (1986); Korosne-Balogh (1987)
ItalyPresentFranceschini et al. (1982); Franceschini et al. (1983)
LithuaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
NetherlandsPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
NorwayPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
PolandPresentRondomanski and Szwejda (1972); UK, CAB International (1988)
PortugalPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
RomaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
RussiaPresentPyzhenkov (1977); Yurina et al. (1986); Biryukova (1988); Pyzhenkov et al. (1988); CABI (Undated)
-Central RussiaPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
-Northern RussiaPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
-Russian Far EastPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
-Southern RussiaPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
SwedenPresentAxelsson (1974); UK, CAB International (1988)
United KingdomPresentUK, CAB International (1988)

North America

BarbadosPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
CanadaPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
CubaPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
El SalvadorPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
PanamaPresent, WidespreadEllis and Holliday (1972); UK, CAB International (1988)
Puerto RicoPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, WidespreadEllis and Holliday (1972); UK, CAB International (1988)
United StatesPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
-FloridaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Dougherty and Schuster (1985)
-MainePresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Sherf and MacNab (1975)
-MichiganPresentMockaitis et al. (1976)
-New YorkPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Sherf and MacNab (1975)
-North CarolinaPresentWinstead et al. (1959); Grand (1985)
-OklahomaPresentPreston (1945)
-OregonPresentShaw (1973)
-TexasPresentSLEETH (1958)
-WashingtonPresentGABRIELSON (1964); CABI (Undated)

Oceania

French PolynesiaPresentUK, CAB International (1988)

South America

ChilePresentUK, CAB International (1988)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / gummosis
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / lesions
Inflorescence / lesions; flecking; streaks (not Poaceae)
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Leaves / necrotic areas
Stems / gummosis or resinosis
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Whole plant / seedling blight

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Abul-Hayja ZM, 1975. Multiple disease screening and genetics of resistance in cucumber. PhD Thesis. Wisconsin, USA: University of Wisconsin.

Andeweg JM, 1956. The breeding of scab-resistance frame cucumbers in the Netherlands. Euphytica, 5:185-195.

Aptroot A, 2006. Mycosphaerella and its anamorphs: 2. Conspectus of Mycosphaerella. CBS Biodiversity Series, 5. Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Axelsson F, 1974. Weibulls Landora, Skandinaviens for sta offciellt godkanda drivgurka av 'femaletyp'. Agri Hortique Genetica, 32:55-64.

Bailey DM, Burges IM, 1935. Breeding cucumbers resistant to scab. Proceedings of the American Society of Horticultural Science, 32:474-476.

Bedlan G, 1986. The most important fungal diseases of cucumber. Pflanzenschutz, No.9:8-11; [7 fig.].

Biryukova NK, 1988. Cucumber hybrid Topolek. Kartofel' i Ovoshchi, 1:45.

Blancard D, Lecoq H, Pitrat M, Javoy M, 1991. Diseases of Cucurbitaceae: observation, identification, control. Paris, France: Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), 301 pp.

Braun U, Crous PW, Dugan FM, Groenewald JZ, Hoog GS de, 2003. Phylogeny and taxonomy of cladosporium-like hyphomycetes, including Davidiella gen. nov., the teleomorph of Cladosporium s.str. Mycological Progress, 2:3-18.

Casaroli D, Garcia DC, Muniz MFB, Menezes NLde, 2006. Health and physiological quality of 'Menina Brasileira' squash seeds. (Qualidade sanitária e fisiológica de sementes de abóbora variedade Menina Brasileira.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 31(2):158-163. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v31n2/30009.pdf

CMI, 1988. Distribution maps of plant diseases, No. 310, Edition 4. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

David JC, 1997. A contribution to the systematics of Cladosporium. Revision of the fungi previously referred to Heterosporium. Mycological Papers, 172:1-157.

De Vries GA, 1952. Contribution to the knowledge of the genus Cladosporium Link. ex Fr. PhD Thesis. Utrecht, Netherlands: University of Utrecht.

Dehne J, Fabig F, Weichold R, 1980. Emppfehlungen zur effektiven Nutzung des Potentials von Gewachshausgurkensorten des DDR-Sortiments. Gartenbau, 11:329-330.

Demetriades S, Panagopoulos C, Stathis P, 1979. Diseases of Cultivated Plants Observed in Greece. Athens, Greece: Benaki Phytopathological Institute.

Dixon GR, 1981. Vegetable Crop Diseases. London, UK: Macmillan Press, 404 pp.

Dixon GR, 1981. Vegetable Crop Diseases. London, UK: Macmillan Press, 404 pp.

Dorozhkin NA, Remneva ZI, Nalobova VL, 1976. Effects of temperature and relative humidity on the development of Cladosporium cucumerinum Ell. & Arth., the pathogen of green mould rot of cucumber. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 10(6):497-503

Dougherty DE, Schuster DJ, 1984. Compatibility of fungicide-insecticide combinations for disease and pickleworm control on honeydew melon. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 97:205-208; [7 tab.]; 8 ref.

Dugan FM, Schubert K, Braun U, 2004. Check-list of Cladosporium names. Schlechtendalia, 11:1-103.

Ellis MB, 1971. Dematiaceous Hyphomycetes. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Ellis MB, Holliday P, 1972. Cladosporium cucumerinum. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 348. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Emmatty DA, Groenewegen C, George BF, 1975. Yield response of resistant and susceptible cucumber cultivars to scab infection. HortScience, 10(6):619

Fabregue C, Malet JC, Henry F, 1995. La cladosporiose des cucurbitacées. Mise au point de la lutte et niveau de residues. Phytoma, 476:35-38.

Farr DF, Bills GF, Chamuris GP, Rossman AY, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 1252 pp.

Farr DF, Bills GF, Chamuris GP, Rossman AY, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 1252 pp.

Franceschini A, Carta C, Fiori M, 1982. Cladosporium disease of squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) grown under cover in Sardinia. Studi Sassaresi, III, 29:413-421

Franceschini A, Carta C, Fiori M, 1983. Control trials against Cladosporium cucumerinum Ell. & Arth., causal agent of Cladosporium disease of vegetable marrow. Studi Sassaresi, III, 30:3-9

Gabrielson RL, 1964. Cucumber scab in Western Washington. Plant Disease Reporter, 48:801-802.

Grand LF, 1985. North Carolina Plant Disease Index. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service Technical Bulletin, 240:1-157.

Hammerschmidt R, Acres S, Kuc J, 1976. Protection of cucumber against Colletotrichum lagenarium and Cladosporium cucumerinum. Phytopathology, 66(6):790-793

Heuchert B, Braun U, Schubert K, 2005. Morphotaxonomic revision of fungicolous Cladosporium species (hyphomycetes). Schlechtendalia, 13:1-78.

Ho MHM, Castaneda RF, Dugan FM, Jong SC, 1999. Cladosporium and Cladophialophora in culture: descriptions and an expanded key. Mycotaxon, 72:115-157; 38 ref.

IMI Herbarium, undated. Herbarium specimen. International Mycological Institute (now CABI Bioscience) Herbarium. Egham, UK: CABI Bioscience.

Korosne-Balogh S, 1986. A kecskemeti livme berakouborka. Zoldsegtermesztesi Kutato Intezet Bulletinje, 19:47-51.

Korosne-Balogh S, 1987. Kecskemeti partenokarp berakouborka-hibridek. Zoldsegtermesztesi Kutato Intezet Bulletinje, 20:35-44.

Kosareva GA, 1986. Genetic evaluation of tolerant forms of cucumber. P"rva natsionalna konferentsiya po imunogenetika na rasteniyata, Sofiya, 24-25 yuni, 1986. Dokl. T. 1., 172-176.

Lebeda A, 1985. Resistance of Cucumis sativus cultivars to Cladosporium cucumerinum. Scientia Horticulturae, 26(1):9-15

Lee KY, Young KH, Kang HJ, Ahn KS, Min KB, Cha BJ, 1997. Cucumber scab caused by Cladosporium cucumerinum in Korea. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology, 13:288-294.

McKemy JM, Morgan-Jones G, 1992. Studies in the genus Cladosporium sensu lato. VII. Concerning Cladosporium cucumerinum, causal organism of crown blight and scab or gummosis of cucurbits. Mycotaxon, 43:163-170

Mockaitis JM, Crum RA, Kivilaan A, 1976. Attempts to change heritable characteristics of Cucumis sativus by grafting. Research Report of the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station, 321:1-4.

Nalobova VL, 2004. Species composition and particularities of the ecology of fungi causing cucumber diseases. Vestsi¯ Natsyyanal'nai Akademi¯i¯ Navuk Belarusi¯. Seryya Bi¯yalagi¯chnykh Navuk, No.2:30-34.

Orth AB, Teramura AH, Sisler HD, 1990. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on fungal disease development in Cucumis sativus. American Journal of Botany, 77(9):1188-1192

Pan HY, Zhang H, Ding L, Shong DB, Wang SB, Chen ZK, Huang WS, 1997. The detection of resistance of cucumber scab to carbendazim. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 24:285-286.

Pantidou ME, 1973. Fungus-host index for Greece. Kiphissia, Greece: Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 382 pp.

Pfaltzer A, 1927. Het vrucht- en bladvuur van de komkommer. PhD Thesis. Utrecht, Netherlands: University of Utrecht.

Phocas CL, 1986. Plant Pathology virology. Annual Report of the Department of Agriculture, Cyprus, for the year 1985. Nicosia, Cyprus: Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 90-92

Preston DA, 1945. Host index of Oklahoma plant diseases. Oklahoma Agricultural College, Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin (suppl.), T-21:1-39.

Pyzhenkov VI, 1977. Initial material for breeding cucumber in the non-chernozem zone of the Russian SSR. Trudy po Prikladnoi Botanike, Genetike i Selektsii, 60(3):119-132

Pyzhenkov VI, Kosareva GA, Davidich NK, 1988. Heterotic cucumber hybrid MOVIR1. Selektsiya i Semenovodstvo (Moskva), No. 4:40-41.

Roberts RG, Robertson JA, Hanlin RT, 1986. Fungi occurring in the achenes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Canadian Journal of Botany, 64(9):1964-1971; 43 ref.

Rondomanski W, Szwejda J, Wegorek W, 1972. Zastosowanie Topsinu M do zwalczania chorob i szkodnikow w uprawie ogorkow inspektowych. Biuletyn Instytutu Ochrony Roslin, 52:227-236.

Schoch C, Shoemaker RA, Seifert KA, Hambleton S, Spatafora JW, Crous PW, 2006. A multigene phylogeny of the Dothideomycetes using four nuclear loci. Mycologia, 98, in press.

Schubert K, 2005. Morphotaxonomic revision of foliicolous Cladosporium species (hyphomycetes). PhD thesis, Martin Luther University, Halle.

Shaw CG, 1973. Host fungus index for the Pacific Northwest. I. Hosts. Bulletin, Washington Agricultural Experimental Station, No. 765.

Sherf AF, MacNab AA, 1986. Vegetable Diseases and Their Control. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons.

Sherf AF, MacNab AA, 1986. Vegetable Diseases and Their Control. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons.

Skare NH, Paus F, Raa J, 1975. Production of pectinase and cellulase by Cladosporium cucumerinum with dissolved carbohydrates and isolated cell walls of cucumber as carbon sources. Physiologia Plantarum, 33(3):229-233

Sleeth B, 1958. Cladosporium in melons in South Texas. Plant Disease Reporter, 42:1104.

Staub TH, Kuc J, 1980. Systemic protection of cucumber plants against disease caused by Cladosporium cucumerinum and Colletotrichum lagenarium by prior infection with either fungus. Physiological Plant Pathology, 17(3):389-393

Vakalounakis DJ, 1988. Diseases and Pests of Vegetable Crops and Their Control. Heraklion, Crete: Technological Education Institute.

Vakalounakis DJ, 1993. Inheritance and genetic linkage of fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum race 1) and scab (Cladosporium cucumerinum) resistance genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Annals of Applied Biology, 123(2):359-365; 12 ref.

Vakalounakis DJ, 1995. Inheritance and linkage of resistance in cucumber line SMR-18 to races 1 and 2 of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum. Plant Pathology, 44(1):169-172; 8 ref.

Vakalounakis DJ, 1996. Allelism of the Fcu-1 and Foc genes conferring resistance to Fusarium wilt in cucumber. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 102(9):855-858; 9 ref.

Vakalounakis DJ, Klironomou E, 1994. Independence between scab resistance and morphological traits in cucumber. HortScience, 29(10):1180-1181

Vakalounakis DJ, Smardas K, 1995. Genetics of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cucumerinum races 1 and 2 in cucumber line Wisconsin-2757. Annals of Applied Biology, 127(3):457-461; 9 ref.

Vakalounakis DJ, Williams PH, 1989. A cotyledon screen for resistance to scab (Cladosporium cucumerinum) in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings. Annals of Applied Biology, 115(3):443-450

Vakalounakis DJ, Williams PH, 1991. A cotyledon double inoculation technique for evaluating resistance to anthracnose (Colletotrichum orbiculare) and scab (Cladosporium cucumerinum) in cucumber. Annals of Applied Biology, 118(2):273-282

Vozenilkova B, Zvara J, 1990. New possibilities of greenhouse cucumber protection against fungal diseases. Sbornik - Vysoka Skola Zemedelska v Praze, Agronomicka Fakulta v Ceskych Budejovicich, Fytotechnicka Rada, 7(2):49-60

Wallroth CFW, 1833. Flora Cryptoamica Germaniae. Nurnberg, Germany.

Winstead NN, Strider DL, Jenkins SF, 1959. Scab disease on cantaloupes in North Carolina. Plant Disease Reporter, 43:424.

Winstead NN, Strider DL, Person LH, 1960. Vegetable diseases in North Carolina during 1958 and 1959. Plant Disease Reporter, 44:491-495.

Yuan M, 1989. The occurrence of cucumber scab and its control. Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Jilinensis, 11:7-13.

Yurina OV, Yurina AV, Komleva VA, 1986. Cucumber Gribovchanka. Kartofel' i Ovoshchi, 5:44-45.

Zhang ZY, Qin Y, Zhang H, Liu YL, 1997. A study of six diseases caused by Cladosporium. Journal of Southwest Agricultural University, 19:315-319.

Zitter TA, 1996. Scab. In: Zitter TA, Hopkins DL, Thomas CE, eds. Compendium of Cucumber Diseases. St Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 15-16.

Distribution References

Axelsson F, 1974. Weibulls Landora, the first officially recognized gynoecious Scandinavian cucumber. (Weibulls Landora - Skandinaviens forsta officiellt godkanda drivgurka av "femaletyp".). Agri Hortique Genetica. 32 (1/4), 55-64.

Bedlan G, 1986. The most important fungal diseases of cucumber. (Die wichtigsten Pilzkrankheiten der Gurken.). Pflanzenschutz. 8-11.

Biryukova N K, 1988. Cucumber hybrid Topolek. Kartofel' i Ovoshchi. 45.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Dehne J, Fabig F, Weichold R, 1980. (Emppfehlungen zur effektiven Nutzung des Potentials von Gewachshausgurkensorten des DDR-Sortiments). In: Gartenbau, 11 329-330.

Demetriades S, Panagopoulos C, Stathis P, 1979. Diseases of Cultivated Plants Observed in Greece., Athens, Greece: Benaki Phytopathological Institute.

Ellis M B, Holliday P, 1972. Cladosporium cucumerinum. [Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria]. In: IMI Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Sheet 348.

Fabrègue C, Malet J C, Henry F, 1995. Gummosis of Cucurbitaceae. Study on control and residue levels. (La cladosporiose des cucurbitacées. Mise au point de la lutte et niveau de résidues.). Phytoma. 35-38.

Franceschini A, Carta C, Fiori M, 1982. Cladosporium disease of squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) grown under cover in Sardinia. (La "cladosporiosi" dello zucchino (Cucurbita pepo L.) in coltura protetta in Sardegna.). Studi Sassaresi, III. 413-421.

Franceschini A, Carta C, Fiori M, 1983. Control trials against Cladosporium cucumerinum Ell. & Arth., causal agent of Cladosporium disease of vegetable marrow. (Prove di lotta contro il Cladosporium cucumerinum Ell. et Arth. agente della cladosporiosi dello zucchino.). Studi Sassaresi, III. 3-9.

GABRIELSON R L, 1964. Cucumber scab in western Washington. Plant Disease Reporter. 801-2.

Grand L F, 1985. North Carolina Agricultural Research Service Technical Bulletin, 1-157.

Herb IMI, Undated. Specimen record from the collection in the Herb IMI Database., Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.herbimi.info/herbimi/home.htm

Korosne-Balogh S, 1986. (A kecskemeti livme berakouborka). In: Zoldsegtermesztesi Kutato Intezet Bulletinje, 19 47-51.

Korosne-Balogh S, 1987. (Kecskemeti partenokarp berakouborka-hibridek). In: Zoldsegtermesztesi Kutato Intezet Bulletinje, 20 35-44.

Kosareva G A, 1986. Genetic evaluation of tolerant forms of cucumber. In: P"rva natsionalna konferentsiya po imunogenetika na rasteniyata, Sofiya, 24-25 yuni, 1986. Dokl. T. 1. [P"rva natsionalna konferentsiya po imunogenetika na rasteniyata, Sofiya, 24-25 yuni, 1986. Dokl. T. 1.], Sofia, Bulgaria: 172-176.

Lebeda A, 1985. Resistance of Cucumis sativus cultivars to Cladosporium cucumerinum. Scientia Horticulturae. 26 (1), 9-15. DOI:10.1016/0304-4238(85)90096-2

Lee KiYeol, Young KyungHo, Kang HyoJung, Ahn KiSu, Min KyeongBeom, Cha ByeongJin, 1997. Cucumber scab caused by Cladosporium cucumerinum in Korea. Korean Journal of Plant Pathology. 13 (5), 288-294.

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