Crupina vulgaris (bearded creeper)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Vectors
- Wood Packaging
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Impact: Biodiversity
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Crupina vulgaris Cass.
Preferred Common Name
- bearded creeper
Other Scientific Names
- Centaurea crupina L.
- Crupina vulgaris Pers.
- Serratula crupina (L.) Vill.
International Common Names
- English: bearded-creeper; common crupina; starry scabious
- French: crupine vulgaire
Local Common Names
- Germany: Gewöhnlicher Schlüpfsame
- Italy: crupina comune
- CJNVU (Crupina vulgaris)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Asterales
- Family: Asteraceae
- Genus: Crupina
- Species: Crupina vulgaris
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Couderc-LeVaillant (1984) considered that Crupina vulgaris comprised two varieties, typica and brachypappa. She listed the following synonyms for var. typica: Centaurea crupina L. 1753; Centaurea crupina Pers. 1807; Centaurea acuta Lam. 1778; Serratula crupina Vill. 1789; Crupina pauciflora Hoffm. et Link. 1820; Crupina pauciflora Kar. et Kir. 1842; Crupina acuta Trev. 1842; Crupina vulgaris L. microcephala Ledeb. 1844-1846; Crupina alpestris Arv. 1879; Crupina crupina Karst. 1880-1883; Crupina vulgaris forme alpestris Rouy 1897; Crupina vulgaris var. pseudo-crupinastrum Thellung. 1908; Crupina vulgaris subsp. vulgaris var. typica Beauv. 1912; Crupina vulgaris subsp. vulgaris var. alpestris Beauv. 1912.
Couderc-LeVaillant (1984) listed the following synonyms for Crupina vulgaris var. brachypappa: Crupina brachypappa Jord. et Fourr. 1868; Crupina vulgaris "forme" brachypappa Rouy 1897; Crupina major Goir. 1907; Crupina vulgaris subsp. brachypappa var. brachypappa Beauv. 1912; Crupina vulgaris subsp. brachypappa var vallesiaca Beauv. 1912. These two varieties were mentioned in a subsequent publication (Couderc-LeVaillant and Roché, 1993), but are not accepted in the French or other European floras (Tutin et al., 1976; Guinochet and de Vilmorin, 1987; Bolòs et al., 1993).
Also included in Crupina vulgaris are Crupina pauciflora Kar. & Kir. (NYBG 16782, type specimen collected in Kazakhstan in 1841) and Crupina oligantha Tschern. (in Flora Uzbekistan vi. 387, 1962, http://www.ipni.org/ipni/query_ipni.html) (Czerepanov, 1995).
DescriptionTop of page
Plant TypeTop of page
DistributionTop of page
The distribution map includes a record from Kazakhstan based on the specimen of Crupina vulgaris (given as C. pauciflora; see Taxonomy section) at the New York Botanical Gardens (USA) collected in 1841.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 23 Nov 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|China||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|Russia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|Serbia and Montenegro||Present||Native|
|United States||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|Australia||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-South Australia||Present, Localized||Introduced|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
The earliest collections of C. vulgaris in the United States are from Massachusetts (Sorrie and Somers, 1999). Specimens at the Harvard University Herbarium collected by C.E. Perkins in 1877 and 1879 from Boston, and South Boston Flats, Suffolk County, Massachusetts indicate that C. vulgaris was introduced in ship's ballast from seaports in the Mediterranean region. A lack of further collections and its absence in contemporary floras of the northeastern USA indicate that it failed to establish, making the collection in Idaho in 1968 (Stickney, 1972), the first discovery of a successful introduction. The next discovery was in 1976 in Sonoma County, California (Barbe, 1976), a population that was declared eradicated in 1982. After that, it was found in 1983 in Chelan County, Washington (Alverson and Arnett, 1986), and in 1987 in Umatilla County, Oregon. It was rediscovered in 1989 in Sonoma County, California, followed by a new discovery in Modoc County, California, in 1990. It was discovered in Wallowa County, Oregon, in 1995, and additional locations along the Snake River Canyon in Nez Perce County, Idaho. The most recent estimates are that C. vulgaris has invaded over 25,500 ha in Idaho, Oregon, California, and Washington (Thill et al., 1999).
Recent research using molecular markers (RAPDs), distribution maps, and historical sleuthing reported that the US populations came from northern Spain with Basque sheepherders, probably between the 1940s and 1970s, decades before their discovery (Garnatje et al., 2002; Roché et al., 2003).
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
HabitatTop of page
The climate of invaded habitats in North America ranges from the clearly Mediterranean in the Sonoma Valley, California (Best et al., 1996) to a temperate climate in the mountains of northcentral Washington and northeastern California, USA. The grassland foothills of the Oregon Blue Mountains and canyonlands of Idaho share a semi-arid climate with hot summers and mild winters, but the winters are too cold to be truly Mediterranean (Johnson and Simon, 1987). Soils range from sandy loams from granitic parent material to clay loams with volcanic ash, basalt or andesite parent material. The unifying soil characteristic is low available water capacity, related to one or more of the following: thin soil, steep slope, south-facing aspect, and a high gravel, cobble or stone content in the profile. In addition, all sites are natural grasslands or open woodlands, such as forest steppe or oak savanna. Low available water capacity limits the potential ground cover to an open canopy of grass-dominated vegetation normally less than 30 cm tall.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Crupina vulgaris and C. crupinastrum are diploid species (2n = 30 and 28, respectively). Couderc-LeVaillant (1984) showed that Crupina intermedia derives from hybridization between the other two species, with its fertility, superior vigour and size resulting from autopolyploidy (2n=58). In this study, artificial crosses between C. vulgaris and the F1 generation of C. intermedia were sterile.
Physiology and Phenology
As seeds are dispersed in mid-summer, an extremely risky time for seedling establishment, germination of fresh seeds is delayed by an after-ripening requirement, which is highest earlier in the season (Zamora, 1988). Cyclic wetting and drying resulted in faster germination of cypsela stored under uniformly dry conditions (Roché, 1996). Seeds germinate following autumn precipitation and grow as rosettes over the winter, utilizing the warmer microclimate at the soil surface. Although growth is relatively slower during the short days and colder temperatures of early to mid-winter, root growth rates increased to 1-2 cm per day after February in Idaho, USA (Roché, 1996).
Thermal time (degree-days), photoperiod, and vernalization were shown to regulate phenological development in C. vulgaris (Roché et al., 1997a). Base temperature was determined to be about 1ºC (Roché et al., 1997b). As a short/long day plant sensitive to vernalization, C. vulgaris initiated flowering sooner with cold temperature/short daylength vernalization followed by long days (Patterson and Mortenson, 1985; Roché et al., 1997a). Thermal time requirements from emergence to bud stage, anthesis, and seed dispersal were 600, 800, and 1150 degree-days, respectively (Roché et al., 1997a). In Idaho, bolting begins in April, followed by flowering from May into June. Earliest seed dispersal at the lowest elevations may begin at the end of May.
Although C. vulgaris is a preferential outcrosser that attracts generalist insect pollinators with pollen and nectar, it is facultatively autogamous (Couderc-LeVaillant, 1984). When conditions are not favourable for pollinators, flowers will self, without notable loss in fecundity (Roché, 1996). Normally one or two seeds are produced per head (Zamora, 1988), from a potential of one to five fertile flowers, with drought stress suggested as a major factor in abortion of the cypselas (Kambitsch, 1983). Zamora (1988) reported a range of 3 to 27 capitula per plant, with an average of only 2.4 to 23 cypsela per plant on a dry grassland site in Idaho. Typical populations of C. vulgaris were about 50 adults plants/m² (Belles et al., 1981) with seed production of about 1,000/m² (Zamora, 1988). The large cypsela size (19-36 mg; 4-5 mm long by 3-4 mm wide, with a 7-9 mm pappus) limits dispersal but leads to a high level of establishment success among seedlings (Roché and Thill, 2001). Like many annual composites, C. vulgaris appears to recruit heavily from newly dispersed seed, rather than from seedbanks. Under natural conditions, 90 to 98% of C. vulgaris seeds germinated the first autumn after production and none were found in the soil seedbank after four years (Zamora and Thill, 1989).
In Idaho and Oregon, the annual precipitation ranges from 300 to 600 mm at infested sites, where the elevation is 300 m to 1100 m, on southeast, south, to west-facing slopes; on other aspects C. vulgaris is limited to shallow rocky soils. In Modoc County, California, C. vulgaris grows on south, southwest to west-facing slopes between 1300 and 1600 m, where annual precipitation is 350 to 450 mm. In Sonoma County, California, annual precipitation at the infested site is 750 mm and the elevation ranges from 100 to 450 m. In Washington the affected site lies on southwest-facing slopes between 330 and 600 m, and receives 700-800 mm annual precipitation.
Crupina vulgaris has been reported in the following plant associations in Europe:
Sedetum caespitosi-Aphanetum cornucopioidis, Aegilopo geniculatae-Carthametum lanati, Medicago rigidulae-Aegilopietum geniculatae, Torili nodosae-Scandicetum australis, Centaureeto-Brachypodietum phoenicoidis, Festuceto-Brachypodietum phoenicoidis, Trifolio-Brachypodietum retusi, Ruteto-Brachypodietum ramosi, Erodio glandulosi-Arenarietum conimbricensis, Allio sphaerocephali-Poetum bulbosa, Brachypodietum ramosi, Phlomido-Brachypodietum (ramosae) retusi, Chaenorrhino subrifolii-Campanuletum fastigiatae, Iberidi-Lavanduletum pedunculatae, Rosmarino-Cistetum ladaniferi typicum, Santolino-Cistetum laurifolii typicum, Frankenio-Salsoletum (genistoidis) webbii, Coridothymo-Phlomidetum almeriensis, Gypsophilo-Centaureetum hyssopifoliae, Teucrio-Thymetum fontqueri, Veronico-Avenetum ibericae, Teucrio-Santolinetum pectinis, Salvieto-Lavanduletum spicae turolense, Lino-Salvietum lavandulaefoliae, Armerio-Salvietum phlomoides, Paronychio-Astragaletum tumidi, Saturejo-Genistetum boissieri, Genisto-Cytisetum fontanesii, Ulici-Genistetum speciosae, Filagini-Vulpietum, Vulpio-Trifolietum, Koelerio-Avenuletum mirandanae, Cleistogeno (serotinae)-Dichanthietum ischaemi, Stipo-Teucrietum montani, and Irido-Brometum erecti.
Invaded sites in North America are all potential natural grassland communities, in Idaho and Oregon primarily Agropyron/Festuca or Agropyron/Poa (Daubenmire, 1970; Tisdale, 1986), but C. vulgaris also occurs in open woodlands where the canopy is open and sparse enough to allow sunlight penetration to the ground. In Sonoma County, California, it grows predominantly on south-facing oak grasslands with dry, steep, well-drained soils (Davis and Sherman, 1991). In Modoc County in northeastern California, it grows in shrub steppe, Artemisia tridentata subsp. wyomingensis/Pseudoroegneria spicata, either with or without a scattered overstorey of Juniperus occidentalis (Sawyer and Keeler-Wolf, 1995).
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||-28|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||5||15|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||25||33|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||-9||2|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||2||12||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||320||950||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Special soil tolerances
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Propagation is entirely by seeds. The cypselas are too large and heavy for wind dispersal, with an unfavourable ratio of pappus size to seed weight. Cypselas may land a couple of metres from the parent plant by a flicking motion when plants with mature seeds poised in the capitula are disturbed. Fine hygroscopic bristles on the pappus can pull the cypselas through litter and short distances across the soil surface under conditions of fluctuating relative humidity (Pijl, 1972). Not only does the pappus move the cypsela into a favourable microsite for germination, but it also tilts it so that the hilum contacts the soil, reducing the risk of dehydration of the emerging radicle. The pappus may also aid flotation in moving water, although riparian zones are not a major habitat of C. vulgaris.
Vector Transmission (Biotic)
The pappus aids long-distance dispersal by lodging the seeds in fur, wool, hair, fabric or crevices of tyres, screens or other vehicular surfaces (Roché and Thill, 2001). The seeds are attractive to rodents which collect them in food caches. Rodent transport has been documented as far as 15 m (Zamora and Thill, 1989). All ingested seeds passed through digestive tracts of horses, cattle, deer, sheep, and pheasants within 5 days, with subsequent viability ranging up to 81% (in deer) (Thill et al., 1986). Only sheep passed no viable seeds. However, there is no field evidence that these animals feed on mature C. vulgaris heads. External transport, either on wool or in mud clinging to hooves, is more probable. Most seeds consumed by birds are lost to the regeneration pool, as pheasants and quail grind them in a gizzard (the study by Thill et al. (1986) failed to provide grit to the pheasants).
Known Crupina migration vectors in other parts of the world include ballast soil (Sorrie and Somers, 1999), packing material for construction equipment (Ising, 1937), and sheep (Schmida and Ellner, 1983).
Since APHIS has been keeping records on Federal Noxious Weeds (1983-present) in the USA, C. vulgaris has not been intercepted at a border crossing (Roché et al., 2003). If the route of introduction to the USA was with Basque immigrants, then the probability of additional introductions from Europe is low. Redistribution within North America remains highly likely because no containment or control work is being done at most locations.
While C. vulgaris seeds might be carried by recreationists or tourists as a curiosity based on their similarity to a fly fishing 'lure', locations where it grows are generally remote from population centres. It is not cultivated as an ornamental or crop plant.
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
|Solid wood packing material with bark|
|Solid wood packing material without bark|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact: BiodiversityTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Highly mobile locally
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Difficult to identify/detect in the field
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
In the laboratory, vegetative specimens can be distinguished based on trichome shape. C. vulgaris has short, highly branched trichomes in contrast to the long, smooth, unbranched trichomes of C. crupinastrum (Couderc-LeVaillant, 1984).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Cultural Control
Despite reports that it is unpalatable to livestock in North America (Gunn and Faul, 1979; Miller and Thill, 1983; Thill et al., 1985), C. vulgaris is highly favoured by sheep and goats in the Mediterranean region. Grazing by sheep could never be an eradication option (as demonstrated by the persistence of sparse populations under extreme grazing pressure in the Mediterranean region), but it could be used for suppression of extensive populations. Sheep may selectively graze C. vulgaris more than associated native grasses, but grazing must be properly timed to prevent dispersal of weed seeds.
Many of the invaded areas were already degraded to weedy annual grasses prior to introduction of C. vulgaris. Conversion to perennial grasses, either native or introduced, is a potential long-term solution to reducing the competitive status of C. vulgaris and reducing reinvasion by it and other exotic annuals. The main limitations are in establishing the perennial species from seed on remote, steep, rocky canyonlands. On such sites the primary consideration is for ecological stability, not forage yield or weed control, and species selection should reflect this (Thill et al., 1999). Good choices in northern Idaho include bunchgrasses like the fine-leaf Festuca species (F. idahoensis, F. trachyphylla [F. brevipila], F. ovina) because they develop extensive fibrous root systems that stabilize the soil and inhibit weed seedling establishment. Although slow to establish, they persist under semi-arid conditions (Thill et al., 1999). On gentler slopes with deeper soils that permit cultivation, rhizomatous or higher-yielding forage grasses can be established. Grazing should be timed to maximize competitiveness of the forage plants by restricting light to the annual weed seedlings during their winter establishment period.
Fire has not been demonstrated as an effective control method, and C. vulgaris populations increased in response to nutrient release and more light at the soil surface following wildfire at Lake Chelan in Washington, USA (M. Lenz, USDA Forest Service, Chelan Ranger District, USA, personal communication, 2003).
Tillage operations commonly used for annual cropping systems normally prevent establishment of C. vulgaris, which is not strongly competitive in situations where it is shaded by taller crops. It is easily pulled by hand, a method practical only for small infestations. Plants should be removed every 3 to 4 weeks during the spring to ensure complete removal prior to seed maturity. If the goal is eradication, sites must be inspected for at least 3 years after the last year of seed production, to ensure that no seeds or plants have escaped (Thill et al., 1999).
In the USA, effective herbicides registered for rangeland and pasture use to control C. vulgaris include picloram, clopyralid, dicamba, and 2,4-D (Thill et al., 1999). When only one application can be made, picloram has been the best treatment because residual activity controls seedlings emerging up to 2 years later (Zamora et al., 1989). Picloram can be applied in the autumn but its use is limited by adverse effects to non-target vegetation, including sensitive crops, and restrictions around water. Most herbicide treatments are most effective from early spring when plants are still rosettes through to the early bolting stage (usually before May). Although seed persistence on the soil is relatively short (approximately 32 months, Prather et al., 1991), follow-up treatment of escaped plants is necessary for complete control. Glyphosate may be used near water, but is less effective and is not recommended for use on steep slopes where C. vulgaris commonly grows because non-selective control leaves sites vulnerable to erosion.
No biological control agents have been approved for release, although research has begun on potential agents (Dianese et al., 1996; Sobhian et al., 1996; Hasan et al., 1999).
C. vulgaris populations are limited in extent and except for the canyon grasslands of north-central Idaho, USA, highly localized. Containment and prevention remain highly important strategies, which are practical because C. vulgaris does not move rapidly along transportation corridors or other traditional weed dispersal routes.
The best combination of control tactics will depend on the size of the infestation, degree of control desired, and attributes of the site such as topography, accessibility, and associated vegetation. Options on much of the affected area are limited by steep, rocky terrain, shallow soils, remoteness from vehicle access, and low economic returns (Burnworth, 1991).
ReferencesTop of page
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