Cirsium vulgare (spear thistle)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Air Temperature
- Rainfall Regime
- Soil Tolerances
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Environmental Impact
- Impact: Biodiversity
- Threatened Species
- Social Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.
Preferred Common Name
- spear thistle
Other Scientific Names
- Ascalea lanceolata (L.) Hill
- Carduus lanceolatus L.
- Carduus vulgaris Savi
- Cirsium lanceolatum (L.) Scop.
- Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Airy-Shaw
- Cnicus lanceolatus (L.) Willd.
International Common Names
- English: bank thistle; bell thistle; bird thistle; blue thistle; bull thistle; bur thistle; burr thistle; button thistle; common burr thistle; Fuller's thistle; lance-leaved thistle; plum thistle; roadside thistle
- Spanish: cardo lanceolado
- French: chardon lancéolé; cirse a feuilles lanceolees
- Russian: bodyak obiknovennii
Local Common Names
- Argentina: cardo negro
- Australia: black thistle; spear thistle
- Chile: cardo negro
- Denmark: horsetodsel
- Finland: piikkiohdake
- Germany: Gemeine Kratzdistel; Karmedik; Lanzettblaettrige Kratzdistel; Speerdistel
- Italy: cardo asinino; cardo lanceolato
- Japan: Amerikaoniazami; Amerika-oni-azami
- Netherlands: shaapdissel; speerdistel
- New Zealand: scotch thistle
- South Africa: scotch thistle
- Sweden: vaegtistel
- Uruguay: cardo negro
- USA/Hawaii: spear thistle
- CIRVU (Cirsium vulgare)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Asterales
- Family: Asteraceae
- Genus: Cirsium
- Species: Cirsium vulgare
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
Plant TypeTop of page
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Present||Native|
|Netherlands||Present||Native||Original citation: Klinkhamer & de Jong, 1993|
|Canada||Present||Introduced||Invasive||First reported: before 1821|
|-British Columbia||Present, Widespread||Introduced|
|-Newfoundland and Labrador||Present||Introduced||Invasive|
|-Prince Edward Island||Present||Introduced|
|Saint Pierre and Miquelon||Present||Introduced|
|-New South Wales||Present||Introduced|
|-Tasmania||Present||Introduced||First reported: 1830s|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
HabitatTop of page
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial||Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Managed||Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial||Natural / Semi-natural||Riverbanks||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Littoral||Coastal areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Allium cepa (onion)||Liliaceae||Other|
|Avena sativa (oats)||Poaceae||Main|
|Brassica napus var. napus (rape)||Brassicaceae||Other|
|Citrus sinensis (navel orange)||Rutaceae||Other|
|Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Gossypium herbaceum (short staple cotton)||Malvaceae||Other|
|Hordeum vulgare (barley)||Poaceae||Main|
|Linum usitatissimum (flax)||Other|
|Medicago sativa (lucerne)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Oryza sativa (rice)||Poaceae||Main|
|Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine)||Pinaceae||Other|
|Pisum sativum (pea)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Solanum tuberosum (potato)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)||Poaceae||Main|
|Triticum aestivum (wheat)||Poaceae||Main|
|Vitis vinifera (grapevine)||Vitaceae||Other|
|Zea mays (maize)||Poaceae||Main|
Growth StagesTop of page
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The chromosome number for C. vulgare is 2n=68 (Moore and Frankton, 1962; Grime et al., 1988). This number is not shared by other Cirsium species, as they have half or lower numbers of chromosomes than 68 (Moore and Frankton, 1974). Natural hybrids have been described between C. vulgare and other Cirsium species, including: C. x bipontinum, C. x breunium, C. x csepeliense, C. dissectum x C. vulgare, C. x gerhardtii (= C. x grandiflorum), C. x narbonese, C. x reyi, C. x sabaudum and C. x subspinuligerum (Klinkhamer and Jong, 1993).
Physiology and Phenology
C. vulgare achenes germinate throughout the year, with a small peak in autumn and large peak in spring (Klinkhamer and Jong, 1993). Some achenes germinate as soon as they reach the soil in late summer or early autumn if adequate germination conditions are met. In the first year, a basal rosette is formed that becomes vernalized after experiencing a winter season. If the rosette has attained a large enough size in spring it then bolts and flowers (Wesselingh et al., 1994). Vernalization is usually required for flower initiation (Groves and Kaye, 1989; Downs, 1998). Wesselingh et al. (1994) found that genotypes that flowered without cold in their first year were annuals, originating mainly from the south of Europe, while genotypes that flowered after experiencing winter cold in their second year were biennials, originating from the northern European populations. Under nutrient-rich conditions, C. vulgare behaved as a biennial (Jong et al., 1987) whereas some individuals require 4-5 years to flower and set achenes (Forcella and Randall, 1994). Achenes of C. vulgare have a wide range of germination responses depending on the geographic location of the population from which the achenes have been collected. In Australia, fresh seeds had 10-20% germination whereas those stored for three and six months had 50% and 80% germination, respectively (Forcella and Wood, 1986a). Fresh seeds collected from German and British populations had 26-42% germination (Tothill and Berry, 1981), 60-90% from the Netherlands (Klinkhamer and Jong, 1993) and 90-100% from Canada (Doucet and Cavers, 1997). Germination of C. vulgare seed can be affected by moisture, light availability, gap size and temperature (Cavers et al., 1998). Germination can be delayed by prolonged attachment to the pappus (Manku, 1998), leaf litter cover (Downs and Cavers, 2002), wetting and drying in the soil (Downs and Cavers, 2000) and overwintering at chilling temperatures in darkness (Doucet and Cavers, 1997). Under laboratory conditions, achene coat microorganisms from an undisturbed site promoted germination of C. vulgare. Mortality of seedlings was higher in undisturbed sites than in disturbed sites (van Leeuwen, 1981). The seeds germinate over a wide range of temperatures from as low as 5°C (Doucet and Cavers, 1997) to as high as 30°C (Lincoln, 1981). Fresh seeds have a higher optimum temperature for germination than stored seeds (23.5°C vs. 20.0°C) (Michaux, 1989b). C. vulgare is less sensitive to low water potential than other thistle species (Groves and Kaye, 1989). Seed require light to germinate (Klinkhamer and Jong, 1993; van Staden et al., 1995) and seeds that are induced into secondary dormancy by storing them under moist conditions in the darkness will not germinate in the absence of light (Klinkhamer and Jong, 1993; Doucet and Cavers, 1997). Seeds that do not germinate upon dispersal enter the seed bank and germinate at a later time (Forcella and Randall, 1994). Some authors support the formation of a persistent seed bank (Clark and Wilson, 1994; Doucet and Cavers, 1996, 1997) although others do not (van Breeman and van Leeuwen, 1983; Klinkhamer et al., 1988). In different years, the seed bank of C. vulgare was estimated at 1480-26371 seed per m² (Forcella and Wood, 1986a). About 20% of the seed bank can be lost through rodent consumption (Mitich, 1998). Various secondary metabolites including flavonoids (McGowan and Wallace, 1972; Wagner, 1977), phenolic acids (McGowan and Wallace, 1972) and alkaloids (Hultin and Torssell, 1965) have been extracted from this species.
C. vulgare flowers from late July to October and sets seed from August to October in the northern hemisphere (Grime et al., 1988). In the southern hemisphere, C. vulgare flowers and sets seed from late January (Groves and Kaye, 1989) to late May (Forcella and Wood, 1986b). Ovule fertilization occurs by self- or cross-pollination that can be accomplished by wind and insects. The flowers are pollinated by a variety of insects which feed on the nectar present at the base of the corolla. Bees (Apis spp. and Bombus spp.) are the most important pollinators, but butterflies and hoverflies have also been observed to serve as pollinators (Forcella and Randall, 1994). In the UK, a dawn-to-dusk study showed that C. vulgare flowers were visited by shorter-tongued bumblebees and honey bees (Fussell and Corbet, 1991). Self-pollination results in the production of fewer, heavier achenes than does cross-pollination (van Leeuwen, 1981). C. vulgare reproduces only by seed (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). Depending on size and duration of flowering, a single C. vulgare plant can produce from one to over 400 capitula (Forcella and Randall, 1994), each capitulum containing 100-700 achenes (Manku, 1998). Overall, a plant can produce from 1600 (Jong et al., 1987) to 8400 achenes (Forcella and Wood, 1986a), a healthy plant may produce 5000 achenes, while an exceptional individual can produce up to 50000 achenes (Holm et al., 1997). Achenes from the centre of the capitulum are heavier, longer and wider than those from the periphery (Manku, 1998). The central achenes are flat, whereas the peripheral ones are curved (Manku, 1998). Achenes are dispersed by water, wind, animals and machinery. The most important means of dispersal is hay contaminated with see (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). After dispersal and before germination, achenes reside briefly on or just below the soil surface, remaining viable for one year or longer, and some achenes may persist for five years (Mitich, 1998). C. vulgare achenes buried at 0-2, 5 or 20 cm, when collected and germinated three years later, had 1.4, 30.9 and 50.5% viability, respectively (Anon., 1986).
C. vulgare is generally a species of open areas with large amounts of light but can also occur in shaded areas on south-facing slopes (Grime et al., 1988; Klinkhamer and Jong, 1993). It grows in mesic habitats but can survive in dry sites on north-facing slopes (Klinkhamer and Jong, 1993). It grows in soils with different textures (light, medium and heavy) and with wide pH ranges, from very acid (pH3) to alkaline (pH8), but it is most common on soils of pH>5 (Grime et al., 1988). It is less common in sand and on soils with more than 30% humus content and is almost absent from pure clay (Klinkhamer and Jong, 1993). C. vulgare performs optimally at high nutrient concentrations (Austin et al., 1985) and prefers heavy soils of reasonable fertility and grows well under irrigation (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). It proliferates and thrives in heavily grazed pastures subject to nitrogen fertilization (Doing et al., 1969; Michael, 1970). However, soil potassium and phosphorus levels do not seem to influence its distribution (Klinkhamer and Jong, 1993). C. vulgare is not a wetland species but sometimes can be found on exposed mud at the margin of open water (Grime et al., 1988). It generally grows at altitudes up to 400 m, but suitable habitats are more common at lower altitudes (Grime et al., 1988). However, infestations have been found as high as 2800 m in Utah, USA (Dewey, 1991) and 3100 m in Ecuador (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003).
C. vulgare is often associated with perennial communities (e.g., grasslands) as well as species of disturbed habitats. In New Zealand, the fauna associated with C. vulgare were collected from rosettes, flowers and seed heads. This fauna is characterized as non-specific, non-damaging and impoverished with respect to Diptera and Coleoptera when compared with European and Asiatic faunas collected from C. vulgare (Michaux, 1989a). Symbiotic associations between C. vulgare and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have been found (Berch et al., 1988; Harris and Clapperton, 1997; Wilson and Hartnett, 1998). American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis) feed on the achenes and use the pappi to build nests (Mariani et al., 1993) and the plant also provides good cover for nesting birds (Wilson, 1981).
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Air TemperatureTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit|
|Absolute minimum temperature (ºC)||-24|
|Mean annual temperature (ºC)||2||15|
|Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC)||14||29|
|Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC)||-12||2|
RainfallTop of page
|Parameter||Lower limit||Upper limit||Description|
|Dry season duration||1||2||number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall|
|Mean annual rainfall||500||2000||mm; lower/upper limits|
Rainfall RegimeTop of page
Soil TolerancesTop of page
Special soil tolerances
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Ceutorhyncus trimaculatus||Herbivore||Plants|Growing point|
|Rhinocyllus conicus||Herbivore||Plants|Inflorescence; Plants|Seeds||South Africa|
|Terellia serratulae||Herbivore||Plants|Inflorescence; Plants|Seeds|
|Trichosirocalus horridus||Herbivore||Plants|Inflorescence; Plants|Seeds|
|Urophora stylata||Herbivore||Plants|Inflorescence||British Columbia; South Africa|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
The only significant method of dispersal is by achenes, each of which is equipped with a pappus. Since the pappus often becomes detached before the achene leaves the head, it is not well dispersed by wind. Nevertheless, air currents may carry occasional achenes with pappus firmly attached several kilometres (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992; Mitich, 1998). However, half of the achenes produced are dispersed to within 1 m of the parent plant, and only 11% are dispersed outside of the local population no matter what method of dispersal operates (Klinkhamer et al., 1988).
Vector Transmission (Biotic)
Achenes can be moved long distances by attachment to vehicles and farm machinery (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). Achenes can also be carried on the fur and feathers of animals and in the manure of animals carried on hooves (Hyde-Wyatt and Morris, 1980; Holm et al., 1997). The presence of elaiosomes (fleshy appendages) on C. vulgare achenes facilitates their dispersal by ants (Pemberton and Irving, 1990).
Seeding plants contaminate hay, which can be carried to new areas and serves as an important means of dispersal (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992).
C. vulgare achenes can contaminate crop seeds, and flowering plants may contaminate hay, which serve as accidental pathways for the introduction of this weed to new locations (Hyde-Wyatt and Morris, 1980; Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992; Forcella and Randall, 1994).
C. vulgare was probably introduced deliberately as an ornamental plant or for other purposes (Mitich, 1998).
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Fruits (inc. pods)||seeds|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||seeds|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||seeds|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
ImpactTop of page
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Impact: BiodiversityTop of page
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
|Threatened Species||Conservation Status||Where Threatened||Mechanism||References||Notes|
|Centrocercus minimus (Gunnison sage-grouse)||USA ESA listing as threatened species||Colorado; Utah||Ecosystem change / habitat alteration||US Fish and Wildlife Service (2013)|
|Cirsium pitcheri (Pitcher's thistle)||NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species||Illinois; Indiana; Michigan; Wisconsin||Hybridization||US Fish and Wildlife Service (2010a)|
|Cirsium vinaceum (Sacramento Mountains thistle)||NatureServe; USA ESA listing as threatened species||New Mexico||Competition (unspecified); Ecosystem change / habitat alteration||US Fish and Wildlife Service (2010b)|
|Cirsium wrightii (Wright's marsh thistle)||NatureServe; USA ESA candidate species||Arizona; New Mexico||Competition (unspecified); Ecosystem change / habitat alteration||US Fish and Wildlife Service (2015)|
|Speyeria callippe callippe (callippe silverspot butterfly)||USA ESA listing as endangered species||California||Ecosystem change / habitat alteration||US Fish and Wildlife Service (2009)|
Social ImpactTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Invasive in its native range
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Highly adaptable to different environments
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Highly mobile locally
- Has high reproductive potential
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts human health
- Negatively impacts animal health
- Negatively impacts tourism
- Reduced amenity values
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Competition (unspecified)
- Pest and disease transmission
- Produces spines, thorns or burrs
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
- Difficult/costly to control
UsesTop of page
Uses ListTop of page
- Host of pest
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Cultural Control
The ability of thistles to invade pastures can be changed by grazing management (Sindel, 1991), primarily by changing the competitiveness of the desirable pasture species (Sindel, 1996). Sheep, goats and horses, but not cattle, have a significant effect on thistles in the early stages of infestation when they eat young plants (Wheatley, 1981; Olson and Lacey, 1994). In one study, J. Leigh (in Davidson, 1990) showed that goats, which have a reputation for eating everything, tend to avoid thistle foliage but ate all capitula of C. vulgare available to them and thus completely prevented seed dispersal from mature plants. Sheep grazing can reduce competition from neighbouring plants and increase seedling survival, growth, flowering and achene production in C. vulgare (Forcella and Wood, 1986a; Silvertown and Smith, 1989). The percentage of seedlings that survived through to the rosette stage was 1% under grazed conditions and 0.2% in ungrazed pastures (Forcella and Wood, 1986a). Bullock et al. (1994) found no effects of grazing on achene number per capitula, post-dispersal achene survival or between-year survivals in the seed bank. In New Zealand, frequent grazing and sowing of prairie grass cv. Matua, increased the establishment of C. vulgare (Pineiro and Harris, 1987). Establishing and maintaining dense, vigorous and competitive pasture can effectively prevent C. vulgare establishment as shown in swards of pasture species and legumes (Wardle et al., 1992). Stocking pastures is an essential step in thistle control. In Australia, conservation of ryegrass (Lolium rigidum) in pastures infested with C. vulgare has been recommended (Forcella and Wood, 1986a). An increase in ryegrass sowing density caused a decrease in C. vulgare biomass and increased time to flowering (Seefeldt and Armstrong, 2000). However, sowing C. vulgare achenes 12 months after the establishment of ryegrass did not affect emergence and survival of C. vulgare (Armstrong et al., 2002).
In pastures previously given weed control treatments, cultivation and cropping was a successful control method. Small areas can be eradicated by excavating the rosettes. Mowing and slashing can only be effective if done either immediately prior to flowering or when plants are just starting to flower (Sindel, 1991) otherwise flowering is merely delayed (Harris and Wilkinson, 1984). Cutting can reduce the number of thistles primarily by reducing achene input (Randall, 1990). The plants must be cut off below the soil surface and no leaves can remain attached or it will grow back. When mowing is carried out too early it may only delay flowering, however, if plants are cut too late in the flowering process viable seed may still develop in the capitula following cutting. As there can be a wide variation in the maturity of plants, a single mowing is unlikely to provide satisfactory control (Sindel, 1991) and repeated mowing throughout the entire growing season has proved successful (Wheatley, 1981). In addition, reduced vegetative matter from mowing will allow autumn use of herbicides to be more effective. Hand-pulling, hoeing and tillage can be successful if these operations are performed before the reproductive growth stages to prevent cypsela production (Beck, 1999). Besides encouraging competing vegetation where possible, every effort should be made to prevent established plants from going to seed. It is worth mentioning that this kind of control is very labour-intensive.
Most herbicides give temporary control of thistles. Effective herbicides include dicamba (Wheatley, 1981), MCPA, 2,4-D and 2,4-D ester, (Harris and Wilkinson, 1984; Anon., 1986), or mixtures of 2,4-D + diuron, 2,4-D + triclopyr, or glyphosate + clopyralid (Leys et al., 1990; Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). Also, picloram, metsulfuron, chlorsulfuron (Beck, 1999), bentazon (Fellows, 1973), imazapyr (van Cantford et al., 1985), or mixtures of MCPA + terbutryne (Patterson, 1973) are used to control C. vulgare. In alfalfa fields, non-selective control can be achieved effectively by glyphosate or dicamba, with or without MCPA, in situations where legume damage is acceptable. In a strawberry plantation, 3,6-dichloropicolinic acid in gel formulation was effective at killing C. vulgare in autumn (Lawson and Wiseman, 1982). Cyanazine can be used selectively to remove C. vulgare in peas (Pisum sativum), onions (Allium cepa) and potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). Application rates can vary, depending on stand density and environmental conditions. Herbicides should be applied to rosettes in autumn or in the spring before the plants bolt (Beck, 1991).
Biological control programmes against C. vulgare have been initiated in North America as a result of its invasiveness and associated economic losses. These include the release of a gall forming fruit fly, Urophora stylata (Tephritidae), and a thistle head weevil, Rhinocyllus conicus (Curculionidae) (Forcella and Randall, 1994). In Canada, U. stylata was released in 1973 and led to a 65% reduction in achene formation in some areas after three years (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). This fruit fly is effective in controlling C. vulgare in central and western Europe, but results in North America show that fly dispersal is slow and the agent only survives in dense stands of C. vulgare (Harris and Wilkinson, 1984). R. conicus has a wide host range and can be a potential threat to native thistle species in North America (Turner et al., 1987). Its potential as a biocontrol agent has been investigated in Australia (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992). Two rosette-feeding weevils, Ceutorhynchus trimaculatus and Trichosirocalus horridus, were released in 1974 to control other carduine thistles in North America and have now spread to C. vulgare (Kok et al., 1979; McAvoy et al., 1987). None of these insects have provided adequate control of C. vulgare (Forcella and Randall, 1994). In Czechoslovakia, Terellia serratulae and U. stylata were recommended as biocontrol agents for C. vulgare. U. stylata produces galls in the flower heads of C. vulgare causing a reduction in the number of cypselas. T. serratulae does not produce galls but larvae of this species feeding on cypselas decrease seed production of the host plant. Larvae of both species can develop in the same flower head (Kinkorova, 1991). In South Africa, U. stylata from Germany and France and R. conicus from France were released on infestations of C. vulgare on several occasions from 1983 onwards. Initially, both herbivores became established and the results were modest (Zimmermann, 1990; 1991). However, the latest survey (Hodson et al., 2003) indicates that the contribution of R. conicus has been slight due to unidentified constraints, at least in the two localized areas that the weevils currently occupy. The fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been shown to have potential as a biological herbicide for controlling C. vulgare in pastures (Bourdôt and Harvey, 1996).
Control methods that have been used to date are either not very effective and just temporarily remove C. vulgare from the site, or can be costly and detrimental to crops (Wheatley, 1981). The methods that are currently applied create many practical problems (Minehan, 1996), however, a combination of these methods may help prevent this species from further invasion. Pulling out the plants by hand, grazing young plants with goats or using herbicide on young plants to prevent seed set, seeding disturbed areas with competitive native perennials (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 1992) and soil solarization (Nasr-Esfahani, 1993) could all play a part of integrated management and control. Also, disturbance of soil and vegetation can advance germination (Klinkhamer and Jong, 1988) which may help synchronize the germination of C. vulgare and improve the effectiveness of chemical control.
ReferencesTop of page
Agnew ADQ, 1974. Upland Kenya wild flowers. London, UK: Oxford University Press
Anon., 1986. Spear thistle and variegated thistle. Journal of Agriculture, Tasmania, 49:187-191.
Armstrong ML, Harrington KC, Seefeldt SS, 2002. Weed establishment in the second year after high pasture sowing rates. New Zealand Plant Protection Volume 55, 2002. Proceedings of a conference, Centra Hotel, Rotorua, New Zealand, 13-15 August 2002, 116-120; 8 ref
Ashton DH, 1981. Fire in tall open-forests (wet sclerophyll forests). In: Gill AM, Groves RH, Noble IR, eds. Fire and the Australian biota. Canberra, Australia: The Australian Academy of Science, 339-366
Auld BA, Medd RW, 1987. Weeds - An Illustrated Botanical Guide to the Weeds of Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata press
Bare JE, 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas. Lawrence, Kansas, USA: The Regents Press of Kansas
Barrow DA, Pickard RS, 1984. Size-related selection of food plants by bumblebees. Ecological Entomology, 9:369-373
Beck KG, 1991. Biennial thistle control with herbicides. In: James LF, Evans JO, Ralphs MH, Child RD, eds. Noxious range weeds. Boulder, Colorado, USA: Westview Press, 254-259
Beck KG, 1999. Biennial thistles. In: Sheley RL, Petroff JK, eds. Biology and Management of Noxious Rangeland Weeds. Corvallis, Oregon, USA: Oregon State University Press, 145-161
Bullock JM, Hill BC, Silvertown J, 1994. Demography of Cirsium vulgare in a grazing experiment. Journal of Ecology, 82:101-111
Clark DL, Wilson MV, 1994. Heat-treatment effects on seed bank species of an old-growth douglas-fir forest. Northwest Science, 68:1-5
Crow TR, Mroz GD, Gale MR, 1991. Regrowth and nutrient accumulations following whole-tree harvesting of a maple-oak forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 21:1305-1315
Darbyshire SJ, 2003. Inventory of Canadian agricultural weeds. Ottawa, Canada: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Dawe RS, Green CM, MacLead TM, Ferguson J, 1996. Daisy, dandelion and thistle contact allergy in the photosensitivity dermatitis and actinic reticuloid syndrome. Contact Dermatitis, 35:109-110
Dewey SA, 1991. Weed thistles of the western United States. In: James LF, Evans JO, Ralphs MH, Child RD, eds. Noxious Range Weeds. Boulder, Colorado, USA: Westview Press, 247-253
Doing H, Biddiscombe EF, Knedlhans S, 1969. Ecology and distribution of the Carduus nutans group (nodding thistles) in Australia. Vegetatio, 17:313-351
Downs MP, 1998. Effects of leaf litter on seedling emergence of bull thistle, Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. MSc thesis. University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
Downs MP, Cavers PB, 2002. Physical and chemical factors associated with the reduction or delay of seed germination and seedling emergence of bull thistle, Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. under leaf litter. Écoscience, 9:519-525
Fellows RW, 1973. Preliminary trials with bentazon on pasture. Proceedings of the 26th New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference, Auckland, New Zealand, 45-47
Finot SVL, Urbina PA, Minoletti OML, Wilckens ER, Figueroa RM, Riquelme CM, 1996. Achene and seedling morphology of Asteraceae weed species from south-central Chile. I. Agro-Ciencia, 12(1):15-29; 26 ref
Fujiyama N, Katakura H, 2002. Host plant suitability of a recently naturalized thistle Cirsium vulgare (Asteraceae) for a phytophagous ladybird beetle, Epilachna pustulosa (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Ecological Research, 17(3):275-282; 28 ref
Goeden RD, Ricker DW, 1986. Phytophagous insect faunas of two introduced Cirsium thistles, C. ochrocentrum and C. vulgare, in southern California. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 79(6):945-952
Harris P, Clapperton MJ, 1997. An exploratory study on the influence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the success of weed biological control with insects. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 7(2):193-201; 46 ref
Harris P, Wilkinson ATS, 1984. Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten., bull thistle (Compositae). In: Kelleher JS, Hulme MA, eds. Biological control programmes against insects and weeds in Canada 1969-1980. Farnham Royal, Slough, UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, 147-153
Hodson JL, Hoffmann JH, Zimmermann HG, 2003. Biological control of spear thistle, Cirsium vulgare (Asteraceae), in South Africa: a modest start for Rhinocyllus conicus (Coleoptera : Curculionidae). African Entomology, 11:15-20
Holm L, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. Toronto, Canada: John Wiley and Sons Inc
Hulten E, 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press
Hultin E, Torssell K, 1965. Alkaloid-screening of Swedish plants. Phytochemistry, 4:425-433
Hyde-Wyatt BH, Morris DI, 1980. The noxious and secondary weeds of Tasmania. Tasmania, Australia: Department of Agriculture
Isaev VV, Fedorov VG, Sotnikov VA, 1988. Economic evaluation of weed control. Zashchita Rastenii Moskva, 7:16-17
Jordan LS, 1983. Weeds affect citrus growth, physiology, yield, fruit quality. Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture, 1981. Volume 2. Fruit Tree Research Station Shimizu Japan, 481-483
Kelly D, Popay AI, 1985. Pasture production lost to unsprayed thistles at two sites. Proceedings, New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference Hastings, New Zealand; New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Society, 115-118
Kinkorova J, 1991. Life histories of Terellia serratulae and Urophora stylata (Diptera, Tephritidae) and their co-occurrence on Cirsium vulgare. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca, 88:293-298
Klinkhamer PGL, Jong TJ de, 1993. Biological flora of the British Isles, No. 176. Cirsium vugare (Savi) Ten. Journal of Ecology, 81:177-191
Kok LT, Andres LA, Boldt PE, 1979. Host specificity studies on Ceutorhynchus trimaculatus (Col.: Curculionidae), a potential biological control agent of musk and plumeless thistle. Environmental Entomology, 8(6):1145-1149
Kuijt J, 1982. A flora of Waterton Lakes National Park. Edmonton, Canada: University of Alberta Press
Lawson HM, Wiseman JS, 1982. Evaluation of 3,6-dichloropicolinic acid in gel formulation for selective spot-treatment of perennial composite weeds. Annals of Applied Biology, 100(Supplement, Tests of Agrochemicals and Cultivars):78-79
Leys AR, Amor RL, Barnett AG, Plater B, 1990. Evaluation of herbicides for control of summer-growing weeds on fallows in south-eastern Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 30(2):271-279
Mabberley DJ, 1989. The Plant Book. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
Manku R, 1998. Achene variation in bull thistle, Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. MSc thesis. University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
Mariani CL, Earley CG, McKinnon C, 1993. Early nesting by the American goldfinch, Carduelis tristis, and subsequent parasitism by the brown-headed cowbird, Molothrus ater, in Ontario. Canadian Field Naturalist, 107:349-350
Martin WC, Hutchins CR, 1981. A flora of New Mexico, Vol. 2. Hirschberg, Germany: J. Cramer
McDonald PM, Tappeiner JC, 1986. Weeds: the cycles suggest controls. Journal of Forestry, 84: 33-37
McDonald RC, Kidd KA, Robbins NS, 1994. Establishment of the rosette weevil, Trichosirocalus horridus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in North Carolina. Journal of Entomological Science, 29(3):302-304
McGowan GS, Wallace JW, 1972. Flavonoids and phenolic acids from Cirsium lanceolatum. Phytochemistry, 11:1503-1504
Michael PW, 1970. Weeds of grasslands. In: Moore RM, ed. Australian grassland. Canberra, Australia: Australian National University Press, 349-360
Michaux B, 1989. Reproductive and vegetative biology of Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. (Compositae: Cynareae). New Zealand Journal of Botany, 27:401-414
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003. VAScular Tropicos database. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html
Mohlenbrock RH, 1986. Guide to the vascular flora of Illinois, revised edition. Carbondale, Illinois, USA: Southern Illinois University Press
Moore RJ, Frankton C, 1962. Cytotaxonomic studies in the tribe Cynareae (Compositae). Canadian Journal of Botany, 40:281-293
Nasr-Esfahani M, 1993. Soil-solarization for the control of weeds in Pantanagar. Integrated weed management for sustainable agriculture. Proceedings of an Indian Society of Weed Science International Symposium, Hisar, India, 18-20 November 1993 Hisar, Haryana, India; Indian Society of Weed Science, Vol. III:233-237
O'Kennon B, Nesom G, 1988. First report of Cirsium vulgare (Asteraceae) from Texas. SIDA, 13:115-116
Peterson LA, 1977. A field guide to edible wild plants of eastern and central North America. Boston, USA: Houghton Mifflin Company
Pineiro J, Harris W, 1987. Performance of mixtures of ryegrass cultivars and prairie grass with red clover cultivars under two grazing frequencies. 2. Shoot populations and natural reseeding of prairie grass. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 21:665-673
Radford AE, 1986. Fundamentals of Plant Systematics. New York, USA: Harper and Row, Publishers
Radford AE, Ahles HE, Bell CR, 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA: The University of North Carolina Press
Randall JM, 1990. Manual control of spear thistle (Cirsium vulgare), and alien biennial in Yosemite National Park, California. Biology and control of invasive plants Ruthin, Clwyd, UK; Richards, Moorhead & Laing Ltd, 64-71
Randall JM, 2000. Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore. In: Bossard CC, Randall JM, Hoshovsky MC, eds. Invasive plants of California's wildlands. Berkeley, California, USA: University of California Press, 112-119
Randall JM, Rejmanek M, 1993. Interference of bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare) with growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seedlings in a forest plantation. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 23(8):1507-1513
Rousseau C, 1968. Histoire, habitat et distribution de 220 plantes introduites au Québec. Naturaliste Canadien, 95:49-169
Salveter R, 1998. The influence of sown herb strips and spontaneous weeds on the larval stages of aphidophagous hoverflies (Dipt., Syrphidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 122(2/3):103-114; 3 pp. of ref
Seefeldt SS, Armstrong ML, 2000. Impact of perennial ryegrass seeding densities on weed emergence, growth and development. New Zealand Plant Protection Volume 53, 2000. Proceedings of a conference, Commodore Hotel, Christchurch, New Zealand, 8-10 August 2000, 38-43; 7 ref
Smith KGV, McLean IFG, 1998. Leucopis glyphinivora Tanasijtshuk (Dipt., Chamaemyiidae) new to Britain and the aerial distribution of its puparium via thistle pappus. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 133(1604-7):85-87; 6 ref
Strausbaugh PD, Core EL, 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd edn. Morgantown, West Virginia, USA: Seneca Books, Inc
Thompson J, Gray M, 1981. A check-list of subalpine and alpine plant species found in the Kosciusko region of New South Wales. Telopea, 2:299-346
Turner CE, Pemberton RW, Rosenthal SS, 1987. Host utilization of native Cirsium thistles (Asteraceae) by the introduced weevil Rhinocyllus conicus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in California. Environmental Entomology, 16(1):111-115
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2009. Callippe Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria callippe callippe). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Callippe Silverspot Butterfly (Speyeria callippe callippe). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.29 pp.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.29 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3083.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010. Sacramento Mountains thistle (Cirsium vinaceum). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. In: Sacramento Mountains thistle (Cirsium vinaceum). 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation : US Fish and Wildlife Service.50 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc3285.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2013. Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Gunnison Sage-Grouse; Proposed Rule. In: Federal Register , 78(8) : US Fish and Wildlife Service.2486-2538. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-01-11/pdf/2012-31667.pdf
US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Cirsium wrightii. In: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service species assessment and listing priority assignment form: Cirsium wrightii : US Fish and Wildlife Service.37 pp. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/candidate/assessments/2015/r2/Q3N3_P01.pdf
USDA-ARS, 2003. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Plant Germplasm System. Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
van Breeman AAM, van Leeuwen BH, 1983. The seedbank of three short-lived monocarpic species Cirsium vulgare (Compositae), Echium vulgare and Cynoglossum officinale (Boraginaceae). Acta Botanica Neerlandica, 32:245-246
van Cantfort AM, Rabby JC, Hegman, AR, Dunn JC, 1985. Arsenal herbicide update: new species controlled, forestry and grass release. Proceedings, Southern Weed Science Society, 38th Annual Meeting, 356
van Leeuwen BH, 1981. Influence of micro-organisms on the germination of the monocarpic Cirsium vulgare in relation to disturbance. Oecologia, 48:112-115
van Staden J, Kelly KM, Ross JA, 1995. Changes in germination requirements of Cirsium vulgare with storage. South African Journal of Botany, 61:1-4
Wagner H, 1977. Cynareae - Chemical review. In: Heywood VH, Harborne JB, Turner BL, eds. The biology and chemistry of the Compositae, Vol. II. London, UK: Academic Press, Inc., 1017-1038
Walker AK, Michaux B, 1989. The chrysanthemum thrips, Thrips nigropilosus Uzel (Terebrantia: Thysanoptera), on Scotch thistle, Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. (Compositae: Cynareae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist, No. 12:17-19
Wardle DA, Nicholson KS, Rahman A, 1992. Influence of pasture grass and legume swards on seedling emergence and growth of Carduus nutans L. and Cirsium vulgare L. Weed Research (Oxford), 32(2):119-128
Weaver JE, 1968. Prairie plants and their environment: A fifty-year study in the Midwest. Lincoln, Nebraska, USA: University of Nebraska Press
Weber WA, Wittmann RC, 1996. Colorado Flora: Eastern Slope, edition 2. Niwot, Colorado, USA: University Press of Colorado
Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000
Wofford BE, 1989. Guide to the vascular plants of the Blue Ridge. Athens, Georgia, USA: The University of Georgia Press
Wunderlin RP, 1998. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida. Gainesville, Florida, USA: University Press of Florida
Agnew ADQ, 1974. Upland Kenya wild flowers., London, UK: Oxford University Press.
Bare JE, 1979. Wildflowers and weeds of Kansas., Lawrence, Kansas, USA: The Regents Press of Kansas.
Bennett J P, 2001. Type characters of non-native plant species in Great Lakes National Parks (USA). In: Plant invasions: species ecology and ecosystem management. [ed. by Brundu G, Brock J, Camarda I, Child L, Wade M]. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers. 199-206.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Crow T R, Mroz G D, Gale M R, 1991. Regrowth and nutrient accumulations following whole-tree harvesting of a maple-oak forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 21 (9), 1305-1315. DOI:10.1139/x91-184
Finot S V L, Urbina P A, Minoletti O M L, Wilckens E R, Figueroa R M, Riquelme C M, 1996. Achene and seedling morphology of Asteraceae weed species from south-central Chile. I. (Morfología de los aquenios y plántulas de malezas de la familia Asteraceae del centro-sur de Chile. I.). Agro-Ciencia. 12 (1), 15-29.
Grossmueller D W, Lederhouse R C, 1987. The role of nectar source distribution in habitat use and oviposition by the tiger swallowtail butterfly. Journal of the Lepidopterists' Society. 41 (3), 159-165.
Hulten E, 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories., Stanford, California, USA: Stanford University Press.
Jordan L S, 1983. Weeds affect citrus growth, physiology, yield, fruit quality. In: Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture, 1981. Volume 2. [Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture, 1981. Volume 2.], Shimizu, Japan: Fruit Tree Research Station. 481-483.
Kelly D, Popay A I, 1985. Pasture production lost to unsprayed thistles at two sites. In: Proceedings, New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference. [Proceedings, New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference.], Hastings, New Zealand: New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Society. 115-118.
Kinkorova J, 1991. Life histories of Terellia serratulae and Urophora stylata (Diptera, Tephritidae) and their co-occurrence on Cirsium vulgare. In: Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca, 88 293-298.
Malan S C, Donahue D J, 1986. Abundance and distribution of Carduus and Cirsium species in selected counties of Maryland. In: Proceedings, 40th annual meeting of the Northeastern Weed Science Society. [Proceedings, 40th annual meeting of the Northeastern Weed Science Society.], 120.
Martin WC, Hutchins CR, 1981. A flora of New Mexico., 2 Hirschberg, Germany: J. Cramer.
McDonald R C, Kidd K A, Robbins N S, 1994. Establishment of the rosette weevil, Trichosirocalus horridus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in North Carolina. Journal of Entomological Science. 29 (3), 302-304.
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2003. Vascular Tropicos database., St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/vast.html
Muhammad Tauseef, Fahad Ihsan, Wajad Nazir, Jahanzaib Farooq, 2012. Weed Flora and importance value index (IVI) of the weeds in cotton crop fields in the region of Khanewal, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 18 (3), 319-330. http://www.wssp.org.pk/article.htm
Nobile R A, Luján V S, 1989. Description and illustration of the seeds of prescribed agricultural weeds in Argentina. (Descripcíon e ilustración de las semillas de las malezas declaradas plagas de la agricultura en la Argentina.). Malezas. 17 (1), 63-70.
O'Kennon B, Nesom G, 1988. First report of Cirsium vulgare (Asteraceae) from Texas. In: SIDA, 13 115-116.
Petersen P M, 1982. Vegetation changes resulting from a lowering of the local water table. (Vegetationsændringer som følge af en sænkning af det lokale grundvandsspejl.). In: Nordisk Jordbrugsforskning, 64 (4) 536-537.
Randall JM, 2000. Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore. In: Invasive plants of California's wildlands, [ed. by Bossard CC, Randall JM, Hoshovsky MC]. Berkeley, California, USA: University of California Press. 112-119.
Salveter R, 1998. The influence of sown herb strips and spontaneous weeds on the larval stages of aphidophagous hoverflies (Dipt., Syrphidae). Journal of Applied Entomology. 122 (2/3), 103-114. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0418.1998.tb01470.x
Stobbs L W, Greig N, Weaver S, Shipp L, Ferguson G, 2009. The potential role of native weed species and bumble bees (Bombus impatiens) on the epidemiology of Pepino mosaic virus. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 31 (2), 254-261. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07060660909507599
Strausbaugh PD, Core EL, 1977. Flora of West Virginia., Morgantown, West Virginia, USA: Seneca Books, Inc.
USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx
Weaver JE, 1968. Prairie plants and their environment: A fifty-year study in the Midwest., Lincoln, Nebraska, USA: University of Nebraska Press.
Weber WA, Wittmann RC, 1996. Colorado Flora: Eastern Slope., Niwot, Colorado, USA: University Press of Colorado.
Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000
Wofford BE, 1989. Guide to the vascular plants of the Blue Ridge., Athens, Georgia, USA: The University of Georgia Press.
Wunderlin RP, 1998. Guide to the Vascular Plants of Florida., Gainesville, Florida, USA: University Press of Florida.
Distribution MapsTop of page
Select a dataset
CABI Summary Records
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/