Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Callisia repens
(creeping inch-plant)

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Datasheet

Callisia repens (creeping inch-plant)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Callisia repens
  • Preferred Common Name
  • creeping inch-plant
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. repens is an herbaceous species which has been widely cultivated as an ornamental in gardens and yards in tropical and subtropical regions from where it has escaped into natural areas. C. repens spreads vegetatively by cutting...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Callisia repens (inch plant); habit, climbing on rock wall. Upper road Kanaio, Maui.  June 01, 2009
TitleHabit
CaptionCallisia repens (inch plant); habit, climbing on rock wall. Upper road Kanaio, Maui. June 01, 2009
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2009. CC-BY-3.0
Callisia repens (inch plant); habit, climbing on rock wall. Upper road Kanaio, Maui.  June 01, 2009
HabitCallisia repens (inch plant); habit, climbing on rock wall. Upper road Kanaio, Maui. June 01, 2009©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2009. CC-BY-3.0
Callisia repens (inch plant); habit, climbing on rock wall. Upper road Kanaio, Maui.  June 01, 2009
TitleHabit
CaptionCallisia repens (inch plant); habit, climbing on rock wall. Upper road Kanaio, Maui. June 01, 2009
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2009. CC-BY-3.0
Callisia repens (inch plant); habit, climbing on rock wall. Upper road Kanaio, Maui.  June 01, 2009
HabitCallisia repens (inch plant); habit, climbing on rock wall. Upper road Kanaio, Maui. June 01, 2009©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2009. CC-BY-3.0
Callisia repens (inch plant); habit, climbing on rock wall. Upper road Kanaio, Maui.  June 01, 2009
TitleHabit
CaptionCallisia repens (inch plant); habit, climbing on rock wall. Upper road Kanaio, Maui. June 01, 2009
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2009. CC-BY-3.0
Callisia repens (inch plant); habit, climbing on rock wall. Upper road Kanaio, Maui.  June 01, 2009
HabitCallisia repens (inch plant); habit, climbing on rock wall. Upper road Kanaio, Maui. June 01, 2009©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2009. CC-BY-3.0
Callisia repens (inch plant); invasive habit and close-up of foliage. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui.  March 07, 2011
TitleHabit
CaptionCallisia repens (inch plant); invasive habit and close-up of foliage. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui. March 07, 2011
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2011. CC-BY-3.0
Callisia repens (inch plant); invasive habit and close-up of foliage. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui.  March 07, 2011
HabitCallisia repens (inch plant); invasive habit and close-up of foliage. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui. March 07, 2011©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2011. CC-BY-3.0
Callisia repens (inch plant); invasive habit and close-up of foliage. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui.  March 07, 2011
TitleHabit
CaptionCallisia repens (inch plant); invasive habit and close-up of foliage. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui. March 07, 2011
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2011. CC-BY-3.0
Callisia repens (inch plant); invasive habit and close-up of foliage. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui.  March 07, 2011
HabitCallisia repens (inch plant); invasive habit and close-up of foliage. Kula Botanical Garden, Maui. March 07, 2011©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2011. CC-BY-3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Callisia repens Jacq. L., 1760

Preferred Common Name

  • creeping inch-plant

Other Scientific Names

  • Callisia repens var. ciliata Roem. & Schult.
  • Callisia repens var. mandonii (Hassk.) C.B.Clarke
  • Commelina hexandra var. mandonii Hassk.
  • Hapalanthus repens Jacq.
  • Spironema robbinsii C. Wright
  • Tradescantia callisia Sw.

International Common Names

  • English: Bolivian jew; chain plant; creeping inch-plant; inch plant; inch vine; striped creeping inch-plant; turtle vine; water weed
  • Spanish: canutillo; hierba de pena; lengua de gallina; picadillo
  • French: belle mere soleil; bon dieu mouri; bon dieu soleil; mais marron; petit bon dieu mouri

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: canutillo rastrero
  • Dominican Republic: cohítre enano; suelda con suelda; ti-bon bieu mouri
  • Germany: Kriechendes Schönpolster
  • Haiti: ti-bon bieu mouri
  • Lesser Antilles: oreillo di raton; yerba de awa
  • Puerto Rico: belleza; cohítre enano; lengua de gallina

EPPO code

  • CILRE (Callisia repens)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. repens is an herbaceous species which has been widely cultivated as an ornamental in gardens and yards in tropical and subtropical regions from where it has escaped into natural areas. C. repens spreads vegetatively by cuttings, plant fragments, and/or discarded plants (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005). Once established, this species grows forming dense groundcover or “beds” on the forest floor preventing the germination and establishment of native plants. C. repens is listed as an invasive in South Africa, China, and Cuba (Foxcroft et al., 2007; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012; González-Torres et al., 2012), and it is also a common weed in Puerto Rico and US Virgin Islands (Más and Lugo, 2013).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Commelinales
  •                         Family: Commelinaceae
  •                             Genus: Callisia
  •                                 Species: Callisia repens

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Commelinaceae includes 40 genera and 652 species widely distributed in tropical and temperate regions (Stevens, 2012). Member of this family are herbs with relatively soft and fleshy leaves. Commelinaceae is a diverse family of plants present in both the Old World and the New World tropics (Faden, 1983; Evans et al., 2003). The species within this family exhibit remarkable morphological variation, particularly in floral and inflorescence characters (Evans et al., 2000; Faden, 2000). Studies suggest that this family has radiated extensively in response to non-nectar seeking pollinators with changes in floral symmetry, stamen number, structure, and position, and the arrangement and size of inflorescences (Faden, 2000; Evans et al., 2003). Callisia is a genus with about 20 species confined to warm temperate and tropical America (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 1996). The genus Callisia is characterized by the presence of inflorescences composed of paired, sessile cincinni; the absence of spathaceous bracts below the cincinnus-pairs; and the actinomorphic flowers with monomorphic stamens (Faden, 1998).

Description

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Perennial, prostrate, slender, creeping herb, the often purplish stems rooting at the nodes and often forming mats. Leaves are ovate, 1-4 cm long; 1-2 cm broad, acute at apex, rounded to sub-cordate at base, sessile, sub-succulent, glabrous except for ciliate margins; pale green; sheath tubular, 3-3.5 mm long, with a few long hairs at apex. Flowering in branches often somewhat ascending with leaves progressively smaller; flowers-clusters barely exserted beyond the sheaths in leaf-axils; bracts filiform, ciliate, 6-7 mm long. Sepals 3, linear lanceolate, greenish, 2-5 mm long, minutely pubescent; petals 4, oblong, whitish hyaline, slightly shorter than or equaling the sepals; stamens exserted, typically 3, but may vary in number from 0 to 6; filaments minutely ribbon-like, coiled at first, to 10 mm long; anthers rounded-elliptic or elliptic, basal on a reniform white connective ca. 0.5 mm long. Ovary 2-locular, pilose at apex, style filiform, up to 4.5 mm long, the stigma trifid (Howard, 1979) or penicillate (Hunt, 1983), 2 ovules per locule. Fruit is a lenticular capsule, approximately 1.7 mm long, splitting from apex to base; seeds 2 per valve, brown, approximately 1 mm, rugose (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005).

Plant Type

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Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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C. repens is native to Mexico, Central America, South America, and the West Indies (Govaerts, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2013). It has been suggested that the species owes part of its present distribution range to human introduction. It is commonly planted as an ornamental in gardens and in hanging baskets (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EthiopiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
KenyaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
MalawiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
South AfricaPresentIntroduced1999InvasiveInvasive in Kruger National Park
UgandaPresentIntroducedInvasive
ZambiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized

Asia

ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
Hong KongPresentIntroducedInvasiveNaturalized

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNative
ArubaPresentNative
BarbadosPresentNative
BelizePresentNative
British Virgin IslandsPresentNativeGuana, Tortola, Virgin Gorda
Cayman IslandsPresentNative
Costa RicaPresentNative
CubaPresentInvasive
CuraçaoPresentNative
DominicaPresentNative
Dominican RepublicPresentNative
El SalvadorPresentNative
GrenadaPresentNative
GuadeloupePresentNative
GuatemalaPresentNative
HaitiPresentNative
HondurasPresentNative
JamaicaPresentNative
MartiniquePresentNative
MexicoPresentNative
MontserratPresentNative
Netherlands AntillesPresentNativeSaba, St Barthelemy, St Eustatius, St Martin
NicaraguaPresentNative
PanamaPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentNativeInvasiveWeed
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNative
Saint LuciaPresentNative
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNative
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNative
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentNativeInvasiveSt Croix, St John. Listed as a weed
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative
BoliviaPresentNative
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlagoasPresentNative
-BahiaPresentNative
-CearaPresentNative
-Espirito SantoPresentNative
-ParaibaPresentNative
-PernambucoPresentNative
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNative
-Rio Grande do SulPresentNative
-Sao PauloPresentNative
-SergipePresentNative
EcuadorPresentNative
French GuianaPresentNative
ParaguayPresentNative
PeruPresentNative
VenezuelaPresentNative

History of Introduction and Spread

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C. repens has been actively introduced as an ornamental and houseplant in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In South Africa, the species was first recorded in 1999 and now is listed as invasive (Foxcroft et al., 2007). Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the US Virgin Islands, where this species is listed as invasive and as a common weed, are within its native distribution range (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005; Govaerts, 2013) .

Risk of Introduction

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C. repens is widely commercialized in the nursery and landscape trade as an ornamental, houseplant, and as a ground cover. It can easily be propagated by cuttings and by plant fragments that rapidly colonize areas where it grows (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005; Foxcroft et al., 2007). Consequently, the probability of this species invading and colonizing new habitats remains high.

Habitat

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C. repens can be found in disturbed sites (waste areas and  roadsides), riparian areas, secondary forests, and shrublands in tropical and warm temperate regions. This species also grows as a garden plant (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Cytogenetic studies performed with specimens collected from Brazil have showed that the chromosome number in C. repens is 2n = 12 (Beltraõ and Guerra, 1990; Pitrez, 2001). 

Reproductive Biology

Commelinaceae lacks nectar and flowering is brief (generally a few hours, always less than a day). As a consequence, flowers rarely attract pollinators such as butterflies, moths, birds or bats and floral visitors are rewarded with a special type of pollen (Faden, 1992). Flowers in the Commelinaceae are primarily entomophilous or autogamous. Flowers are mainly visited by social and solitary bees and syrphid flies and less frequently by flies, beetles, and ants (Faden, 1992). 

Environmental Requirements

C. repens grows in moist shady conditions at low to upper middle elevations (from sea level to 830 m). This species can be found growing on rocky bands, sandy, and gravelly soils and also climbing on rocks (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005; Más and Lugo, 2013). It is found on acid to very acid soils.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 35
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 15

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall6003000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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C. repens spreads by seeds, but it also reproduces by creeping stems, cuttings, and plant fragments. Plants can spread laterally by the elongation of stems and can cover large areas in a relatively short period of time. Additionally plants and stem fragments can be dispersed to new areas by humans, animals or in discarded garden waste (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeeds and plant segments Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)
Garden waste disposalPlants and plant segments Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)
Habitat restoration and improvementFrequently used as ground cover Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2013)
Nursery trade Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2013)
Ornamental purposesPlanted as ornamental in gardens and yards Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2013)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesPlants and plant segments Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)
Land vehiclesPlants and plant segments Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)
MailSeeds and plants sold by nursery and landscape trade Yes Yes USDA-ARS (2013)
Soil, sand and gravelPlants and plant segments Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)
WaterPlants and plant segments Yes Yes Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2005)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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C. repens has a high weed risk due to its smothering ground cover effect. This species multiplies and spreads extremely quickly creating dense mats that prevent the germination and establishment of native plants. C. repens has escaped from gardens and is now well established in waste ground, roadsides, riverbanks, and disturbed tropical and subtropical forests where it is considered a significant environmental weed with the potential to crowd out native plants and prevent their regeneration (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2007; Foxcroft et al., 2007).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - smothering
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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C. repens is an economically important species in the nursery and landscape trade. Its is widely commercialized as an ornamental and also it is used as ground cover in gardens and yards.

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Soil conservation
  • Soil improvement

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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C. repens looks similar to Callisia monandra. C. repens can be distinguished by its succulent leaves with ciliate margins and by the sessile inflorescence that is hidden by the subtending bracts (Hammel et al., 2003).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 1996. Flora of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 78:1-581

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2005. Monocots and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, volume 52:415 pp

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adams CD, 1972. Flowering Plants of Jamaica. University of the West Indies, 267

Balick MJ, Nee M, Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85:1-246

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Correa A, Galdames MDC, Stapf MNS, 2004. Catalogue of vascular plants of Panama (Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama.), Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 599 pp

Davidse G, Sousa Sánchez M, Chater AO, 1994. Alismataceae a Cyperaceae. Flora Mesoamericana, 6:i-xvi,1-543

Evans TM, Faden RB, Simpson MG, Sytsma KJ, 2000. Phylogenetic relationships in the Commelinaceae: I. A cladistic analysis of morphological data. Systematic Botany, 25:668-691

Evans TM, Sytsma KJ, Faden RB, Givnish TJ, 2003. Phylogenetic relationships in the Commelinaceae: II. A cladistic analysis of rbcL sequences and morphology. Systematic Botany, 28:270-292

Faden RB, 1983. Phytogeography of African Commelinaceae. Bothalia, 14:553-557

Faden RB, 1992. Floral attraction and floral hairs in the Commelinaceae. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 79:46-52

Faden RB, 1998. Commelinaceae. In: The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol 4 [ed. by Kubitzki, K.]. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 109-128

Faden RB, 2000. Floral biology of Commelinaceae. In: Monocots: systematics and evolution [ed. by Wilson, K. L. \Morrison, D. A.]. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO, 309-318

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012. Flora of China Web. Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/

Forzza RC, Leitman PM, Costa AF, Carvalho Jr AA, et al. , 2012. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

Foxcroft LC, Richardson DM, Wilson JRU, 2007. Ornamental plants as invasive aliens: problems and solutions in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Environmental Management, 41(1):32-51

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp

Garcia JGL, Macbryde B, Molina AR, Herrera Macbryde O, 1975. Malezas prevalentes de America Central (Prevalent weeds of Central America). Corvallis, Oregon, USA: Int. Plant Protection Centre, Oregon State Univ., 168 pp

González-Torres LR, Rankin R, Palmarola A (eds), 2012. Invasive plants in Cuba. (Plantas Invasoras en Cuba.) Bissea: Boletin sobre Conservacion de Plantad del Jardin Botanico Nacional, 6:1-140

Govaerts R, 2013. World Checklist of Commelinaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Hammel BE, Grayum MH, Herrera C, Zamora N, 2003. Manual de plantas de Costa Rica v. 3. Monocotyledoneas (Orchidaceae-Zingiberaceae). St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden

Hatch SL, Gandhi KN, Brown LE, 1990. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Texas. Texas, USA: Texas Agricultural Experiment Station

Hokche O, Berry PE, Huber O, 2008. New catalogue of the vascular plants of Venezuela (Nuevo Catalogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela). Caracas, Venezuela: Fundacion Instituto Botanico de Venezuela

Howard RA, 1979. Flora of the Lesser Antilles, Volume 3. Monocotyledoneae. Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University, Massachusetts, USA

Hunt DR, 1983. New names in Commelinaceae: American Commelinaceae: XI. Kew Bulletin, 38:131-133

Jørgensen PM, León-Yànez S, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard, 75. i-viii, 1-1182

Más EG, Lugo MLT, 2013. Common Weeds in Puerto Rico & U.S Virgin Islands., Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez Campus, 395 pp

Molina RA, 1975. Enumeration of the plants of Honduras. (Enumeración de las plantas de Honduras) Ceiba, 19(1):1-118

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

Pitrez N, 2001. [English title not available]. (Números cromossômicos de espécies de Commelinaceae R. ocorrentes no nordeste do Brasil.) Boletim de Botânica, Departamento de Botânica. Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo, 19:7-14

Proctor GR, 1984. Flora of the Cayman Islands. London, UK: Royal Botanical Gardens, 834 pp

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Thomas RD, Allen CM, 1993. Atlas of the vascular flora of Louisiana. Louisiana, USA: Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries

USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2008. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants. Tampa, Florida, USA: University of South Florida. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ, 2008. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay). Volumen 1: Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae y Monocotyledoneae (Catalogue of the vascular plants of the southern cone (Argentina, southern Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay). Volume 1: Pteridophyta, Gymnospermae and Monocotyledoneae) [ed. by Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ]. St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 983 pp

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Adams C D, 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies. 848 pp.

Anon, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. [ed. by Jørgensen P M, León-Yànez S]. Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. viii + 1182 pp.

Anon, 2003. Manual de plantas de Costa Rica, Vol. 3. Monocotyledoneas (Orchidaceae-Zingiberaceae). [ed. by Hammel B E, Grayum M H, Herrara C, Zamora N]. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.

Anon, 2005. Monocots and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. In: Monocots and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, [ed. by Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T]. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany National Museum of Natural History. 415 pp.

Balick MJ, Nee M, Atha DE, 2000. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. In: Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85 1-246.

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database., Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.htm

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Correa A, Galdames MDC, Stapf MNS, 2004. Catalogue of vascular plants of Panama. (Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama)., Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. 599 pp.

Davidse G, Sousa Sánchez M, Chater AO, 1994. (Alismataceae a Cyperaceae). In: Flora Mesoamericana, 6 i-xvi, 1-543.

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2012. Flora of China Web., Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Herbaria. http://flora.huh.harvard.edu/china/

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Common weeds in Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islandshttp://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/national/plantsanimals/plants/feature/?cid=stelprdb1078250
Flora of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/
Monocotyledons of Puerto Rico and Virgin Islandshttp://botany.si.edu/Antilles/PRFlora/monocots/

Contributors

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03/05/13 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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