Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Citrus

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Datasheet

Citrus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Citrus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Brevipalpus phoenicis (flat or false spider mite); false colour SEM of adult mite. Note scale.
TitleAdult
CaptionBrevipalpus phoenicis (flat or false spider mite); false colour SEM of adult mite. Note scale.
CopyrightErbe Pooley/USDA ARS EMU - Public Domain
Brevipalpus phoenicis (flat or false spider mite); false colour SEM of adult mite. Note scale.
AdultBrevipalpus phoenicis (flat or false spider mite); false colour SEM of adult mite. Note scale.Erbe Pooley/USDA ARS EMU - Public Domain
Dialeurodes citri (citrus whitefly); adult (and eggs) on underside of Japanese persimmon leaf (Diospyros kaki). Gainesville, Florida, USA.
TitleAdult
CaptionDialeurodes citri (citrus whitefly); adult (and eggs) on underside of Japanese persimmon leaf (Diospyros kaki). Gainesville, Florida, USA.
Copyright©Lyle J. Buss/University of Florida/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Dialeurodes citri (citrus whitefly); adult (and eggs) on underside of Japanese persimmon leaf (Diospyros kaki). Gainesville, Florida, USA.
AdultDialeurodes citri (citrus whitefly); adult (and eggs) on underside of Japanese persimmon leaf (Diospyros kaki). Gainesville, Florida, USA.©Lyle J. Buss/University of Florida/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adult females on citrus. Florida, USA.
TitleAdult females
CaptionPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adult females on citrus. Florida, USA.
Copyright©Lyle J. Buss/Entomology & Nematology Dept./University of Florida - All Rights Reserved
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adult females on citrus. Florida, USA.
Adult femalesPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adult females on citrus. Florida, USA.©Lyle J. Buss/Entomology & Nematology Dept./University of Florida - All Rights Reserved
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); adult, perched on micro-forceps point. USA.
TitleAdult
CaptionAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); adult, perched on micro-forceps point. USA.
Copyright©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); adult, perched on micro-forceps point. USA.
AdultAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); adult, perched on micro-forceps point. USA.©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Trioza erytreae (African citrus psyllid); adult on leaf.
TitleAdult
CaptionTrioza erytreae (African citrus psyllid); adult on leaf.
Copyright©S.P. van Vuuren/Citrus Research International/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Trioza erytreae (African citrus psyllid); adult on leaf.
AdultTrioza erytreae (African citrus psyllid); adult on leaf.©S.P. van Vuuren/Citrus Research International/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Brevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite); adult, dorsal view. Note scale. Prodorsal projection extending beyond middle of femur I; medial and lateral region of prodorsum rugose; dorsolateral region subareolate rugose; hysterosoma with 6 pairs of dorsolateral setae (f2 present); central region between c1 and d1 rugose. Palp 4-segmented, with 3 setae on distal segment. Tarsus II with
TitleAdult
CaptionBrevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite); adult, dorsal view. Note scale. Prodorsal projection extending beyond middle of femur I; medial and lateral region of prodorsum rugose; dorsolateral region subareolate rugose; hysterosoma with 6 pairs of dorsolateral setae (f2 present); central region between c1 and d1 rugose. Palp 4-segmented, with 3 setae on distal segment. Tarsus II with
Copyright©PaDIL/Qing Hai Fan MAF (MPI) Ministry for Primary Industries, New Zealand - CC BY 4.0
Brevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite); adult, dorsal view. Note scale. Prodorsal projection extending beyond middle of femur I; medial and lateral region of prodorsum rugose; dorsolateral region subareolate rugose; hysterosoma with 6 pairs of dorsolateral setae (f2 present); central region between c1 and d1 rugose. Palp 4-segmented, with 3 setae on distal segment. Tarsus II with
AdultBrevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite); adult, dorsal view. Note scale. Prodorsal projection extending beyond middle of femur I; medial and lateral region of prodorsum rugose; dorsolateral region subareolate rugose; hysterosoma with 6 pairs of dorsolateral setae (f2 present); central region between c1 and d1 rugose. Palp 4-segmented, with 3 setae on distal segment. Tarsus II with ©PaDIL/Qing Hai Fan MAF (MPI) Ministry for Primary Industries, New Zealand - CC BY 4.0
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); close view of adult female mealybug, on citrus. Florida, USA.
TitleAdult female
CaptionPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); close view of adult female mealybug, on citrus. Florida, USA.
Copyright©Lyle J. Buss/Entomology & Nematology Dept./University of Florida - All Rights Reserved
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); close view of adult female mealybug, on citrus. Florida, USA.
Adult femalePlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); close view of adult female mealybug, on citrus. Florida, USA.©Lyle J. Buss/Entomology & Nematology Dept./University of Florida - All Rights Reserved
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); adult. USA.
TitleAdult
CaptionAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); adult. USA.
Copyright©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); adult. USA.
AdultAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); adult. USA.©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Trioza erytreae (African citrus psyllid); nymph on leaf.
TitleNymph
CaptionTrioza erytreae (African citrus psyllid); nymph on leaf.
Copyright©Peter Stephen/Citrus Research International/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Trioza erytreae (African citrus psyllid); nymph on leaf.
NymphTrioza erytreae (African citrus psyllid); nymph on leaf.©Peter Stephen/Citrus Research International/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Brevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite); adult, ventral view. Note scale. Prodorsal projection extending beyond middle of femur I; medial and lateral region of prodorsum rugose; dorsolateral region subareolate rugose; hysterosoma with 6 pairs of dorsolateral setae (f2 present); central region between c1 and d1 rugose. Palp 4-segmented, with 3 setae on distal segment. Tarsus II with 2 omega.
TitleAdult
CaptionBrevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite); adult, ventral view. Note scale. Prodorsal projection extending beyond middle of femur I; medial and lateral region of prodorsum rugose; dorsolateral region subareolate rugose; hysterosoma with 6 pairs of dorsolateral setae (f2 present); central region between c1 and d1 rugose. Palp 4-segmented, with 3 setae on distal segment. Tarsus II with 2 omega.
Copyright©PaDIL/Qing Hai Fan MAF (MPI) Ministry for Primary Industries, New Zealand - CC BY 4.0
Brevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite); adult, ventral view. Note scale. Prodorsal projection extending beyond middle of femur I; medial and lateral region of prodorsum rugose; dorsolateral region subareolate rugose; hysterosoma with 6 pairs of dorsolateral setae (f2 present); central region between c1 and d1 rugose. Palp 4-segmented, with 3 setae on distal segment. Tarsus II with 2 omega.
AdultBrevipalpus lewisi (citrus flat mite); adult, ventral view. Note scale. Prodorsal projection extending beyond middle of femur I; medial and lateral region of prodorsum rugose; dorsolateral region subareolate rugose; hysterosoma with 6 pairs of dorsolateral setae (f2 present); central region between c1 and d1 rugose. Palp 4-segmented, with 3 setae on distal segment. Tarsus II with 2 omega.©PaDIL/Qing Hai Fan MAF (MPI) Ministry for Primary Industries, New Zealand - CC BY 4.0
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adult male mealybug, on Croton (Codiaeum variegatum, Euphorbiaceae). Florida, USA. October2007.
TitleAdult male
CaptionPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adult male mealybug, on Croton (Codiaeum variegatum, Euphorbiaceae). Florida, USA. October2007.
Copyright©Lyle J. Buss/Entomology & Nematology Dept./University of Florida - All Rights Reserved
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adult male mealybug, on Croton (Codiaeum variegatum, Euphorbiaceae). Florida, USA. October2007.
Adult malePlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adult male mealybug, on Croton (Codiaeum variegatum, Euphorbiaceae). Florida, USA. October2007.©Lyle J. Buss/Entomology & Nematology Dept./University of Florida - All Rights Reserved
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); infestation on citrus leaf. October 2005. USA
TitleInfestation
CaptionAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); infestation on citrus leaf. October 2005. USA
Copyright©Chazz Hesselein/Alabama Cooperative Extension System/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); infestation on citrus leaf. October 2005. USA
InfestationAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); infestation on citrus leaf. October 2005. USA©Chazz Hesselein/Alabama Cooperative Extension System/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Trioza erytreae (African citrus psyllid); nymphs on leaf.
TitleNymphs
CaptionTrioza erytreae (African citrus psyllid); nymphs on leaf.
Copyright©Peter Stephen/Citrus Research International/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Trioza erytreae (African citrus psyllid); nymphs on leaf.
NymphsTrioza erytreae (African citrus psyllid); nymphs on leaf.©Peter Stephen/Citrus Research International/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); eggs are deposited as white cottony masses called ovisacs. Here they are on Croton (Codiaeum variegatum, Euphorbiaceae). Florida, USA. Florida, USA. October2007.
TitleEggs
CaptionPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); eggs are deposited as white cottony masses called ovisacs. Here they are on Croton (Codiaeum variegatum, Euphorbiaceae). Florida, USA. Florida, USA. October2007.
Copyright©Lyle J. Buss/Entomology & Nematology Dept./University of Florida - All Rights Reserved
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); eggs are deposited as white cottony masses called ovisacs. Here they are on Croton (Codiaeum variegatum, Euphorbiaceae). Florida, USA. Florida, USA. October2007.
EggsPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); eggs are deposited as white cottony masses called ovisacs. Here they are on Croton (Codiaeum variegatum, Euphorbiaceae). Florida, USA. Florida, USA. October2007.©Lyle J. Buss/Entomology & Nematology Dept./University of Florida - All Rights Reserved
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); nymphs and egg 'spirals'. USA
TitleNymphs and eggs
CaptionAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); nymphs and egg 'spirals'. USA
Copyright©Natalie Hummel/Louisiana State University AgCenter/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); nymphs and egg 'spirals'. USA
Nymphs and eggsAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); nymphs and egg 'spirals'. USA©Natalie Hummel/Louisiana State University AgCenter/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); nymphs can also be found on fruit. Florida, USA.
TitleNymphs
CaptionPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); nymphs can also be found on fruit. Florida, USA.
Copyright©Lyle J. Buss/Entomology & Nematology Dept./University of Florida - All Rights Reserved
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); nymphs can also be found on fruit. Florida, USA.
NymphsPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); nymphs can also be found on fruit. Florida, USA.©Lyle J. Buss/Entomology & Nematology Dept./University of Florida - All Rights Reserved
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); egg 'spirals'. USA.
TitleEggs
CaptionAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); egg 'spirals'. USA.
Copyright©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); egg 'spirals'. USA.
EggsAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); egg 'spirals'. USA.©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adults and nymphs on Schefflera sp. (Araliaceae). Florida, USA. May 2013.
TitleAdults and nymphs
CaptionPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adults and nymphs on Schefflera sp. (Araliaceae). Florida, USA. May 2013.
Copyright©Lyle J. Buss/Entomology & Nematology Dept./University of Florida - All Rights Reserved
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adults and nymphs on Schefflera sp. (Araliaceae). Florida, USA. May 2013.
Adults and nymphsPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adults and nymphs on Schefflera sp. (Araliaceae). Florida, USA. May 2013.©Lyle J. Buss/Entomology & Nematology Dept./University of Florida - All Rights Reserved
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); egg 'spiral' and nymphs. USA.
TitleEggs and nymphs
CaptionAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); egg 'spiral' and nymphs. USA.
Copyright©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); egg 'spiral' and nymphs. USA.
Eggs and nymphsAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); egg 'spiral' and nymphs. USA.©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); females on vine. Florida, USA. March 2008.
TitleFemales
CaptionPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); females on vine. Florida, USA. March 2008.
Copyright©Lyle J. Buss/Entomology & Nematology Dept./University of Florida - All Rights Reserved
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); females on vine. Florida, USA. March 2008.
FemalesPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); females on vine. Florida, USA. March 2008.©Lyle J. Buss/Entomology & Nematology Dept./University of Florida - All Rights Reserved
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); eggs, adults and nymphs on underside of citrus leaf. USA.
TitleEggs and nymphs
CaptionAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); eggs, adults and nymphs on underside of citrus leaf. USA.
Copyright©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); eggs, adults and nymphs on underside of citrus leaf. USA.
Eggs and nymphsAleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); eggs, adults and nymphs on underside of citrus leaf. USA.©Florida Division of Plant Industry/Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adults. Laboratory specimens. USA
TitleAdults
CaptionPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adults. Laboratory specimens. USA
Copyright©Jeffrey W. Lotz/Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adults. Laboratory specimens. USA
AdultsPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adults. Laboratory specimens. USA©Jeffrey W. Lotz/Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adults, intercepted Georgia Dept. of Agriculture in Coweta County on Croton spp (Euphorbiaceae) plants from Florida, USA.
TitleAdults
CaptionPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adults, intercepted Georgia Dept. of Agriculture in Coweta County on Croton spp (Euphorbiaceae) plants from Florida, USA.
Copyright©Charles Olsen/USDA APHIS PPQ/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adults, intercepted Georgia Dept. of Agriculture in Coweta County on Croton spp (Euphorbiaceae) plants from Florida, USA.
AdultsPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adults, intercepted Georgia Dept. of Agriculture in Coweta County on Croton spp (Euphorbiaceae) plants from Florida, USA.©Charles Olsen/USDA APHIS PPQ/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); infestation, on marigold (Tagetes spp.). Laboratory specimens. USA
TitleInfestation
CaptionPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); infestation, on marigold (Tagetes spp.). Laboratory specimens. USA
Copyright©Chazz Hesselein/Alabama Cooperative Extension System/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); infestation, on marigold (Tagetes spp.). Laboratory specimens. USA
InfestationPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); infestation, on marigold (Tagetes spp.). Laboratory specimens. USA©Chazz Hesselein/Alabama Cooperative Extension System/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adult on mint (Mentha spp). Intercepted at quarantine from Israel, by CBP Ag Specialist. December 2007.
TitleAdult
CaptionPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adult on mint (Mentha spp). Intercepted at quarantine from Israel, by CBP Ag Specialist. December 2007.
Copyright©Charles Olsen/USDA APHIS PPQ/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adult on mint (Mentha spp). Intercepted at quarantine from Israel, by CBP Ag Specialist. December 2007.
Adult Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adult on mint (Mentha spp). Intercepted at quarantine from Israel, by CBP Ag Specialist. December 2007.©Charles Olsen/USDA APHIS PPQ/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adult female. Slide mounted specimen. Collected from Fiji in April 1950.
TitleAdult female
CaptionPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adult female. Slide mounted specimen. Collected from Fiji in April 1950.
Copyright©Alessandra Rung/Scale Insects/USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adult female. Slide mounted specimen. Collected from Fiji in April 1950.
Adult femalePlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); adult female. Slide mounted specimen. Collected from Fiji in April 1950.©Alessandra Rung/Scale Insects/USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); infested and damaged marigold plant (Tagetes spp). USA.
TitleInfestation
CaptionPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); infested and damaged marigold plant (Tagetes spp). USA.
Copyright©Chazz Hesselein/Alabama Cooperative Extension System/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); infested and damaged marigold plant (Tagetes spp). USA.
InfestationPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); infested and damaged marigold plant (Tagetes spp). USA.©Chazz Hesselein/Alabama Cooperative Extension System/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); infestation, on marigold (Tagetes spp). USA.
TitleInfestation
CaptionPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); infestation, on marigold (Tagetes spp). USA.
Copyright©Chazz Hesselein/Alabama Cooperative Extension System/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); infestation, on marigold (Tagetes spp). USA.
InfestationPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); infestation, on marigold (Tagetes spp). USA.©Chazz Hesselein/Alabama Cooperative Extension System/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); natural enemy. The beetle (ladybird, ladybeetle) Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (mealybug destroyer), predating a citrus mealybug.
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); natural enemy. The beetle (ladybird, ladybeetle) Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (mealybug destroyer), predating a citrus mealybug.
Copyright©Sonya Broughton/Department of Agriculture & Food Western Australia/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); natural enemy. The beetle (ladybird, ladybeetle) Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (mealybug destroyer), predating a citrus mealybug.
Natural enemyPlanococcus citri (citrus mealybug); natural enemy. The beetle (ladybird, ladybeetle) Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (mealybug destroyer), predating a citrus mealybug.©Sonya Broughton/Department of Agriculture & Food Western Australia/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Citrus L.

International Common Names

  • Spanish: agrios
  • French: agrumes

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Zitrus

EPPO code

  • CIDSS (Citrus sp.)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Rutales
  •                         Family: Rutaceae
  •                             Genus: Citrus

List of Pests

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Major host of:

Acanthacris ruficornis; Acaudaleyrodes rachipora (babul whitefly); Aceria sheldoni (citrus bud mite); Achaea catocaloides; Acromyrmex octospinosus (leaf cutting ant); Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed); Agrotis ipsilon (black cutworm); Aleurocanthus spiniferus (orange spiny whitefly); Aleurocanthus woglumi (citrus blackfly); Aleurodicus dispersus (whitefly); Aleurodicus dugesii; Aleurothrixus floccosus (woolly whitefly); Aleurotrachelus trachoides; Alternaria citri (stalk end rot); Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed); Amatissa cuprea; Amyelois transitella (navel orange worm); Anasa scorbutica; Anastrepha; Anastrepha ludens (Mexican fruit fly); Anastrepha serpentina (sapodilla fruit fly); Anastrepha suspensa (Caribbean fruit fly); Anoplolepis gracilipes (yellow crazy ant); Anoplophora chinensis (black and white citrus longhorn); Aonidiella aurantii (red scale); Aonidiella orientalis (oriental yellow scale); Aphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); Apple stem grooving virus; Araecerus fasciculatus (cocoa weevil); Argyria lacteella; Armillaria mellea (armillaria root rot); Asparagus asparagoides (bridal creeper); Aspidiotus nerii (Oleander scale); Athelia rolfsii (sclerotium rot); Atta (leaf-cutter ant); Atta cephalotes (leaf cutting ant); Atta insularis; Atta laevigata (caribbean pine leaf cutting ant); Atta mexicana; Atta sexdens (leaf cutting ant); Attacus atlas (atlas moth); Aulacorthum solani (foxglove aphid); Bidens pilosa (blackjack); Boeremia exigua var. exigua (leaf spot); Brachyomus octotuberculatus; Brevipalpus californicus (citrus flat mite); Brevipalpus phoenicis (false spider mite); Cacoecimorpha pronubana (carnation tortrix); Capnodium citri (sooty mould); Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse); Cataenococcus hispidus (citrus mealybug*); Cephaleuros virescens (algal spot of coffee); Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean fruit fly); Ceratitis rosa (Natal fruit fly); Ceratocystis fimbriata (Ceratocystis blight); Cercospora penzigii; Ceroplastes cirripediformis (barnacle scale); Ceroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Ceroplastes floridensis (soft scale); Ceroplastes japonicus (tortoise wax scale); Ceroplastes rubens (red wax scale); Ceroplastes rusci (fig wax scale); Ceroplastes sinensis (Chinese wax scale); Chalara elegans (black root rot); Chelidonium argentatum; Chelidonium sp. (celandine); Chenopodium album (fat hen); Chloridolum alcmene (orange trunc borer); Chlorophorus annularis (bamboo tiger longicorn); Chondracris rosea (citrus locust); Chrysobothris picklesi; Chrysomphalus aonidum (circular scale); Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (dictyospermum scale); Cirsium vulgare (spear thistle); Citripestis sagittiferella (citrus fruit borer); Citrus bark cracking viroid; Citrus bent leaf viroid; Citrus cachexia viroid (citrus xyloporosis); Citrus dwarfing viroid; Citrus exocortis viroid (citrus exocortis); citrus huanglongbing (greening) disease (citrus greening); Citrus psorosis B (citrus scaly bark); Citrus sudden death agent; Citrus tristeza virus (citrus tristeza); Citrus viroid III; Citrus viroid V; Citrus viroid VI; Citrus yellow vein clearing virus; Clitea metallica; Coccus hesperidum (brown soft scale); Coccus viridis (soft green scale); Colletotrichum limetticola (withertip of lime); Colletotrichum limetticolum (die back); Commelina benghalensis (wandering jew); Coniella australiensis; Coptotermes (termites); Coptotermes testaceus (subterranean termite); Cornu aspersum (common garden snail); Corticium koleroga (thread blight); Coscineuta virens (moruga grasshopper); Cossus cossus (carpenter moth); Cratosomus punctulatus (citrus borer); Criconemella (ring nematode); Cryptoblabes gnidiella (citrus pyralid); Cryptosporiopsis citri; Cryptothelea surinamensis; Cyanthillium cinereum (little ironweed); Cyclocephala tridentata; Cyclosorus parasiticus (parasitic maiden fern); Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass); Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge); Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge); Dasychira inclusa; Dialeurodes citri (citrus whitefly); Diaphorina citri (Asian citrus psyllid); Diaporthe citri (melanose of Citrus); Diaprepes abbreviatus (citrus weevil); Diaprepes balloui; Diaprepes excavatus (leaf weevil); Diaprepes famelicus (root borer, sugarcane); Diaprepes scalaris; Diaprepes spengleri (weevil, golden leaf); Dolichoderus bidens; Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed); Dysmicoccus brevipes (pineapple mealybug); Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (grey pineapple mealybug); Dysmicoccus probrevipes; Eantis traso; Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass); Edessa meditabunda (green and brown stink bug); Elaphidion mite; Elsinoë fawcettii (citrus scab); Eotetranychus cendanai; Eotetranychus sexmaculatus (six-spotted spider mite); Epiphyas postvittana (light brown apple moth); Epitragus aurulentus; Epitrix hirtipennis (tobacco flea beetle); Erythricium salmonicolor (pink disease); Eudocima fullonia (fruit-piercing moth); Eudocima materna (fruit piercing moth); Eudocima salaminia (fruit piercing moth); Euphorbia helioscopia (sun spurge); Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge); Euproctis fraterna (coffee hairy caterpillar); Eustylus hybridus; Eutetranychus africanus (citrus brown mite); Eutetranychus orientalis (Citrus brown mite); Eutropidacris cristata (giant locust); Euzopherodes vapidella (citrus stub moth); Exophthalmus quadritaenia; Exophthalmus roseipes (leaf weevil); Exophthalmus vittatus (citrus weevil); Ferrisia virgata (striped mealybug); Frankliniella insularis (blossom thrips); Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier); Galinsoga quadriradiata (shaggy soldier); Gascardia brevicauda (white waxy scale); Geococcus coffeae (coffee root mealybug); Geotrichum candidum (citrus race) (citrus sour rot); Geotrichum candidum var. citri-aurantii (sour rot: Citrus fruit); Globisporangium splendens (blast of oil palm); Glomerella cingulata (anthracnose); Glyptoscelis aeneipennis; Gonodonta pyrgo; Guignardia citricarpa (citrus black spot); Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (black tea thrips); Hemiberlesia lataniae (latania scale); Hemiberlesia rapax (greedy scale (USA)); Hemicriconemoides mangiferae; Homona coffearia (tea tortrix); Homona magnanima (oriental tea tortrix); Homona nubiferana; Hop stunt viroid (hop stunt viroid); Howardia biclavis (mining scale); Hypomeces squamosus (green weevil); Icerya aegyptiaca (breadfruit mealybug); Icerya montserratensis (montserrat cottony cushion scale); Icerya purchasi (cottony cushion scale); Icerya samaraia (steatococcus scale); Icerya seychellarum (Seychelles scale); Imperata cylindrica (cogon grass); Indarbela quadrinotata (bark eating caterpillar); Indarbela tetraonis (bark borer); Insignorthezia insignis (greenhouse orthezia); Ipomoea cathartica (morning glory); Ipomoea triloba (three-lobe morning glory); Ipomoea villosa (morning glory); Ischnaspis longirostris (black thread scale); Lachnopus atramentarius; Lachnopus aurifer; Lachnopus gowdeyi (citrus weevil); Lachnopus hispidus (citrus weevil); Lachnopus inconditus (citrus weevil); Lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia pod rot of cocoa); Lepidium draba (hoary cress); Lepidosaphes beckii (purple scale); Lepidosaphes gloverii (glover scale); Leptoglossus gonagra (squash bug); Leptoglossus incrassatus; Leptoglossus praemorsus (coreid bug); Leptostylus praemorsus (boring beetle); Liberibacter africanus (African greening); Liberibacter asiaticus (Asian greening); Litostylus bovelli; Litostylus pudens; Lopholeucaspis japonica (Japanese baton shaped scale); Luperomorpha xanthodera; Maconellicoccus hirsutus (pink hibiscus mealybug); Macroposthonia onoensis; Maleuterpes dentipes (citrus leaf weevil); Melalgus caribbeanus; Meloidogyne exigua (coffee root-knot nematode); Menoetius curvipes; Metcalfa pruinosa (frosted moth-bug); Microcerotermes arboreus; Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant); Momordica charantia (bitter gourd); Morganella longispina (maskell scale); Mycetaspis personata (masked aspidiotus); Mycosphaerella citri (greasy spot); Myzus persicae (green peach aphid); Nasutitermes arboreus; Nasutitermes costalis; Naupactus xanthographus (South American fruit tree weevil); Neoclytus araneiformis; Neosilba pendula (cassava shoot fly); Nipaecoccus nipae (spiked mealybug); Nipaecoccus viridis (spherical mealybug); Oemona hirta (lemon tree borer); Oidium tingitaninum; Oiketicus abotti (bagworm); Ophiusa coronata (fruit piercing moth); Ophiusa tirhaca (fruit piercing moth); Oraesia emarginata (fruit piercing moth); Oraesia excavata (fruit piercing moth); Orchamoplatus mammaeferus (croton whitefly); Orthezia praelonga (croton bug); Otala lactea (milk snail); Otiorhynchus cribricollis (weevil, apple); Oxalis corniculata (creeping woodsorrel); Pachnaeus azurescens (citrus weevil); Pachnaeus citri (beetle, blue green orange); Pachnaeus litus (citrus root weevil); Pachnaeus marmoratus; Pachnaeus opalus; Pachnaeus psittacus; Panicum repens (torpedo grass); Panonychus citri (citrus red mite); Pantomorus cervinus (Fuller's rose beetle); Papilio aegeus (citrus butterfly); Papilio anchisiades (swallowtail); Papilio andraemon (swallotail); Papilio androgeus (swallowtail); Papilio cresphontes (giant swallowtail); Papilio demodocus (orange dog); Papilio demoleus (chequered swallowtail); Papilio demolion; Papilio helenus; Papilio memnon; Papilio peleus; Papilio polytes (common mormon); Papilio thoas (king page); Papilio xuthus (swallowtail, citrus); Parabemisia myricae (bayberry whitefly); Paraleyrodes pseudonaranjae (nesting whitefly); Paraleyrodes urichii; Parasaissetia nigra (pomegranate scale); Parlatoria pergandii (chaff scale); Parlatoria proteus (cattleya, scale); Parlatoria ziziphi (black parlatoria scale); Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed); Paspalum conjugatum (sour paspalum); Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass); Paspalum distichum (knotgrass); Penicillium digitatum (green mould); Penicillium italicum (blue mould); Penicillium ulaiense; Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass); Pezothrips kellyanus (kelly's citrus thrips); Phenacoccus madeirensis (Madeira mealybug); Phobetron hipparchia (slug caterpillar moth); Phoma tracheiphila (mal secco); Phthirusa adunca; Phyllocnistis citrella (citrus leaf miner); Phyllocoptruta oleivora (citrus rust mite); Phyllophaga denticulata (june bug); Phyllophaga hogardi; Phyllophaga plaei; Phytophthora cactorum (apple collar rot); Phytophthora citrophthora (brown rot of citrus fruit); Phytophthora cryptogea (tomato foot rot); Phytophthora nicotianae (black shank); Pinnaspis aspidistrae (scale insect); Pinnaspis strachani (lesser snow scale); Piptatherum miliaceum (smilograss); Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug); Planococcus kenyae (coffee mealybug); Planococcus lilacinus (cacao mealybug); Plantago lanceolata (ribwort plantain); Platynota stultana (omnivorous leaf roller); Polygonum hydropiper (marsh pepper); Polyphagotarsonemus latus (broad mite); Pratylenchus brachyurus (root-lesion nematode); Pratylenchus coffeae (banana root nematode); Prays endocarpa (citrus rind borer); Prepodes quadrivittatus (striped leaf weevil); Protopulvinaria pyriformis (pyriform scale); Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (trilobite scale); Pseudocaecilius pretiosus; Pseudococcus longispinus (long-tailed mealybug); Pseudococcus viburni (obscure mealybug); Psiloptera guildini; Ptecticus cingulatus; Puto barberi; Pythium vexans (damping off); Radopholus citri; Radopholus similis (burrowing nematode); Rastrococcus iceryoides (mango mealy bug); Rastrococcus invadens (fruit tree mealybug); Rhynchocoris poseidon (spined fruit bug); Richardia brasiliensis (white-eye (Australia)); Rosellinia bunodes (black root rot); Rosellinia necatrix (dematophora root rot); Rotylenchulus reniformis (reniform nematode); Rubus ulmifolius; Saissetia coffeae (hemispherical scale); Saissetia oleae (olive scale); Satsuma dwarf virus (dwarf disease of satsuma); Schistocerca gregaria (desert locust); Schizotetranychus hindustanicus; Schizothyrium pomi (fly speck: apple); Scirtothrips aurantii (South African citrus thrips); Scirtothrips citri (California citrus thrips); Scirtothrips dorsalis (chilli thrips); Scirtothrips inermis; Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (cottony soft rot); Selenaspidus articulatus (West Indian red scale); Septoria citri (septoria spot); Setaria pumila (yellow foxtail); Silba gibbosa; Singhiella citrifolii (cloudy winged whitefly); Solanum elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade); Solanum nigrum (black nightshade); Solenopsis geminata (tropical fire ant); Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass); Sphaeropsis tumefaciens (citrus branch knot); Spodoptera littoralis (cotton leafworm); Spodoptera litura (taro caterpillar); Stellaria media (common chickweed); Strategus anachoreta; Taeniotes amozonum; Tetranychus cinnabarinus (carmine spider mite); Tetranychus fijiensis; Tetranychus kanzawai (kanzawa spider mite); Tetranychus mexicanus; Thanatephorus cucumeris (many names, depending on host); Thaumatotibia leucotreta (false codling moth); Theba pisana (white garden snail); Thosea sinensis (assam nettle, grub); Thrips hawaiiensis (Hawaiian flower thrips); Thrips palmi (melon thrips); Thunbergia alata (black eyed Susan); Toxoptera aurantii (camellia aphid); Toxoptera citricida (black citrus aphid); Trachyderes succintus (longhorn beetle); Trachymyrmex urichi; Trigona amalthea (stingless bee); Trigona dallatorreana (stingless bee); Trigona hyalinata (stingless bee); Trigona trinidadensis (stingless bee); Tropidacris dux; Tuckerella pavoniformis; Tylenchulus semipenetrans (citrus root nematode); Unaspis citri (citrus snow scale); Unaspis yanonensis (arrowhead scale); Urochloa platyphylla (broadleaf signalgrass); Urtica urens (annual nettle); Vinsonia stellifera (stellate scale); Xanthomonas citri (citrus canker); Xiphinema (dagger nematode); Xiphinema americanum (dagger nematode); Xiphinema insigne; Xylella fastidiosa (Pierce's disease of grapevines); Xyleutes punctifer; Zeuzera coffeae (coffee carpenter); Zonocerus elegans (elegant grasshopper); Zonocerus variegatus (variegated grasshopper)

Minor host of:

Abutilon theophrasti (velvet leaf); Acanthospermum hispidum (bristly starbur); Achaea janata (castor semilooper); Aleurotrachelus atratus (palm-infesting whitefly); Alhagi maurorum (camelthorn); Alopecurus myosuroides (black-grass); Amaranthus deflexus (Perennial Pigweed); Amblypelta lutescens (banana spotting bug); Anastrepha obliqua (West Indian fruit fly); Anastrepha striata (guava fruit fly); Aonidiella citrina (yellow scale); Apate monachus (black borer); Aphis craccivora (groundnut aphid); Aphis fabae (black bean aphid); Aphis gossypii (cotton aphid); Aphis nerii (sweet pepper aphid); Apomyelois ceratoniae (blunt-winged knot-horn); Aromia bungii (red necked longicorn); Aspergillus niger (black mould of onion); Asphodelus tenuifolius (onionweed); Aspidiotus destructor (coconut scale); Atherigona orientalis (pepper fruit fly); Aulacaspis tubercularis (mango scale); Axonopus compressus (carpet grass); Bactrocera melanotus; Bactrocera minax (Chinese citrus fly); Bactrocera zonata (peach fruit fly); Botryosphaeria parva; Botryosphaeria ribis (canker: apple); Brachycaudus helichrysi (leaf-curling plum aphid); Bryonia diocia; Bucephalogonia xanthophis; Cassytha filiformis (love-vine); Cenchrus echinatus (southern sandbur); Ceroplastes ajmerensis; Ceroplastes ceriferus (Indian wax scale); Chrysodeixis chalcites (golden twin-spot moth); Coccus celatus (coffee green scale); Colletotrichum boninense; Colletotrichum karsti; Colletotrichum simmondsii; Crassocephalum crepidioides (redflower ragleaf); Cuscuta japonica (Japanese dodder); Dactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass); Darna trima (nettle caterpillar); Diabrotica speciosa (cucurbit beetle); Diaspidiotus perniciosus (San José scale); Digitaria insularis (sourgrass); Distantiella theobroma (cocoa capsid); Elsinoë australis (citrus scab); Emex australis (Doublegee); Emex spinosa (spiny emex); Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower); Euserica modesta; Fumaria officinalis (common fumitory); Ganoderma lucidum (basal stem rot: Hevea spp.); Haematonectria haematococca (dry rot of potato); Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug); Helicotylenchus multicinctus (banana spiral nematode); Helicoverpa zea (American cotton bollworm); Hilda patruelis (groundnut hopper); Homalodisca vitripennis (glassy winged sharpshooter); Hoplolaimus indicus (lance nematode); Hoplolaimus pararobustus (lance nematode); Kyllinga brevifolia (green kyllinga); Lasiodiplodia iraniensis; Lolium multiflorum (Italian ryegrass); Macroplectra nararia (nettle grub); Megathyrsus maximus (Guinea grass); Mimosa diplotricha (creeping sensitive plant); Murdannia nudiflora (doveweed); Mycena citricolor (American leaf spot of coffee); Neofusicoccum australe; Nezara viridula (green stink bug); Nomadacris septemfasciata (red locust); Oligonychus coffeae (tea red spider mite); Oligonychus peruvianus; Oxalis pes-caprae (Bermuda buttercup); Panonychus ulmi (European red spider mite); Pantoea agglomerans (bacterial grapevine blight); Papilio zelicaon (anise swallowtail); Paraleyrodes minei; Phenacoccus manihoti (cassava mealybug); Phenacoccus solani; Phyllanthus urinaria (leafflower); Phyllophaga (white grubs); Phyllophaga smithi (white grub); Phytophthora boehmeriae (ramie leaf spot); Phytophthora palmivora (coconut budrot); Polygonum aviculare (prostrate knotweed); Pomacea canaliculata (golden apple snail); Pratylenchus loosi (root lesion nematode); Pseudaonidia duplex (camphor, scale); Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (mulberry scale); Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi (Jack Beardsley mealybug); Pseudodendrothrips mori (mulberry thrips); Pseudomonas syringae pv. garcae (bacterial blight of coffee); Pterochloroides persicae (peach black aphid); Pulvinaria psidii (green shield scale); Pythium debaryanum (damping-off); Rhynchophorus palmarum (South American palm weevil); Rottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass); Scutellonema brachyurus; Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod); Setaria parviflora (knotroot foxtail); Solanum viarum (tropical soda apple); Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant); Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm); Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm); Syncephalastrum racemosum (black soft rot of Indian gooseberry); Tessaratoma papillosa (litchi stink bug); Tetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite); Thrips flavus (honeysuckle thrips); Tribulus terrestris (puncture vine); Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper); Tridax procumbens (coat buttons); Trioza erytreae (African citrus psyllid); Urochloa plantaginea (marmeladegrass); Xiphinema index (fan-leaf virus nematode); Xyleborus perforans (island pinhole borer); Xyleborus volvulus

Associated with (not a host):

Bacillus subtilis; Cladosporium oxysporum (seedlings blight of passion fruit); Coptotermes formosanus (Formosan subterranean termite); Cricula trifenestrata (tea flush worm); Curinus coeruleus; Cycloneda sanguinea; Encarsia opulenta; Eretmocerus serius; Fidiobia citri; Franklinothrips vespiformis (vespiform thrips); Khuskia oryzae (cob rot of maize); Melaleucopis simmondsi; Mycosphaerella tassiana (antagonist of Botrytis cinerea); Oecophylla longinoda (weaver ant); Paecilomyces lilacinus (biocontrol: nematodes); Quadrastichus haitiensis; Siphoninus phillyreae (ash whitefly); Trichoderma harzianum (hyperparasite of Rhizoctonia solani)

Host of (source - data mining):

Aculops pelekassi (citrus rust mite, Japanese); Agrilus auriventris (citrus flatheaded borer); Aleurolobus niloticus; Aleurotuberculatus aucubae (whitefly, Japanese laurel); Alternaria alternata (alternaria leaf spot); Amorbia cuneana (avocado leafroller); Amsacta lactinea (red tiger moth); Anagrapha falcifera (celery looper); Anastrepha bistrigata; Anastrepha distincta (pois-doux fruit fly); Anastrepha pseudoparallela; Anastrepha sororcula; Antiteuchus tripterus; Archips argyrospilus (fruit-tree leaf roller); Archips machlopis; Archips rosana (European leaf roller); Artipus floridanus (leaf notcher); Asymmetrasca decedens; Atta texana (Texas leafcutting ant); Aulacorthum magnoliae; Balclutha rosea; Bemisia giffardi (Giffard's whitefly); Biprorulus bibax; Botryotinia fuckeliana (grey mould-rot); Brevipalpus obovatus (scarlet tea mite); Calliteara horsfieldii; Calonectria quinqueseptata (leaf spot of Hevea spp.); Chloropulvinaria aurantii (citrus cottony, scale); Chloropulvinaria polygonata; Chrysodeixis acuta (tomato semi-looper); Cicadulina bipunctata (sorghum, jassid); Circulifer tenellus (beet leafhopper); Citrus infectious variegation virus; Citrus leaf rugose virus; Citrus vein enation disease (citrus woody gall); Coccus perlatus; Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (citricola, scale); Colletotrichum acutatum (black spot of strawberry); Contarinia citri (midge, citrus blossom); Contarinia okadai; Cratosomus flavofasciatus; Cribrolecanium andersoni (white powdery, scale); Dasineura citri (midge, citrus blossom); Dialeurodes kirkaldyi; Dialeurolonga elongata; Diploschema rotundicolle; Drosophila simulans; Dysdercus cingulatus (red cotton stainer); Empoasca; Empoasca decipiens (leafhopper, cotton); Eotetranychus kankitus (miyake spider mite); Eutetranychus banksi (citrus mite, Texas); Eutypa lata (Eutypa dieback); Frankliniella bispinosa; Frankliniella kelliae; Fusarium oxysporum (basal rot); Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. citri (wilt: Citrus spp.); Gibberella acuminata (stalk rot of maize); Gibberella intricans (damping-off of safflower); Gymnandrosoma aurantianum; Hishimonus phycitis; Holotrichia sinensis (chafer, black); Hyposidra talaca; Jacobiasca formosana; Kretzschmaria deusta (canker of beech); Lagria villosa; Lawana conspersa; Limothrips cerealium (corn, thrips); Lindingaspis rossi (black araucaria scale); Lorryia formosa; Macrosiphum euphorbiae (potato aphid); Marmara salictella; Megaplatypus mutatus; Microcephalothrips abdominalis (composite thrips); Mycosphaerella horii (greasy spot: Citrus spp.); Myllocerus discolor; Myllocerus viridanus; Nematospora coryli (yeast spot of beans); Nematospora gossypii (boll stain of cotton); Neoaliturus haematoceps; Oberea lateapicalis; Oribius destructor (grey weevil); Oribius inimicus (grey weevil); Parasa lepida (nettle caterpillar); Paratylenchus minutus; Parthenolecanium persicae (peach scale); Phytophthora capsici (stem and fruit rot of Capsicum); Phytophthora citricola (black hop root rot); Phytophthora hibernalis (brown rot of Citrus fruit); Phytophthora syringae (twig blight of lilac); Podagricomela nigricollis; Pratylenchus pratensis; Pseudococcus cryptus; Pseudomonas syringae (bacterial blast); Psorosticha zizyphi (citrus leafroller); Sabulodes aegrotata (omnivorous looper); Scaphytopius acutus; Scaphytopius nitridus; Schistocerca americana (south American locust); Scolothrips pallidus; Selenisa sueroides; Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (Jamaica vervain); Stromatium barbatum; Sympiezomias citri; Tegolophus australis; Tiracola plagiata (plague caterpillar); Toumeyella cubensis; Trichoferus campestris; Tropinota squalida; Xanthomonas campestris (black rot of crucifers); Xiphinema italiae