Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cichorium intybus
(chicory)

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Datasheet

Cichorium intybus (chicory)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cichorium intybus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • chicory
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleWitloof chicons forced in the dark
Caption
CopyrightEdward J. Ryder/USDA
Witloof chicons forced in the darkEdward J. Ryder/USDA
TitleRosette type chicory with narrow, spatulate leaves
Caption
CopyrightEdward J. Ryder/USDA
Rosette type chicory with narrow, spatulate leavesEdward J. Ryder/USDA
TitleRadicchio, a red headed form of Italian chicory
Caption
CopyrightEdward J. Ryder/USDA
Radicchio, a red headed form of Italian chicoryEdward J. Ryder/USDA
C. intybus infestation in berseem, Egypt.
TitleInfestation
CaptionC. intybus infestation in berseem, Egypt.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
C. intybus infestation in berseem, Egypt.
InfestationC. intybus infestation in berseem, Egypt.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cichorium intybus L.

Preferred Common Name

  • chicory

Other Scientific Names

  • Cichorium intybus var. foliosum Hegi
  • Cichorium intybus var. sativum (Bisch.) Janch.

International Common Names

  • English: Belgium endive; French endive; Italian chicory; succory; witloof chicory
  • Spanish: achicoria (de Bruselas); achicorias
  • French: chicorée; chicorée de Bruxelles; chicorée sauvage
  • Portuguese: almeirao

Local Common Names

  • France: chicorée
  • Germany: Cicorie; Kaffeezichorie; Salat- Zichorie; Wegwarte; Wurzelzichorie
  • Italy: cicoria amara; cicoria da taglio; cicorias; radicchio; treviso
  • Netherlands: witloof
  • Sweden: sikorisallad

EPPO code

  • CICIF (Cichorium intybus var. foliosum)
  • CICIN (Cichorium intybus)
  • CICIS (Cichorium intybus var. sativum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Cichorium
  •                                 Species: Cichorium intybus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Dec 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Cabo VerdePresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 920 MT (F)
Congo, Republic of thePresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 878 MT (Im)
DjiboutiPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 2 MT (F)
EgyptPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 94,344 MT
EthiopiaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 11,494 MT (Im)
KenyaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 1,379 MT
MadagascarPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 218 MT (Im)
MauritiusPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 906 MT
MoroccoPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 4,622 MT (Im)
NigerPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 69,235 MT
RéunionPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 3,214 MT (Im)
South AfricaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 35,978 MT
TunisiaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 21,060 MT (Im)
ZimbabwePresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 184 MT (Im)

Asia

BahrainPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 699 MT (Im)
BangladeshPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 40,265 MT (Im)
BhutanPresentIntroduced1987
BruneiPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 6 MT (Im)
ChinaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 1,343,4100 MT (F)
-ChongqingPresent
IndiaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 1,059,850 MT (Im)
IranPresent
IraqPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 86,218 MT
IsraelPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 32,184 MT
JapanPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 543,591 MT (Im)
JordanPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 40,376 MT
KuwaitPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 12,338 MT (Im)
KyrgyzstanPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 700 MT (*)
LebanonPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 55,000 MT (F)
PakistanPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 278 MT
PhilippinesPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 3,519 MT
QatarPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 399 MT
Saudi ArabiaPresent
SingaporePresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 400 MT (*)
South KoreaPresent
SyriaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 61,763 MT
TaiwanPresentIntroduced1976
ThailandPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 29,170 MT
TurkeyPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 424,252 MT
United Arab EmiratesPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 1,108 MT (Im)
UzbekistanPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 3,000 MT (*)
YemenPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 1,320 MT (Im)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 9,000 MT (F)
AustriaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 47,358 MT
BelgiumPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 68,235 MT (Im)
BulgariaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 4,886 MT
CroatiaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 9,115 MT
CyprusPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 1,308 MT
CzechiaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 1,492 MT
DenmarkPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 11,080 MT
EstoniaPresentIntroduced1777
FinlandPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 14,480 MT
FrancePresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 326,885 MT
GermanyPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 340,487 MT
GreecePresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 106,500 MT
-CretePresent
HungaryPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 7,627 MT
IrelandPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 6,081 MT (Im)
ItalyPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 364,843 MT
LatviaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 348 MT
LuxembourgPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 200 MT
MaltaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 4,199 MT
NetherlandsPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 83,500 MT
NorwayPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 12,302 MT (Im)
PolandPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 32,204 MT
PortugalPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 94,602 MT (Im)
-AzoresPresentIntroduced1838
RomaniaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 2,673 MT
SerbiaPresent
SlovakiaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 3,124 MT (Im)
SloveniaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 15,683 MT
SpainPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 868,203 MT
SwedenPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 25,830 MT
SwitzerlandPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 75,652 MT
UkrainePresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 20,000 MT (*)
United KingdomPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 132,500 MT

North America

BarbadosPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 499 MT
CanadaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 63,049 MT
-OntarioPresent
DominicaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 288 MT (Im)
Dominican RepublicPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 20,953 MT
GrenadaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 112 MT (Im)
GuadeloupePresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 3,733 MT (Im)
GuatemalaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 51,764 MT (Im)
HaitiPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 494 MT (Im)
HondurasPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 1,768 MT (Im)
JamaicaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 11,185 MT
MartiniquePresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 7,464 MT (Im)
MexicoPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 370,066 MT
PanamaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 4,704 MT (Im)
Puerto RicoPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 91 MT (Im)
Saint LuciaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 192 MT (Im)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 1,632 MT (Im)
United StatesPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 3,889,120 MT
-CaliforniaPresent
-FloridaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 144,637 MT
-New South WalesPresent
French PolynesiaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 400 MT (F)
New ZealandPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 28,149 MT (Im)

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent
-Distrito FederalPresent
-ParaPresent
ChilePresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 101,559 MT (Im)
ColombiaPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 56,271 MT
EcuadorPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 12,657 MT (Im)
PeruPresentLettuce and chicory production (2011) 48,997 MT

References

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Celepcİ, E., Uygur, S., Kaydan, M. B., Uygur, F. N., 2017. Mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) species on weeds in Citrus (Rutaceae) plantations in Çukurova Plain, Turkey. Türkiye Entomoloji Bülteni, 7(1), 15-21. http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/315531

De Simone M; Morgante M; Lucchin M; Parrini P; Marocco A, 1997. A first linkage map of Cichorium intybus L. using a one-way pseudo-testcross and PCR-derived markers. Molecular Breeding, 3:415-425.

Desprez BF; Delesalle L; Dhelleme C; Desprez MF, 1994. Genetics and breeding of industrial chicory. Comptes Rendus Academie Agricole Francaise, 80:47-62.

Elzebroek, T.; Wind, K., 2008. Guide to cultivated plants., Guide to cultivated plants:vii-xi + 516 pp.

Eurostat, 1998. Crop production statistics. Brussels, Belgium: Data Shop Eurostat.

FAO, 2013. FAOSTAT database. Rome, Italy: FAO. http://faostat3.fao.org/home/index.html [2011 data taken in 2013.]

Fazal Hadi, Muhammad Ibrar, 2015. Ecology of weeds in wheat crops of Kalash valley, district Chitral, Hindukush Range, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 21(3), 425-433. http://www.wssp.org.pk/vol-21-3-2015/11.%20PJWSR-06-2015.pdf

Hedrick UP, 1972. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. New York: Dover Publications Incorporated.

Hintum TJL; Boukema IW, 1999. Genetic resources of leafy vegetables. In: Lebeda A, Kriskova E, eds. Eucarpia Leafy Vegetables 99. Olomouc, Czech Republic: Palacky University, 59-72.

Huyskes JA, 1963. Improvement of witloof for forcing without covering soil. Instituut voor Veredeling van Tuinbouwgewassen, Vol. 202.

Kiers AM; Mes THM; van der Meijden R; Bachmann K, 2000. A search for diagnostic AFLP markers in Cichorium species with emphasis on endive and chicory cultivar groups. Genome, 43:470-476.

Milanova, S., Boneva, P., Grigorova, P., Valkova, M., 2007. Weed survey in central north Bulgaria. In: European Weed Research Society, 14th EWRS Symposium, Hamar, Norway, 17-21 June 2007 [European Weed Research Society, 14th EWRS Symposium, Hamar, Norway, 17-21 June 2007], [ed. by Fløistad, E.]. Doorwerth, Netherlands: European Weed Research Society. 217. http://www.ewrs-symposium2007.com

Rick CM, 1953. Hybridization between chicory and endive. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 62:459-466.

Ryder EJ, 1999. Lettuce, endive and chicory. Lettuce, endive and chicory., viii + 208 pp.; [^italic~Crop production science in horticulture^roman~ No. 9]; 27 pp. of ref.

Shah, G. M., Khan, M. A., 2006. Checklist of noxious weeds of district Mansehra, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 12(3), 213-219. http://wssp.org.pk/

Shah, S. M., Asad Ullah, Fazal Hadi, 2014. Ecological characteristics of weed flora in the wheat crop of Mastuj valley, district Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 20(4), 479-487. http://www.wssp.org.pk/vol-20-4-2014/6.%20PJWSR-22-2014.pdf

Stobbs, L. W., Greig, N., Weaver, S., Shipp, L., Ferguson, G., 2009. The potential role of native weed species and bumble bees (Bombus impatiens) on the epidemiology of Pepino mosaic virus. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 31(2), 254-261. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07060660909507599

Distribution References

Akyürek B, Zeybekoğlu Ü, Görür G, 2010. New records of aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea) for the Turkish fauna from Samsun province. Turkish Journal of Zoology. 34 (3), 421-424. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/zoology/

Behrooz S Y, Salari M, Pirnia M, Sabbagh S K, 2017. Identification of Cercospora species in southwestern Iran. Journal of Plant Protection Research. 57 (1), 50-55. DOI:10.1515/jppr-2017-0007

Borges R C F, Santos M D M, Cabral C S, Fonseca M E N, Reis A, Boiteux L S, 2018. Identification of Golovinomyces cichoracearum as the powdery mildew-causing agent of chicory in Brazil. Plant Disease. 102 (7), 1453-1454. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-17-1123-PDN

Celepcİ E, Uygur S, Kaydan M B, Uygur F N, 2017. Mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) species on weeds in Citrus (Rutaceae) plantations in Çukurova Plain, Turkey. Türkiye Entomoloji Bülteni. 7 (1), 15-21. http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/315531

Chatzivassiliou E K, Boubourakas I, Drossos E, Eleftherohorinos I, Jenser G, Peters D, Katis N I, 2001. Weeds in greenhouses and tobacco fields are differentially infected by Tomato spotted wilt virus and infested by its vector species. Plant Disease. 85 (1), 40-46. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.1.40

Duffield S J, Steer A P, 2006. The ecology of Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in the Riverina region of south-eastern Australia and the implications for tactical and strategic management. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 96 (6), 583-596. DOI:10.1017/BER2006462

FAO, 2013. FAOSTAT database., Rome, Italy: FAO. http://faostat3.fao.org/home/index.html

Fazal Hadi, Muhammad Ibrar, 2015. Ecology of weeds in wheat crops of Kalash valley, district Chitral, Hindukush Range, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 21 (3), 425-433. http://www.wssp.org.pk/vol-21-3-2015/11.%20PJWSR-06-2015.pdf

Haggag W M, Singer S, 2013. First report of leaf spot of radicchio in Egypt caused by Alternaria cichorii. International Journal of Agriculture Innovations and Research. 2 (3), 415-416. http://www.ijair.org/administrator/components/com_jresearch/files/publications/IJAIR_380_Final.pdf

Han Y Z, Wang J H, Zheng K Y, He W, Zhang J, 2020. Identification of Alternaria alternata as the leaf spot-causing agent of chicory in China. Plant Disease. 104 (4), 1258-1258. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-19-1144-PDN

Karantemiris K, Kavroulakis N, Lamprou K, Vakalounakis D J, 2015. First report of Alternaria alternata causing a leaf spot of radicchio in Greece. Plant Disease. 99 (12), 1867. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-14-1228-PDN

Koike S T, Bull C T, 2006. First report of bacterial leaf spot of Italian dandelion (Cichorium intybus) caused by a Pseudomonas syringae pathovar in California. Plant Disease. 90 (2), 245. DOI:10.1094/PD-90-0245A

Krinski D, 2013. First report of phytophagous stink bug in chicory crop. Ciência Rural. 43 (1), 42-44. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782013000100007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en DOI:10.1590/S0103-84782012005000127

Mier Durante M P, Foottit R, Dohlen C D von, Ortego J, 2012. First American records of Aphis intybi (Hemiptera: Aphididae) with notes on two other related adventive species in Argentina. Florida Entomologist. 95 (4), 1154-1162. DOI:10.1653/024.095.0446

Milanova S, Boneva P, Grigorova P, Valkova M, 2007. Weed survey in central north Bulgaria. In: European Weed Research Society, 14th EWRS Symposium, Hamar, Norway, 17-21 June 2007 [European Weed Research Society, 14th EWRS Symposium, Hamar, Norway, 17-21 June 2007.], [ed. by Fløistad E]. Doorwerth, Netherlands: European Weed Research Society. 217. http://www.ewrs-symposium2007.com

Myung I S, Choi J K, Lee J Y, Yoon M J, Hwang E Y, Shim H S, 2013. First report of bacterial leaf spot of witloof, caused by Pseudomonas cichorii in Korea. Plant Disease. 97 (10), 1376. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-13-0436-PDN

Namin S M, Nozari J, 2015. Fruit flies of the genus Campiglossa (Diptera, Tephritidae) in Iran, with the key to species. Vestnik Zoologii. 49 (3), 251-260. http://www.v-zool.kiev.ua

Pavlovic S, Starović M, Stojanovic S D, Kojic S, Marinkovic J, Josic D, 2014. First report of stolbur phytoplasma affecting Cichorium intybus in Serbia. Plant Disease. 98 (6), 839-840. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-13-0947-PDN

Pérez-López E, Omar A F, Al-Jamhan K M, Dumonceaux T J, 2018. Molecular identification and characterization of the new 16SrIX-J and cpn60 UT IX-J phytoplasma subgroup associated with chicory bushy stunt disease in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 68 (2), 518-522. https://ijs.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/ijsem/10.1099/ijsem.0.002530

Sabir Hussain, Yousif Aldryhim, Al-Dhafer H, Halbert S E, Thomas J, 2015. New aphid records for Saudi Arabia (Hemiptera: Aphidoidea). Zoology in the Middle East. 61 (4), 368-371. DOI:10.1080/09397140.2015.1101927

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Shah G M, Khan M A, 2006. Checklist of noxious weeds of district Mansehra, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 12 (3), 213-219. http://wssp.org.pk/

Shah S M, Asad Ullah, Fazal Hadi, 2014. Ecological characteristics of weed flora in the wheat crop of Mastuj valley, district Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 20 (4), 479-487. http://www.wssp.org.pk/vol-20-4-2014/6.%20PJWSR-22-2014.pdf

Stobbs L W, Greig N, Weaver S, Shipp L, Ferguson G, 2009. The potential role of native weed species and bumble bees (Bombus impatiens) on the epidemiology of Pepino mosaic virus. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. 31 (2), 254-261. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07060660909507599

Tunç İ, Bahșİ Ü, Göçmen H, 2012. Thysanoptera fauna of the aegean region, Turkey, in the spring. Turkish Journal of Zoology. 36 (5), 592-606. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/zoology/

Zhang S, Fu Y, 2013. First report of bacterial leaf spot on Cichorium intybus caused by Pseudomonas cichorii in Florida. Plant Disease. 97 (6), 837. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-12-1185-PDN

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