Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Cissus quadrangularis
(treebine)

Rojas-Sandoval J, 2018. Cissus quadrangularis (treebine). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.13396.20203483159

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Datasheet

Cissus quadrangularis (treebine)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 05 June 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cissus quadrangularis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • treebine
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Cissus quadrangularis is an aggressive fast-growing vine that has been cultivated primarily as a garden ornamental and medicinal plant. This species escaped from cultivation and can now be found naturalized in dry forests, coastal thicket...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit. India, September 2013.
TitleHabit
CaptionCissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit. India, September 2013.
Copyright©Dinesh Valke/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit. India, September 2013.
HabitCissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit. India, September 2013.©Dinesh Valke/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit, draped through a buffalo thorn tree (Ziziphus mucronata). Biyamiti Camp, Kruger NP, South Africa. January 2014.
TitleHabit
CaptionCissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit, draped through a buffalo thorn tree (Ziziphus mucronata). Biyamiti Camp, Kruger NP, South Africa. January 2014.
Copyright©Bernard Dupont/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit, draped through a buffalo thorn tree (Ziziphus mucronata). Biyamiti Camp, Kruger NP, South Africa. January 2014.
HabitCissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit, draped through a buffalo thorn tree (Ziziphus mucronata). Biyamiti Camp, Kruger NP, South Africa. January 2014.©Bernard Dupont/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit. India, June 2014.
TitleFoliage
CaptionCissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit. India, June 2014.
Copyright©Mokkie/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit. India, June 2014.
FoliageCissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit. India, June 2014.©Mokkie/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine); stem and leaf. Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, University of Pretoria, South Africa. February 2015.
TitleStem and leaf
CaptionCissus quadrangularis (treebine); stem and leaf. Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, University of Pretoria, South Africa. February 2015.
Copyright©JMK/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine); stem and leaf. Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, University of Pretoria, South Africa. February 2015.
Stem and leafCissus quadrangularis (treebine); stem and leaf. Manie van der Schijff Botanical Garden, University of Pretoria, South Africa. February 2015.©JMK/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit. India, April 2014.
TitleFoliage
CaptionCissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit. India, April 2014.
Copyright©Mokkie/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit. India, April 2014.
FoliageCissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit. India, April 2014.©Mokkie/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit. India, showing stems amd flowers. April 2014.
TitleFlowers and stems
CaptionCissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit. India, showing stems amd flowers. April 2014.
Copyright©Mokkie/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit. India, showing stems amd flowers. April 2014.
Flowers and stemsCissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit. India, showing stems amd flowers. April 2014.©Mokkie/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine); unripe fruits. Theni, Cumbam Valley, Tamilnadu, India, April 2015.
TitleUnripe fruits
CaptionCissus quadrangularis (treebine); unripe fruits. Theni, Cumbam Valley, Tamilnadu, India, April 2015.
Copyright©V.R. Vinayaraj/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine); unripe fruits. Theni, Cumbam Valley, Tamilnadu, India, April 2015.
Unripe fruitsCissus quadrangularis (treebine); unripe fruits. Theni, Cumbam Valley, Tamilnadu, India, April 2015.©V.R. Vinayaraj/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine); ripe fruits. South Africa. March 2007.
TitleRipe fruits
CaptionCissus quadrangularis (treebine); ripe fruits. South Africa. March 2007.
Copyright©SAplants/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine); ripe fruits. South Africa. March 2007.
Ripe fruitsCissus quadrangularis (treebine); ripe fruits. South Africa. March 2007.©SAplants/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit. Biyamiti Camp, Kruger NP, South Africa. January 2014.
TitleStem and tendril
CaptionCissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit. Biyamiti Camp, Kruger NP, South Africa. January 2014.
Copyright©Bernard Dupont/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit. Biyamiti Camp, Kruger NP, South Africa. January 2014.
Stem and tendrilCissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit. Biyamiti Camp, Kruger NP, South Africa. January 2014.©Bernard Dupont/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit, showing a small plant. Herbal Garden, in Forest Extension Center, Sithar Koyil, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. January 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionCissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit, showing a small plant. Herbal Garden, in Forest Extension Center, Sithar Koyil, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. January 2012.
Copyright©Thamizhpparithi Maari/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Cissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit, showing a small plant. Herbal Garden, in Forest Extension Center, Sithar Koyil, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. January 2012.
HabitCissus quadrangularis (treebine); habit, showing a small plant. Herbal Garden, in Forest Extension Center, Sithar Koyil, Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. January 2012.©Thamizhpparithi Maari/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cissus quadrangularis L.

Preferred Common Name

  • treebine

Other Scientific Names

  • Cissus bifida Schumach & Thonn.
  • Cissus edulis Dalzell
  • Cissus quadrangula L.
  • Cissus quadrangula Salisb.
  • Cissus succulenta (Galpin) Burtt-Davy
  • Cissus tetragona Harv.
  • Cissus tetraptera Hook.f.
  • Cissus triandra Schumach. & Thonn.
  • Vitis quadrangularis (L.) Wall. ex Wight
  • Vitis succulenta Galpin

International Common Names

  • English: adamant creeper; cactus vine; kangaroo vine; stemmed vine; veldt-grape; winged treebine
  • French: cissu de Galam; raisin de Galam; vanilla du Galam; vigne de Bakel

Local Common Names

  • Cuba: ubí de cuatro lados; uvas moras
  • Indonesia: patah tulang
  • Indonesia/Java: tikel balung
  • Myanmar: shazaung-let-set
  • Philippines: sugpon-sugpon; sulpa-sulpa
  • Thailand: khankho; phet sangkhaat; san cha khuat
  • Vietnam: dây xanh vuông; hồ dằng bốn cạnh

EPPO code

  • CIBQQ (Cissus quadrangularis)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Cissus quadrangularis is an aggressive fast-growing vine that has been cultivated primarily as a garden ornamental and medicinal plant. This species escaped from cultivation and can now be found naturalized in dry forests, coastal thickets, forest edges, savannas and scrublands across dry, arid and semiarid habitats in tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. It has become an invasive species with detrimental impacts mostly on insular ecosystems. C. quadrangularis is a vigorous vine that spreads both vertically and horizontally forming dense monospecific stands that outcompete native vegetation. It climbs over trees and shrubs, covering them entirely, blocking light and thus restricting the growth and regeneration of native plants. It may kill or break down trees and shrubs that support it due to its weight. This species is able to inhabit areas subject to water stress and has the potential to spread sexually by seeds and vegetatively by stem fragments.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Rhamnales
  •                         Family: Vitaceae
  •                             Genus: Cissus
  •                                 Species: Cissus quadrangularis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Vitaceae comprises 14 genera and about 850-910 species of mostly vines and lianas distributed across tropical and warm temperate regions of the world. The genus Cissus with about 350 species is the largest within this family (Stevens, 2017). Many species within Cissus are succulent climbers with mostly square, jointed stems, occurring in dry and arid regions. C. quadrangularis is a morphologically variable species that has been described as a complex of species with many variants. Several taxonomical and comparative studies have suggested that many taxa previously described as varieties of C. quadrangularis should be considered separate species and new varieties have also been described (Masinde, 1992; Verdcourt, 1993; Gituru et al., 2001).

Description

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A perennial herbaceous climber. Stem thick, succulent, quadrangular, angles winged, constricted at nodes, glabrous or slightly downy, almost leafless when old. Tendril long, slender, simple. Petiole 6-12 mm long, glabrous. Leaves simple ovate, entire or cordate, serrulate dentate, or crenate-serrate, 3-lobed, terminal lobe triangular or sub-spathulate, subacute or ± cuspidate, membranous, glabrous on both sides, 3-5 x 5-3 cm; stipules ovate or cuneate, obtuse, deciduous. Inflorescence a compound umbelliform cyme, peduncle 1-2.5 cm long. Flower pink and white, 2 mm long, hypanthium cup-like, truncate or obscurely lobed, green, ca. 2 mm wide. Petals 4, distinct, ovate-oblong, acute, hooded at apex, ca. 1.5 mm long. Disc longer than the ovary. Ovary glabrous, style slender subulate, stigma small. Berry globose, red, succulent, very acidic, 6-10 mm in diameter, 1 seeded. Seed obovoid smooth, 4-8 mm across (Flora of Pakistan, 2018).

Plant Type

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Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Succulent
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

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Cissus quadrangularis is native to tropical Africa, Arabia, India and Sri Lanka. It has been introduced and can be found naturalized in some countries in Africa, as well as in Thailand, Vietnam, Indonesia, Singapore, the Philippines, Cuba, Jamaica, the Lesser Antilles, the United States (i.e., Hawaii and Florida) and on several islands in the Pacific and Indian Oceans (Brink and Achigan-Dako, 2012; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Yeo et al., 2012; PIER, 2018; PROSEA, 2018; PROTA, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentNative
BeninPresentNative
CameroonPresentNative
Central African RepublicPresentNative
ChadPresentNative
ComorosPresentNative
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNative
Côte d'IvoirePresentNative
EgyptPresentNative
EritreaPresentNative
EswatiniPresentNative
EthiopiaPresentNative
GambiaPresentNative
KenyaPresentNative
LesothoPresentNative
MadagascarPresentIntroducedNaturalized
MalawiPresentNative
MaliPresentNative
MayottePresentIntroducedInvasive
MozambiquePresentNative
NigeriaPresentNative
RéunionPresentIntroducedInvasive
SenegalPresentIntroducedInvasiveInvasive on Iles-de-la-Madeleine
SomaliaPresentNative
South AfricaPresentNative
SudanPresentNative
TanzaniaPresentNative
UgandaPresentNative
ZimbabwePresentNative

Asia

BangladeshPresentNative
IndiaPresentNative
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNative
-AssamPresentNative
-KeralaPresentNative
-Madhya PradeshPresentNative
-MaharashtraPresentNative
-Tamil NaduPresentNative
-Uttar PradeshPresentNative
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-JavaPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-Maluku IslandsPresentIntroducedNaturalized
MalaysiaPresentNative
MyanmarPresentNative
OmanPresentNative
PakistanPresentNative
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedNaturalized
Saudi ArabiaPresentNative
SingaporePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
Sri LankaPresentNative
ThailandPresentIntroducedNaturalized
VietnamPresentIntroducedNaturalized
YemenPresentNative

North America

CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced
JamaicaPresentIntroduced
MartiniquePresentIntroduced
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive

Oceania

GuamPresentIntroduced
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroduced

History of Introduction and Spread

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Cissus quadrangularis was introduced into Senegal in the 19th century and it is now listed as invasive on the Madeleine Islands National Park. On these islands, C. quadrangularis was first reported in the 1960s. By the 1970s, naturalized populations were found in the Hubert Creek and by 1979 it was recorded as “abundant” in the southern part of the main island. Thirty years later, in 2009, dense mono-specific stands of C. quadrangularis are invading different habitats such are rocky cliffs, creaks, and open plateaus. By 2016, C. quadrangularis was reported covering >27% of the total area of the Madeleine Islands National Park (Nzengue et al., 2016).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of new introductions of Cissus quadrangularis is very high.  Since this species is now promoted for the treatment of obesity, osteoporosis, diabetes and heart disease, and for athletes to stimulate muscle growth, it is likely that the demand for this species in the international market will increase in the short-term (Brink and Achigan-Dako, 2012).

Habitat

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Cissus quadrangularis is found in arid habitats, mainly in lowlands and areas near the coast of tropical and subtropical regions (PROSEA, 2018). In Africa, it occurs in savannahs, shrublands, rocky cliffs, and wastelands in arid and semi-arid conditions at elevations ranging from sea level to 2000 m (Gituru et al., 2001; Brink and Achigan-Dako, 2012; PROTA, 2018). In India, it occurs in thickets, open forests, scrub jungles, along forest borders, on riverbanks and wastelands at low and medium elevations (India Biodiversity, 2018). In Hawaii it can be found naturalized in dry thickets (PIER, 2018). 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
LittoralCoastal dunes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
LittoralCoastal dunes Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal dunes Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for C. quadrangularis is 2n=24 (Brink and Achigan-Dako, 2012; PROSEA, 2018).

Reproductive Biology

Cissus quadrangularis has bisexual flowers pollinated by insects (India Biodiversity, 2018).

Physiology and Phenology

Cissus quadrangularis is a succulent species that utilises the Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthetic pathway. This physiological adaptation allows this species to minimize water loss and be able to inhabit water-stressed environments and areas subject to severe drought (Brink and Achigan-Dako, 2012; PROSEA, 2018).

In Africa, C. quadrangularis flowers during the rainy season and sheds its leaves during the dry season. In India, this species has flowers from June-July to September and fruits from October to January (India Biodiversity, 2018).

Environmental Requirements

Cissus quadrangularis often occurs in arid and semi-arid habitats. It prefers to grow on well-drained soils with pH in the range 6.1-7.8, in areas with full sun.  It is adapted to a wide range of soil types including sandy and loamy soils. It does not tolerate frost (PROSEA, 2018).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
35 30

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) >1
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 16 34
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 40
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 12

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall~350 mm1500 mmmm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Hippotion celerio Herbivore Other|All Stages not specific PROSEA (2018)

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Larvae of the grapevine hawk moth (Hippotion celerio) feed on C. quadrangularis in India (PROSEA, 2018).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Cissus quadrangularis spreads by seeds and vegetatively by stem fragments. In cultivation, it can be propagated by cuttings (Nzengue et al., 2016PIER, 2018PROSEA, 2018). Stem fragments of C. quadrangularis can be dispersed by run-off and waterways (Nzengue et al., 2016).

Vector Transmission (Biotic)

Fruits of Cissus quadrangularis are dispersed by frugivorous birds (Staples et al., 2000; Balasubramanian and Maheswaran, 2003).  In Senegal, stem fragments of C. quadrangularis are indirectly dispersed by the cormorant species Phalacrocorax carbo using them to build its nest on rocky cliffs (Nzengue et al., 2016).

Intentional Introduction

Cissus quadrangularis has been intentionally dispersed by humans to be used mostly as garden ornamental and medicinal plants (Brink and Achigan-Dako, 2012; PROSEA, 2018).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Digestion and excretionFruits eaten and dispersed by birds Yes Yes Staples et al. (2000)
DisturbanceNaturalized along roadsides, open forests and wastelands Yes Yes PROTA (2018)
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Nzengue et al. (2016)
ForageLeaves and stems sometimes used as forage for livestock Yes Yes Brink and Achigan-Dako (2012)
Garden waste disposalSeeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Nzengue et al. (2016)
Habitat restoration and improvementPlanted for dune stabilization Yes Yes Brink and Achigan-Dako (2012)
Hedges and windbreaksUsed for live fences Yes Yes Brink and Achigan-Dako (2012)
HorticultureCommercialized as an ornamental and medicinal plant Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Intentional releaseCommercialized as an ornamental and medicinal plant Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Internet salesSeeds available online Yes Yes
Medicinal useExtensively used in traditional African and Asian medicine Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Nursery tradeCommercialized as an ornamental and medicinal plant Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Ornamental purposesPlanted as an ornamental and potted plant and for live fences Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
People foragingIn Asia, consumed as a vegetable Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
ResearchResearch on obesity, osteoporosis and for weight loss supplements Yes Yes Oben et al. (2006)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Nzengue et al. (2016)
MailSeeds available online Yes Yes
WaterSeeds and stem fragments Yes Yes Nzengue et al. (2016)
Host and vector organismsSeeds and stem fragments may be dispersed by birds Yes Yes Nzengue et al. (2016)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Economic Impact

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Cissus quadrangularis may be poisonous to livestock and fishes. Signs of poisoning and significant losses of livestock have been reported in Sudan and other regions of Africa related to ingestion of this plant (Brink and Achigan-Dako, 2012).

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

Cissus quadrangularis is a very aggressive vine that spreads both vertically and horizontally, forming dense monospecific stands with the potential to outcompete native vegetation. It climbs over trees and shrubs, covering them entirely, blocking light and restricting the growth and regeneration of native plants. It may kill or break down trees and shrubs that support it due to its weight (Barthelat, 2005; Brink and Achigan-Dako, 2012; Nzengue et al., 2015Oviedo Prieto and Gonzalez-Oliva, 2015; Nzengue et al., 2016).

It is also regarded as an environmental weed or invasive species on the Mayotte Islands, Reunion Island, Hawaii and Cuba (Barthelat, 2005; Lavergne, 2012; Oviedo Prieto and Gonzalez-Oliva, 2015; PIER, 2018).

Impact: Biodiversity

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In the Madeleine Islands National Park, Cissus quadrangularis negatively impacts key native plant species such as Euphorbia balsamifera, Boscia senegalensis and Adansonia digitata. C. quadrangularis is also invading the breeding habitat of the sea bird Phaethon aethereus mesonauta. The highest cliffs, caves and crevices regularly used as nesting sites for these birds are now occupied and covered by C. quadrangularis (Nzengue et al., 2015; Nzengue et al., 2016).

Social Impact

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Studies to date indicate that C. quadrangularis extracts are safe and free of adverse effects at the doses commonly used (Stohs and Ray, 2013).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Cissus quadrangularis is often cultivated as a garden ornamental potted plant. Strong fibres are extracted from the stems in Kenya and India. The young shoots and leaves are eaten as a vegetable across Africa and Asia. The entire plant is used in traditional African and Asian medicine. Across Africa, an infusion from the roots is used as a pesticide against termites and fleas, and as a fly repellent (Brink and Achigan-Dako, 2012; Flora of Pakistan, 2018).

Cissus quadrangularis has been used as a medicinal plant for centuries. It is used in Ayurvedic classical medicines to heal broken bones and injured ligaments and tendons. The crushed leaves or the juice from the stem are applied for rheumatism and to broken bones, to ease the pain. In India, the pulped stem is given in asthma, and the powdered root is considered to be a specific in the treatment of fractured bones. The powdered dry roots are used for indigestion. In the Philippines, the stems are applied as an alterative for amenorrhea. In Thailand, the fresh stem is used in the treatment of hemorrhoids. The Maasai people of Kenya use this plant to relieve some of the symptoms of malaria (PROSEA, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

Economic Value

Cissus quadrangularis appears to be useful in the management of weight loss and metabolic syndrome. Although pharmacological and clinical tests are being carried out to evaluate the potential medical uses of this species, commercial preparations of this species are available for the treatment of obesity, diabetes, heart disease and high cholesterol. It is also used for the treatment of bone fractures, rheumatoid arthritis, hemorrhoids, painful menstrual periods, and pain. C. quadrangularis is also used in bodybuilding supplements as an alternative to anabolic steroids (Oben et al., 2006; 2008; Nagani et al., 2011; Sen and Dash, 2012; Tiwari et al., 2018).

Environmental Services

C. quadrangularis is sometimes grown to stabilize sand dunes (Brink and Achigan-Dako, 2012).

 

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization

General

  • Research model

Human food and beverage

  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Fibre

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Biological Control

In Senegal, a study showed that biological control using the caterpillar of Hippotion celerio could be an achievable method to control C. quadrangularis. This study also suggested that the combination of physical (manual removal) and biological control is the best approach to control the spread of this species in the study area (Nzengue et al., 2015).   

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Balasubramanian P, Maheswaran B, 2003. Frugivory, seed dispersal and regeneration by birds in South Indian forests. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 100, 411-423.

Barthelat, F., 2005. Note on introduced exotic species in Mayotte. (Note sur les espèces exotiques envahissantes à Mayotte). In: Direction de l'Agriculture et de la Forêt . 30 pp.

Brink M, Achigan-Dako EG, 2012. Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 16. Fibres, [ed. by Brink M, Achigan-Dako EG]. Wageningen, Netherlands: PROTA Foundation.

Catalogue of the Plants of Madagascar, 2018. Catalogue of the Plants of Madagascar. St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://legacy.tropicos.org/Project/Madagascar

Flora of Pakistan, 2018. Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website. In: Flora of Pakistan/Pakistan Plant Database (PPD). Tropicos website St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/Pakistan

Gituru, R. W., Wang QingFeng, Wang Yong, Guo YouHao, 2001. A taxonomic investigation of variation within Cissus quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae) in Kenya. Wuhan University Journal of Natural Sciences, 6(3), 715-724. doi: 10.1007/BF02830291

India Biodiversity Portal, 2018. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity . http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Lavergne C, 2012. List of invasive and potentially invasive alien plants of La Réunion Island. La Réunion, France: Overseas Department of France in the Indian Ocean.

Lombardi JA, 2000. (Vitaceae: Gêneros Ampelocissus, Ampelopsis e Cissus). In: Flora Neotropica,(80) . 1-250.

Masinde PS, 1992. Taxonomic studies on the Cissus quadrangularis L. complex in Kenya. PhD thesis. Kenya: Kenyatta University .

Nagani, K. V., Jignesh Kevalia, Chanda, S. V., 2011. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical evaluation of stem of Cissus quadrangularis L. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (IJPSR), 2(11), 2856-2862. http://www.ijpsr.com/V2I11/18%20Vol.2%20(11),%20IJPSR%20,RA-862,%202011,%20Paper%2018.pdf

Nzengue E, Sambou B, Thiam A, Noba K, Sambou Y, Mavoungou JF, 2016. (Prolifération de Cissus quadrangularis L. dans le Parc National des Iles-de-la-Madeleine, Sénégal). VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l'environnement, http://journals.openedition.org/vertigo/16880

Nzengue, E., Zinga-Koumba, C. R., Iponga, D. M., Memiaghea, H. R., Thiam, A., Sambou, B., Mavoungou, J. F., 2015. Integrated pest control trial against the proliferation of Cissus quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae) in the National Park des Iles de la Madeleine (Senegal). (Essai de lutte intégrée contre la prolifération de Cissus quadrangularis L. (Vitaceae) dans le Parc National des Iles de la Madeleine (Sénégal)). Journal of Applied Biosciences, 91, 8529-8538. doi: 10.4314/jab.v91i1.10

Oben, J. E., Ngondi, J. L., Momo, C. N., Agbor, G. A., Sobgui, C. S. M., 2008. The use of a Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination in the management of weight loss: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Lipids in Health and Disease, 7(12), (31 March 2008). http://www.lipidworld.com/content/7/1/12

Oben, J., Kuate, D., Agbor, G., Momo, C., Talla, X., 2006. The use of a Cissus quadrangularis formulation in the management of weight loss and metabolic syndrome. Lipids in Health and Disease, 5(24), (02 September 2006). http://www.lipidworld.com/content/pdf/1476-511X-5-24.pdf

Oviedo Prieto, R., González-Oliva, L., 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 9(Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROSEA, 2018. Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Bogor, Indonesia: PROSEA Foundation.http://proseanet.org/prosea/e-prosea.php

PROTA, 2018. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Sen, M. K., Dash, B. K., 2012. A review on phytochemical and pharmacological aspects of Cissus quadrangularis L. International Journal of Green Pharmacy, 6(3), 169-173. doi: 10.4103/0973-8258.104924

Staples, G. W., Herbst, D. R., Imada, C. T., 2000. Survey of invasive or potentially invasive cultivated plants in Hawaii. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, https://bishopmuseumpress.org/products/op65

Stevens, P. F., 2017. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14. In: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 14 . St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Stohs, S. J., Ray, S. D., 2013. A review and evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Cissus quadrangularis extracts. Phytotherapy Research, 27(8), 1107-1114. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4846

Tiwari M, Gupta PS, Sharma N, 2018. Ethnopharmacological, phytochemical and pharmacological review of plant Cissus quadrangularis L. . Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 10(1), 81-90.

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Verdcourt B, 1993. Vitaceae. In: Flora of Tropical East Africa, 195 [ed. by Polhill RM]. Rotterdam, Netherlands: AA Balkema. 1-149 .

Yeo CK, Ang WF, Lok AFSL, Ong KH, 2012. Conservation status of Cissus L. (Vitaceae) of Singapore: with a special note on Cissus repens Lam. Nature in Singapore, 5, 319-330.

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Barthelat F, 2005. Note on introduced exotic species in Mayotte. (Note sur les espèces exotiques envahissantes à Mayotte). In: Direction de l'Agriculture et de la Forêt, 30 pp.

Brink M, Achigan-Dako EG, 2012. Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 16. Fibres. [ed. by Brink M, Achigan-Dako EG]. Wageningen, Netherlands: PROTA Foundation.

Catalogue of the Plants of Madagascar, 2018. Catalogue of the Plants of Madagascar., St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://legacy.tropicos.org/Project/Madagascar

India Biodiversity Portal, 2018. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. In: Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Lavergne C, 2012. List of invasive and potentially invasive alien plants of La Réunion Island., La Réunion, France: Overseas Department of France in the Indian Ocean.

Lombardi JA, 2000. Flora Neotropica, 1-250.

Nzengue E, Sambou B, Thiam A, Noba K, Sambou Y, Mavoungou JF, 2016. (Prolifération de Cissus quadrangularis L. dans le Parc National des Iles-de-la-Madeleine, Sénégal). VertigO - la revue électronique en sciences de l'environnement. http://journals.openedition.org/vertigo/16880

Oviedo Prieto R, González-Oliva L, 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 9 (Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROSEA, 2018. Plant Resources of South-East Asia., Bogor, Indonesia: PROSEA Foundation. http://proseanet.org/prosea/e-prosea.php

PROTA, 2018. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database. Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Sakthivel P, Karuppuchamy P, Kalyanasundaram M, Srinivasan T, 2012. Host plants of invasive papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Williams and Granara de Willink) in Tamil Nadu. Madras Agricultural Journal. 99 (7/9), 615-619. https://doc-00-7g-docsviewer.googleusercontent.com/viewer/securedownload/dsn1aovipa7l846lsfcf94nedj8q2p4u/qo3phtufamvk9q39umu888pbj4t4kkc6/1348647300000/c2l0ZXM=/AGZ5hq8BgbJY1gwaOYx83cPOdNw6/WkdWbVlYVnNkR1J2YldGcGJud3hNWFJvWlcxaFpISmhjMkZuY21samRXeDBkWEpoYkdwdmRYSnVZV3g4WjNnNk56WmpPREk1WXpBd01XWTNZelZrWkE=?a=gp&filename=99-7-9-615-619.pdf&chan=EQAAAOqeu1nfMdjbyOfMSElqQCfRbAOx1kCMBqnRUfeLUnjy&docid=0508176bd4abbdc3e7017b1a89751bc3%7C9c9df36583445f1fe402a841b5e1963b&sec=AHSqidZmGWqJKVKwfKsaqtFstCH

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Yeo CK , Ang WF, Lok AFSL, Ong KH, 2012. Conservation status of Cissus L. (Vitaceae) of Singapore: with a special note on Cissus repens Lam. Nature in Singapore. 319-330.

Contributors

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13/05/2018 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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