Preferred Scientific Name
- Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus
- CSNV00 (Chrysanthemum stem necrosis ?tospovirus)
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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 12 May 2022
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Japan||Present, Few occurrences|
|-Honshu||Present, Few occurrences|
|South Korea||Present||2013||via PestLens newsletter.|
|Netherlands||Absent, Eradicated||1996||Absent, pest eradicated (1996), confirmed by survey. 53 survey observations in 2012.|
|United Kingdom||Absent, Eradicated||2002|
Mumford et al. (2003)
|Chrysanthemum morifolium (chrysanthemum (florists'))||Asteraceae||Main|
|Eustoma grandiflorum (Lisianthus (cut flower crop))||Gentianaceae||Other|
|Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Inflorescence / lesions; flecking; streaks (not Poaceae)|
|Leaves / abnormal colours|
|Leaves / abnormal patterns|
|Leaves / necrotic areas|
|Leaves / wilting|
|Stems / discoloration|
|Stems / necrosis|
|Stems / wilt|
|Whole plant / wilt|
CSNV is transmitted and spread in nature by insects of the family Thripidae (Thysanoptera) in a persistent manner. Frankliniella occidentalis and F. schultzei, but not Thrips tabaci or T. palmi, are vectors of CSNV (Wagata et al., 2004). F. occidentalis and F. schultzei have been used experimentally to transmit CSNV from Datura stramonium to leaf discs of petunia. F. schultzei transmits tospoviruses with great efficiency and is an important vector of CSNV in Brazil. T. tabaci was not found to be a vector in these experiments (Bezerra et al., 1999). These results have been confirmed in more recent studies where CSNV was found to be efficiently transmitted by F. occidentalis (65.1%) and F. schultzei (78.1%), but not at all by T. tabaci (0.0%) (Nagata and de Avila, 2000).
F. occidentalis has been implicated in the spread of CSNV in glasshouses in the Netherlands (Verhoeven et al., 1996) and has also been found at low levels in the UK nursery affected in 2002. CSNV was detected in thrips from the affected glasshouse using the TaqMan PCR probe.
F. occidentalis is known to attack a wide range of plants (over 250 recorded hosts) and is an efficient vector of Tomato spotted wilt virus, another destructive tospovirus. Crop hosts of F. occidentalis include ornamentals and cut flowers (chrysanthemum, rose, carnation, Impatiens, Gloxinia, Gerbera, Aster, Primula, Cineraria), vegetables (cucumber, lettuce, tomato, beans, aubergine, capsicum) and fruits (strawberries, stone fruits; Cook et al., 1996). Some of these hosts have also been infected systemically by CSNV in artificial inoculation studies.
The other known vector, F. schultzei, has a pantropical distribution. It is less common in the subtropics and in temperate regions where the insect is restricted to heated places, such as glasshouses and storehouses. F. schultzei is commonly found on plants in international trade (Vierbergen and Mantel, 1991). Its establishment on flowers of Cactaceae has been reported in glasshouses in the Netherlands (Vierbergen and Mantel, 1991) and it has more recently been found on other plant species in Dutch glasshouses (Vierbergen, 1995). F. schultzei has also been recorded as a glasshouse pest in Belgium and is present in Israel, Egypt, Morocco and mainland Spain (CABI/EPPO, 1999). Italy and the Canary Islands (Spain) have also been reported as locations where the thrips is found (Nakahara, 1997), but the Italian record is now regarded as incorrect (CABI/EPPO, 1999). A record for the UK (CABI/EPPO, 1999) is based on a single female found on Pinus in Berkshire (Mound et al., 1976), but the thrips is not known to be established.
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Introduction
Bezerra IC; Resende ROde; Pozzer L; Nagata T; Kormelink R; ßvila ACde, 1999. Increase of tospoviral diversity in Brazil with the identification of two new tospovirus species, one from chrysanthemum and one from zucchini. Phytopathology, 89(9):823-830; 30 ref.
Bezerra MI; Pozzer L; Nagata T; Lima MI; Katajima EW; de Ávila AC; de Resende RO, 1996. Chrysanthemum stem necrosis (CSNV), a proposed new species in the tospovirus genus. Fitopatológia Brasileira, 21:430.
Colariccio A; Eiras M; Chaves ALR; Louren¦ao AL; Melo AMT; Siqueira WJ, 2000. Detection of chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus on tomato in Sao Paulo State. Summa Phytopathologica, 26(2):252-254; 11 ref.
Duarte, L. M. L., Alexandre, M. A. V., Gobatto, D., Kitajima, E. W., Harakava, R., 2014. First report of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus on Russell prairie gentian in Brazil. Plant Disease, 98(2), 285-286. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-06-13-0653-PDN
EPPO, 2006. Chrysanthemum stem necrosis tospovirus. Datasheets on quarantine pests, web version 2006-03. Paris, France: EPPO, 7 pp.
EPPO, 2011. EPPO Reporting Service. EPPO Reporting Service. Paris, France: EPPO. http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/Reporting_Archives.htm
EPPO, 2012. EPPO Reporting Service. EPPO Reporting Service. Paris, France: EPPO. http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/Reporting_Archives.htm
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
EU, 2000. Council Directive 2000/29/EC of 8 May 2000 on protective measures against the introduction into the Community of organisms harmful to plants or plant products and against their spread within the Community. Official Journal of the European Communities, L169:1-112.
Lima GdeA; Brommonschenkel SH; Ventura GM, 2003. Broad-spectrum resistance to tospovirus in accessions of Lycopersicon peruvianum and L. chilense. Summa Phytopathologica, 29(4): 352-354.
Louren¦ao AL; Siqueira WJ; Melo AMT; Melo PCT; Colariccio A; Fonte LC; Chaves ALR, 2001. Evaluation of tomato lines and cultivars for tospovirus resistance. Summa Phytopathologica, 27(1):17-23; 40 ref.
Mound LA; Morison GD; Pitkin BR; Palmer JM, 1976. Thysanoptera. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects, Royal Entomological Society of London, 1(11):79 pp.; 15 ref.
Mumford RA; Jarvis B; Morris J; Blockley A, 2003. First record of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) in the UK. Plant Pathology, 52:779.
Nagata T; Almeida ACL; Resende RO; Avila ACde, 2004. The competence of four thrips species to transmit and replicate four tospoviruses. Plant Pathology, 53(2): 136-140.
Nagata T; de Avila AC, 2000. Transmission of chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus, a recently discovered tospovirus, by two thrips species. Journal of Phytopathology, 148:123-125.
Nagata T; Resende Rde O; Kitajima EW; Costa H; Inoue-Nagata AK; Avila AC de, 1998. First report of natural occurrence of zucchini lethal chlorosis tospovirus on cucumber and chrysanthemum stem necrosis tospovirus on tomato in Brazil. Plant Disease, 82(12):1403; 1 ref.
Nichol ST; Beaty BJ; Elliott RM; Goldbach R; Plyusnin A, et al. , 2005. Bunyaviridae. In: Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselberger U, Ball LA, eds. Virus Taxonomy, VIIIth Report of the ICTV. London, UK: Elsevier/Academic Press, 695-716.
Ravnikar M; Vozelj N; Mavriè I; Gvigelj SD; Zupanèiè M; Petroviè N, 2003. Detection of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus and Tomato spotted wilt virus in chrysanthemum. Abstracts 8th International Congress of Plant Pathology. Christchurch, New Zealand: ICPP.
Rudolph C; Schreier PH; Uhrig JF, 2003. Peptide-mediated broad-spectrum plant resistance to tospoviruses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100(8):4429-4434; 51 ref.
Smith IM; McNamara DG; Scott PR; Holderness M, 1997. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization., Ed. 2:vii + 1425 pp.; many ref.
Verhoeven JTJ; Roenhorst JW, 1998. Occurrence of tospoviruses in the Netherlands. In: Peters D, Goldbach R, eds. Recent Progress in Tospovirus and Thrips Research. Wageningen, Netherlands: Department of Virology, WAU, 77-80.
Yoon JY; Choi GS; Choi SK, 2016. First report of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus on Chrysanthemum morifolium in Korea. Plant Disease. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/pdf/10.1094/PDIS-06-16-0906-PDN
Beris D, Malandraki I, Kektsidou O, Vassilakos N, Varveri C, 2020. First report of impatiens necrotic spot virus infecting lettuce in Greece. Plant Disease. 104 (10), 2742-2742. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-11-19-2316-PDN
CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Duarte L M L, Alexandre M A V, Gobatto D, Kitajima E W, Harakava R, 2014. First report of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus on Russell prairie gentian in Brazil. Plant Disease. 98 (2), 285-286. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-13-0653-PDN
Mehle N, Seljak G, Verhoeven J T J, Jansen C C C, Prezelj N, Ravnikar M, 2010. Chrysanthemum stunt viroid newly reported in Slovenia. Plant Pathology. 59 (6), 1159. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/ppa DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3059.2010.02293.x
NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013. Pest status of harmful organisms in the Netherlands., Wageningen, Netherlands:
Verhoeven J T J, Roenhorst J W, Cortes I, Peters D, 1996. Detection of a novel tospovirus in chrysanthemum. In: Acta Horticulturae [Ninth international symposium on virus diseases of ornamental plants, Herzliya, Israel, 17-22 March, 1996.], [ed. by Loebenstein G, Hammond J, Gera A, Derks A F L M, Zaayen A van]. 44-51.
Verhoeven JTJ, Roenhorst JW, 1998. Occurrence of tospoviruses in the Netherlands. In: Recent Progress in Tospovirus and Thrips Research, [ed. by Peters D, Goldbach R]. Wageningen, Netherlands: Department of Virology, WAU. 77-80.
Yoon J Y, Choi G S, Choi S K, 2017. First report of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus on Chrysanthemum morifolium in Korea. Plant Disease. 101 (1), 264. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/pdis-06-16-0906-pdn
Yoon JY, Choi GS, Choi SK, 2016. First report of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus on Chrysanthemum morifolium in Korea. In: Plant Disease, http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/pdf/10.1094/PDIS-06-16-0906-PDN DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-16-0906-PDN
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