Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Vectors and Intermediate Hosts
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus
- CSNV00 (Chrysanthemum stem necrosis ?tospovirus)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Virus
- Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
- Group: "RNA viruses"
- Order: Mononegavirales
- Family: Bunyaviridae
- Genus: Tospovirus
- Species: Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) was originally described as the new Chr 1 serogroup of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (Duarte et al., 1995). Verhoeven et al. (1996) concluded that a new virus isolated from Dendranthema x grandiforum [Chrysanthemum x morifolium], which they tentatively designated Ch-1, was a distinct Tospovirus. The name Chrysanthemum stem necrosis tospovirus was first used by Nagata et al. (1998) when describing an occurrence of CSNV on tomato. However, the first formal recognition of a new virus species was made by Bezerra et al. (1996) who proposed that a virus isolated from chrysanthemums (Chry 1) be designated Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV). The virus is now recognized as a tentative species of the Tospovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family (Nichol et al., 2005).
DescriptionTop of page Leaf extracts of infected chrysanthemum negatively stained with 2% uranyl actetate consistently contained tospovirus-like particles 90-120 nm in diameter (Duarte et al., 1995). Using the same stain, Verhoeven et al. (1996) found tospovirus-like particles 75-95 nm in diameter in dip preparations from infected chrysanthemum leaves. These particles were readily detected in extracts of infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. In the UK, electron microscopy of affected chrysanthemum tissue from the UK outbreak revealed spherical, tospovirus-like virus particles 90-110 nm in diameter (Mumford et al., 2003).
DistributionTop of page Outbreaks of CSNV have occurred in the Netherlands (1994/1995), Slovenia (2001/2002) and UK (2002), but the virus is no longer found in those countries (EPPO, 2006a).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 19 Jun 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Japan||Present, Few occurrences||EPPO (2020)|
|-Honshu||Present, Few occurrences||EPPO (2020)|
|South Korea||Present||2013||Yoon et al. (2016); Yoon et al. (2017); EPPO (2020)||via PestLens newsletter.|
|Belgium||Absent, Eradicated||EPPO (2020)|
|Italy||Absent, Eradicated||EPPO (2020); EPPO (2014)|
|Netherlands||Absent, Eradicated||1996||NPPO of the Netherlands (2013); Verhoeven et al. (1996); Verhoeven and Roenhorst (1998); EPPO (2020)||Absent, pest eradicated (1996), confirmed by survey. 53 survey observations in 2012.|
|Slovenia||Absent, Eradicated||EPPO (2020)|
|United Kingdom||Absent, Eradicated||2002||CABI and EPPO (2005); IPPC (2010); EPPO (2020)|
|-England||Absent, Eradicated||EPPO (2020)|
|Brazil||Present||1996||CABI and EPPO (2005); EPPO (2020)|
|-Minas Gerais||Present||CABI and EPPO (2005); EPPO (2020)|
|-Sao Paulo||Present||CABI and EPPO (2005); EPPO (2020)|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page CSNV poses a significant threat to chrysanthemum and tomato crops in those parts of the EPPO region where its known vector Frankliniella occidentalis is present and widespread. CSNV causes a more severe disease on chrysanthemum than TSWV. In addition, F. schultzei, which is the major vector in Brazil (Bezerra et al., 1999), is present in glasshouses in the Netherlands and Belgium and has been reported in various southern countries of the EPPO region. The two geographically isolated outbreaks of CSNV in the Netherlands and the UK were both related to imported chrysanthemum cuttings from Brazil, which shows that there is a pathway for introduction (though no such direct pathway exists at the moment for tomato). CSNV also poses a threat to tomato cultivation under glass. Another danger is that, because symptoms of CSNV closely resemble those caused by TSWV, they could easily be mistaken by the grower for this virus in nurseries that already have a TSWV problem. Although isolated outbreaks of CSNV can be eradicated (this has been achieved successfully in the Netherlands and in UK), it is desirable to avoid any further importations from endemic countries.
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page CSNV (as Chr 1) was first recognized on chrysanthemum in São Paulo State in Brazil (Duarte et al., 1995). It was later found on tomato in Minas Gerais State, Brazil (Nagata et al., 1998). It may also occur in other South American countries (Verhoeven et al., 1996).
In the Netherlands, CSNV (as Ch-1) was found in 1994/1995, in four chrysanthemum nurseries that had imported cuttings from Brazil. The disease was considered serious enough to warrant eradication. All chrysanthemums at one nursery were destroyed and selective roguing was carried out at the other three in attempts to eradicate the disease. Plants with symptoms continued to be found at the three nurseries where only roguing was undertaken in 1995, but CSNV was believed to have been eradicated by 1996 (Verhoeven et al., 1996; Verhoeven and Roenhorst, 1998).
In the UK, CSNV was found on chrysanthemum plants on a nursery in the south-west of England in November 2002. As in the Netherlands, the plants had been grown from cuttings originally imported from Brazil, on this occasion during August 2002. The affected crop was subjected to containment and eradication procedures. Nine other nurseries which had received imported chrysanthemum cuttings from Brazil during the same period were inspected and no CSNV was detected (Mumford et al., 2003). CNSV was declared eradicated in the UK in August 2003.
In Slovenia, CSNV was detected in 23 samples of chrysanthemum in 2001, and again in 2002 in 1 sample of Gerbera. The identity of CSNV was confirmed by ELISA, different test plants and PCR. All infected plants were destroyed by incineration. In 2003, CSNV was not detected. The virus has remained subject to official control (Ravnikar et al., 2003).
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Chrysanthemum morifolium (chrysanthemum (florists'))||Asteraceae||Main|
|Eustoma grandiflorum (Lisianthus (cut flower crop))||Gentianaceae||Other|
|Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)||Solanaceae||Main|
SymptomsTop of page On chrysanthemum, CSNV causes symptoms which are similar to those of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). In the Netherlands, they were described as mild or severe necrotic streaks on the stem, wilting of leaves and stems, and chlorotic or necrotic spots and rings on some leaves. However, symptoms of CSNV are more severe and can result in complete necrosis of the stem resulting in wilting of sections of plants (Verhoeven et al., 1996). In Brazil, symptoms were described as necrotic lesions surrounded by yellow areas on leaves followed by necrosis on stems, peduncles and floral receptacles (Duarte et al., 1995). In the UK outbreak, symptoms included distinct dark stem lesions with some leaf necrosis (Mumford et al., 2003).
In naturally infected tomato in Brazil, plants showed stem necrosis with necrotic spots and rings on leaves (Nagata et al., 1998). On inoculated tomato cultivars 'Moneymaker', 'Pronto' and 'Trust', systemic symptoms have been described as chlorotic and necrotic lesions, chlorosis, rugosity and severe growth reduction, although not all inoculated plants developed symptoms (Verhoeven et al., 1996). On comparing the reaction of these cultivars to CSNV and TSWV, Verhoeven et al. (1996) considered that tomato may be less susceptible to CSNV than to TSWV.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Inflorescence / lesions; flecking; streaks (not Poaceae)|
|Leaves / abnormal colours|
|Leaves / abnormal patterns|
|Leaves / necrotic areas|
|Leaves / wilting|
|Stems / discoloration|
|Stems / necrosis|
|Stems / wilt|
|Whole plant / wilt|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
CSNV is transmitted and spread in nature by insects of the family Thripidae (Thysanoptera) in a persistent manner. Frankliniella occidentalis and F. schultzei, but not Thrips tabaci or T. palmi, are vectors of CSNV (Wagata et al., 2004). F. occidentalis and F. schultzei have been used experimentally to transmit CSNV from Datura stramonium to leaf discs of petunia. F. schultzei transmits tospoviruses with great efficiency and is an important vector of CSNV in Brazil. T. tabaci was not found to be a vector in these experiments (Bezerra et al., 1999). These results have been confirmed in more recent studies where CSNV was found to be efficiently transmitted by F. occidentalis (65.1%) and F. schultzei (78.1%), but not at all by T. tabaci (0.0%) (Nagata and de Avila, 2000).
F. occidentalis has been implicated in the spread of CSNV in glasshouses in the Netherlands (Verhoeven et al., 1996) and has also been found at low levels in the UK nursery affected in 2002. CSNV was detected in thrips from the affected glasshouse using the TaqMan PCR probe.
F. occidentalis is known to attack a wide range of plants (over 250 recorded hosts) and is an efficient vector of Tomato spotted wilt virus, another destructive tospovirus. Crop hosts of F. occidentalis include ornamentals and cut flowers (chrysanthemum, rose, carnation, Impatiens, Gloxinia, Gerbera, Aster, Primula, Cineraria), vegetables (cucumber, lettuce, tomato, beans, aubergine, capsicum) and fruits (strawberries, stone fruits; Cook et al., 1996). Some of these hosts have also been infected systemically by CSNV in artificial inoculation studies.
The other known vector, F. schultzei, has a pantropical distribution. It is less common in the subtropics and in temperate regions where the insect is restricted to heated places, such as glasshouses and storehouses. F. schultzei is commonly found on plants in international trade (Vierbergen and Mantel, 1991). Its establishment on flowers of Cactaceae has been reported in glasshouses in the Netherlands (Vierbergen and Mantel, 1991) and it has more recently been found on other plant species in Dutch glasshouses (Vierbergen, 1995). F. schultzei has also been recorded as a glasshouse pest in Belgium and is present in Israel, Egypt, Morocco and mainland Spain (CABI/EPPO, 1999). Italy and the Canary Islands (Spain) have also been reported as locations where the thrips is found (Nakahara, 1997), but the Italian record is now regarded as incorrect (CABI/EPPO, 1999). A record for the UK (CABI/EPPO, 1999) is based on a single female found on Pinus in Berkshire (Mound et al., 1976), but the thrips is not known to be established.
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page CSNV is transmitted only by its thrips vectors which can spread it between plants, fields or glasshouses in infested areas. In international trade, the virus could be disseminated over long distances in cuttings and other vegetative plants for planting. CSNV is known to have spread to the Netherlands in chrysanthemum cuttings imported from Brazil (Verhoeven et al., 1996) as well as to the UK by the same route (Mumford et al., 2003). These plants may not have shown symptoms at the time of dispatch. As a tospovirus, CSNV is unlikely to be seed-transmitted.
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Vectors and Intermediate HostsTop of page
ImpactTop of page In Brazil, CSNV is increasing in economic importance as it continues to spread to new geographical areas since 1997. It is expected to become widespread and important (Bezerra et al., 1999). Losses are difficult to determine as damage to chrysanthemum and tomato in Brazil due to CSNV has not been quantified. CSNV is now frequently detected on tomato, but had not reached epidemic proportions. No specific data are available on losses in tomato as there are apparently three tospovirus species present on this host in Brazil and their effects differ from region to region. However, experimental work suggests that CSNV could kill tomato plants in a few days.
The potential impact elsewhere is difficult to estimate. Tomato and chrysanthemum are crops of major economic importance in Europe. The impact that CSNV would have on either of them is difficult to estimate, as statistics on crop losses from Brazil are not available. It could be expected to be substantial. In addition, it can be noted that the eradication campaign has already cost the Netherlands 25-30,000 EUR.
DiagnosisTop of page Datura stramonium is a suitable indicator host to differentiate CSNV from other tospoviruses as only CSNV causes stem necrosis in mechanically inoculated plants (Verhoeven et al., 1996). Physalis floridana can be used to differentiate CSNV from Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) as only the latter induces systemic symptoms (chlorotic and necrotic lesions or rings, wilting).
Antisera to CSNV have been produced in the Netherlands (Verhoeven et al., 1996) and Brazil (Bezerra et al., 1999) for use in ELISA testing. CSNV did not react in DAS-ELISA to antisera of other tospoviruses. Those tested by Verhoeven et al. (1996) were TSWV, Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) and Tospo-to (an isolate resembling Watermelon silver mottle virus, WSMoV). TSWV, INSV, IYSV, Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV), Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and WSMoV were tested by Bezerra et al. (1999). DAS-ELISA and TAS-ELISA have also been used by Colariccio et al. (2000, 2001). Western immuno-blot analysis also distinguishes CSNV from other tospoviruses, although a slight cross-reaction with antibodies against TSWV, TCSV and GRSV was observed (Bezerra et al., 1999).
Samples of infected plants from the UK outbreak were tested for a range of tospoviruses using ELISA (Mumford et al., 2003). CSNV was detected using a polyclonal DAS-ELISA kit. Sap inoculation from symptomatic stem material onto a range of indicator species led to typical CSNV symptoms; the affected plants gave a positive result for CSNV when tested by ELISA. RT-PCR performed on extracts of symptomatic stem tissue produced a single product which, when sequenced, shared 98% identity with the 5' end of the capsid protein gene of a published CSNV sequence. RT-PCR and Dot blot hybridization have also been used for detecting and identifying CSNV (Eiras et al., 2001).
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page On chrysanthemum, it is difficult to distinguish symptoms caused by CSNV and Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), although CSNV symptoms are more severe to the trained eye.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Introduction
Control of the disease is essentially targeted at eliminating or excluding the thrips vectors (Frankliniella occidentalis and F. schultzei).
Thrips are generally difficult to control with chemicals. They are very small and hard to detect; the pre-pupal and pupal stages survive in the soil and are difficult to treat. They have a high fecundity, which would hamper eradication in glasshouses. Resistance to the major classes of insecticides has also been reported in thrips. Resistance to insecticides is persistent (Lewis, 1997).
No entirely reliable method of biological control of thrips has been identified. Predatory mites and insects and to a lesser degree pathogenic fungi have been used in glasshouses with varying degrees of success. It may in the future be possible to use hymenopteran parasitoids and parasitic nematodes (Jackson, 1997).
Cultural Control and Sanitary Methods
Glasshouse hygiene, such as the eradication of weeds which may serve as thrips hosts, used in conjunction with chemical control measures, may reduce populations of the thrips vectors. Manipulation of the glasshouse environment to suit predators of biological control agents is a future possibility. Some growers report success in controlling F. occidentalis by heating the glasshouse to 30°C for 4-5 days and then washing down the structure with disinfectant (Lewis, 1997). Screens to prevent the entry of thrips into glasshouses and sticky traps within glasshouses have been used as control measures.
There is no published information regarding resistance of chrysanthemum or tomato to CSNV. However, attempts have been made to develop CSNV-resistant tomato genotypes both by conventional breeding techniques (Lourencao et al., 2001; Lima et al., 2003) and by molecular genetic transfer (Rudolph et al., 2003).
CSNV was added to the EPPO A1 action list in 2003, and EPPO member countries are thus recommended to regulate it as a quarantine pest. So far, there are no specific phytosanitary measures to protect against the introduction of CSNV into the EPPO region. Tomato plants from outside the European and Mediterranean area are prohibited entry, as Solanaceae, into the EU (EU, 2000). Imported plants for planting of chrysanthemum are subject only to phytosanitary certification, and consideration could be given to requiring origin from tested mother plants, place of production freedom, or freedom from the vectors F. occidentalis and F. schultzei. In fact, since these thrips are polyphagous, freedom from them could be required for plants for planting of any herbaceous plant species from countries where CSNV occurs. Eradication of isolated outbreaks can be achieved by destruction of affected hosts and of the vector(s), but this is costly and difficult to implement in practice.
ReferencesTop of page
Bezerra IC; Resende ROde; Pozzer L; Nagata T; Kormelink R; ßvila ACde, 1999. Increase of tospoviral diversity in Brazil with the identification of two new tospovirus species, one from chrysanthemum and one from zucchini. Phytopathology, 89(9):823-830; 30 ref.
Bezerra MI; Pozzer L; Nagata T; Lima MI; Katajima EW; de Ávila AC; de Resende RO, 1996. Chrysanthemum stem necrosis (CSNV), a proposed new species in the tospovirus genus. Fitopatológia Brasileira, 21:430.
Colariccio A; Eiras M; Chaves ALR; Louren¦ao AL; Melo AMT; Siqueira WJ, 2000. Detection of chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus on tomato in Sao Paulo State. Summa Phytopathologica, 26(2):252-254; 11 ref.
EPPO, 2006. Chrysanthemum stem necrosis tospovirus. Datasheets on quarantine pests, web version 2006-03. Paris, France: EPPO, 7 pp.
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EPPO, 2012. EPPO Reporting Service. EPPO Reporting Service. Paris, France: EPPO. http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/Reporting_Archives.htm
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
EU, 2000. Council Directive 2000/29/EC of 8 May 2000 on protective measures against the introduction into the Community of organisms harmful to plants or plant products and against their spread within the Community. Official Journal of the European Communities, L169:1-112.
Lima GdeA; Brommonschenkel SH; Ventura GM, 2003. Broad-spectrum resistance to tospovirus in accessions of Lycopersicon peruvianum and L. chilense. Summa Phytopathologica, 29(4): 352-354.
Louren¦ao AL; Siqueira WJ; Melo AMT; Melo PCT; Colariccio A; Fonte LC; Chaves ALR, 2001. Evaluation of tomato lines and cultivars for tospovirus resistance. Summa Phytopathologica, 27(1):17-23; 40 ref.
Mound LA; Morison GD; Pitkin BR; Palmer JM, 1976. Thysanoptera. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects, Royal Entomological Society of London, 1(11):79 pp.; 15 ref.
Mumford RA; Jarvis B; Morris J; Blockley A, 2003. First record of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) in the UK. Plant Pathology, 52:779.
Nagata T; Almeida ACL; Resende RO; Avila ACde, 2004. The competence of four thrips species to transmit and replicate four tospoviruses. Plant Pathology, 53(2): 136-140.
Nagata T; de Avila AC, 2000. Transmission of chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus, a recently discovered tospovirus, by two thrips species. Journal of Phytopathology, 148:123-125.
Nagata T; Resende Rde O; Kitajima EW; Costa H; Inoue-Nagata AK; Avila AC de, 1998. First report of natural occurrence of zucchini lethal chlorosis tospovirus on cucumber and chrysanthemum stem necrosis tospovirus on tomato in Brazil. Plant Disease, 82(12):1403; 1 ref.
Nichol ST; Beaty BJ; Elliott RM; Goldbach R; Plyusnin A, et al. , 2005. Bunyaviridae. In: Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselberger U, Ball LA, eds. Virus Taxonomy, VIIIth Report of the ICTV. London, UK: Elsevier/Academic Press, 695-716.
Ravnikar M; Vozelj N; Mavriè I; Gvigelj SD; Zupanèiè M; Petroviè N, 2003. Detection of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus and Tomato spotted wilt virus in chrysanthemum. Abstracts 8th International Congress of Plant Pathology. Christchurch, New Zealand: ICPP.
Rudolph C; Schreier PH; Uhrig JF, 2003. Peptide-mediated broad-spectrum plant resistance to tospoviruses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100(8):4429-4434; 51 ref.
Smith IM; McNamara DG; Scott PR; Holderness M, 1997. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization., Ed. 2:vii + 1425 pp.; many ref.
Verhoeven JTJ; Roenhorst JW, 1998. Occurrence of tospoviruses in the Netherlands. In: Peters D, Goldbach R, eds. Recent Progress in Tospovirus and Thrips Research. Wageningen, Netherlands: Department of Virology, WAU, 77-80.
Yoon JY; Choi GS; Choi SK, 2016. First report of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus on Chrysanthemum morifolium in Korea. Plant Disease. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/pdf/10.1094/PDIS-06-16-0906-PDN
CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
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NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013. Pest status of harmful organisms in the Netherlands., Wageningen, Netherlands:
Verhoeven J T J, Roenhorst J W, Cortes I, Peters D, 1996. Detection of a novel tospovirus in chrysanthemum. In: Acta Horticulturae [Ninth international symposium on virus diseases of ornamental plants, Herzliya, Israel, 17-22 March, 1996.], [ed. by Loebenstein G, Hammond J, Gera A, Derks A F L M, Zaayen A van]. 44-51.
Verhoeven JTJ, Roenhorst JW, 1998. Occurrence of tospoviruses in the Netherlands. In: Recent Progress in Tospovirus and Thrips Research, [ed. by Peters D, Goldbach R]. Wageningen, Netherlands: Department of Virology, WAU. 77-80.
Yoon J Y, Choi G S, Choi S K, 2017. First report of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus on Chrysanthemum morifolium in Korea. Plant Disease. 101 (1), 264. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/pdis-06-16-0906-pdn
Yoon JY, Choi GS, Choi SK, 2016. First report of Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus on Chrysanthemum morifolium in Korea. In: Plant Disease, http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/pdf/10.1094/PDIS-06-16-0906-PDN DOI:10.1094/PDIS-06-16-0906-PDN
Distribution MapsTop of page
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