Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Chrysomyxa arctostaphyli
(spruce broom rust)

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Datasheet

Chrysomyxa arctostaphyli (spruce broom rust)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 18 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Chrysomyxa arctostaphyli
  • Preferred Common Name
  • spruce broom rust
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •         Class: Pucciniomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Spruce broom rust caused by C. arctostaphyli on Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce), Oregon, USA.
TitleField symptom
CaptionSpruce broom rust caused by C. arctostaphyli on Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce), Oregon, USA.
CopyrightCatherine G. Parks
Spruce broom rust caused by C. arctostaphyli on Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce), Oregon, USA.
Field symptomSpruce broom rust caused by C. arctostaphyli on Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce), Oregon, USA.Catherine G. Parks
Life cycle diagram of spruce broom rust.
TitleLife history
CaptionLife cycle diagram of spruce broom rust.
CopyrightPaul Hennon/USFS Pacific Northwest Research Lab. Juneau, Alaska, USA
Life cycle diagram of spruce broom rust.
Life historyLife cycle diagram of spruce broom rust.Paul Hennon/USFS Pacific Northwest Research Lab. Juneau, Alaska, USA

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Chrysomyxa arctostaphyli Dietel 1894

Preferred Common Name

  • spruce broom rust

Other Scientific Names

  • Melampsoropsis arctostaphyli Arthur
  • Peridermium coloradense (Dietel) Arthur & F. Kern 1906 (anamorph)

International Common Names

  • English: broom rust of spruce; common yellow witches' broom rust; sprucebroom rust; yellow witches' broom

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: melbærrisgyldenrust
  • Germany: Fichtennadelrost; Nadel-: Fichte Rost

EPPO code

  • CHMYAR (Chrysomyxa arctostaphyli)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •                 Class: Pucciniomycetes
  •                     Order: Pucciniales
  •                         Family: Coleosporiaceae
  •                             Genus: Chrysomyxa
  •                                 Species: Chrysomyxa arctostaphyli

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Europe

NetherlandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
SloveniaAbsent

North America

CanadaPresent, Widespread
-AlbertaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-ManitobaPresent, Widespread
-New BrunswickPresent
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresent, Localized
-Northwest TerritoriesPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
-YukonPresent
United StatesPresent, Localized
-AlaskaPresent
-ArizonaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-IdahoPresent
-MainePresent
-MichiganPresent
-MontanaPresent
-New MexicoPresent
-New YorkPresent
-OregonPresent
-South DakotaPresent
-UtahPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-WisconsinPresent
-WyomingPresent

Growth Stages

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Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / discoloration
Growing point / odour
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / odour
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / witches broom

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cladosporium aecidiicola Hyperparasite
Nectria Hyperparasite

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves fungi/fruiting bodies; fungi/hyphae Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches fungi/fruiting bodies; fungi/hyphae Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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Agrios GN, 1988. Plant Pathology. London, UK: Academic Press, Inc. (London) Ltd., 803 pp.

Allen EA; Morrison DJ; Wallis GW, 1996. Common tree diseases of British Columbia. Victoria, Canada: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, 178 pp.

Berndt R, 1999. Chrysomyxa rust: morphology and ultrastructure of D-haustoria, uredinia, and telia. Canadian Journal of Botany, 77(10):1469-1484; 65 ref.

Blunt WH, 1993. Rocky Mountain Region Diseases. In: Hofacker TH, Fowler RF, Webster K, Riffe M, technical coordinators. Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in the United States, 1992. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 39-47.

British Columbia Ministry of Forests, 2002. Spruce broom rust, Chrysomyxa arctostaphyli. British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Canada. http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfp/forsite/pest_field_guide/spruce_broom_rust.htm.

CABI/EPPO, 1999. Chrysomyxa arctostaphyli. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 441. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Conklin DA, 1991. Southwest Region Diseases. In: Hofacker TH, Loomis RC, Fowler RF, Webster K, technical coordinators. Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in the United States, 1990. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 44-47.

Conklin DA; Shultz M, 1993. Southwestern Region Diseases. In: Hofacker TH, Fowler RF, Webster K, Riffe M, technical coordinators. Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in the United States, 1992. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 50-53.

Conners IL, 1967. An annotated index of plant diseases in Canada and fungi recorded on plants in Alaska, Canada and Greenland. Research Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture, Publ. 1251.

Cotton CL; Parker KL, 2000. Winter habitat and nest trees used by northern flying squirrels in subboreal forests. Journal of Mammalogy 81:1071-1086.

EPPO, 2002. EPPO Standard PM1/2(11) A1 and A2 quarantine lists. World Wide Web page at (http://www.eppo.org/QUARANTINE/lists.html). [Accessed 2003-01-31].

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fairweather ML, 1992. Southwestern Region Diseases. In: Hofacker TH, Fowler RF, Turner L, Webster K, Rieffe M, technical coordinators. Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in the United States, 1991. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 44-47.

Fechner GH, 1990. Picea pungens Engelm. In: Burns RM, Honkala, BH, eds. Silvics of North America Vol. 1. Conifers. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Handbook 654, 238-249.

Hansen EM; Lewis KJ, 1997. Compendium of Conifer diseases. St Paul, USA: American Phytopathological Society (APS Press), 101 pp.

Harris AS, 1990. Picea sitchensis (Bong,) Carr. In: Burns RM, Honkala, BH, eds. Silvics of North America Vol. 1. Conifers. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Handbook 654, 260-267.

Hennon P; Trummer L, 2001. Spruce broom rust. Juneau, Alaska, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Leaflet R10-TP-100.

Hennon PE, 1991. Alaska Region Diseases. In: Hofacker TH, Loomis RC, Fowler RF, Webster K, technical coordinators. Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in the United States, 1990. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 118-120.

Hennon PE, 1992. Alaska Region Diseases. In: Hofacker TH, Fowler RF, Turner L, Webster K, Rieffe M, technical coordinators. Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in the United States, 1991. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 125-127.

Hennon PE, 1993. Alaska Region Diseases. In: Hofacker TH, Fowler RF, Webster K, Riffe M, technical coordinators. Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in the United States, 1992. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 132-135.

HEPTING GH, 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the United States., USA: USDA, 658 pp. [Agricultural Handbook, No. 386.]

Hinds TE; Hawksworth; FG, 1966. Indicators and associated decay of Engelmann spruce in Colorado. Fort Collins, Colorado, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experimental Station, Research Paper RM-25.

Hoffman JT, 1991. Intermountain region diseases. In: Hofacker TH, Loomis RC, Fowler RF, Webster K, technical coordinators. Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in the United States, 1990. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 52-55.

Knapp A, 1993. Intermountain region diseases. In: Hofacker TH, Fowler RF, Webster K, Riffe M, technical coordinators. Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in the United States, 1992. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 58-63.

Misra S; Green MJ, 1990. Developmental gene expression in conifer embryogenesis and germination I. Seed proteins and protein body composition of mature embryo and the megagametophyte of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss.). Plant Science (Limerick), 68(2):163-173.

Parks CG; Bull EL, 1997. American marten use of rust and dwarf mistletoe brooms in northeastern Oregon. Western Journal of Applied Forestry, 12(4):131-133; 4 ref.

Parks CG; Flanagan PT, 2001. Dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium spp.), rust diseases, and stem decays in Eastern Oregon and Washington. Northwest Science, 75(Special issue):31-37; 46 ref.

Peterson RS, 1961. Host alternation of spruce broom rust. Science, 53:427-431.

Saville DBO, 1955. Chrysomyxa in North America - additions and corrections. Canadian Journal of Botany, 47:741-744.

Sharpf RF, 1993. Diseases of Pacific Coast Conifers. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook 521.

Sinclair WA; Lyon HH; Johnson WT, 1987. Diseases of trees and shrubs. Ithaca, New York, USA: Cornell University Press, 574 pp.

Singh P, 1978. Broom rusts of balsam fir and black spruce in Newfoundland. European Journal of Forest Pathology, 8(1):25-36

Smith IM; McNamara DG; Scott PR; Holderness M, 1997. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization., Ed. 2:vii + 1425 pp.; many ref.

Viereck LA, Little Jr. EL, 1972. Alaska trees and shrubs. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook 410.

Ziller WG, 1970. Studies of western tree rusts. VIII. Inoculation experiments with conifer needle rusts. Canadian Journal of Botany, 48:1471-1476.

Ziller WG, 1974. The tree rusts of Western Canada. Victoria, BC, Canada: Canadian Forestry Service, 272 pp.

Distribution References

Allen E A, Morrison D J, Wallis G W, 1996. Common tree diseases of British Columbia. Victoria, Canada: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre. x + 178 pp.

Blunt WH, 1993. Rocky Mountain Region Diseases. In: Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in the United States, 1992, [ed. by Hofacker TH, Fowler RF, Webster K, Riffe M]. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 39-47.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Conklin DA, 1991. Southwest Region Diseases. In: Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in the United States, 1990, [ed. by Hofacker TH, Loomis RC, Fowler RF, Webster K]. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 44-47.

Conklin DA, Shultz M, 1993. Southwestern Region Diseases. In: Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in the United States, 1992, [ed. by Hofacker TH, Fowler RF, Webster K, Riffe M]. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 50-53.

Conners I L, 1967. An annotated index of plant diseases in Canada and fungi recorded on plants in Alaska, Canada and Greenland. Publ. Res. Br. Canada Dept Agric. 381 pp.

EPPO, 2022. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. 1 pp. https://gd.eppo.int/

Fairweather ML, 1992. Southwestern Region Diseases. In: Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in the United States, 1991, [ed. by Hofacker TH, Fowler RF, Turner L, Webster K, Rieffe M]. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 44-47.

Hennon PE, 1991. Alaska Region Diseases. In: Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in the United States, 1990, [ed. by Hofacker TH, Loomis RC, Fowler RF, Webster K]. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 118-120.

Hennon PE, 1992. Alaska Region Diseases. In: Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in the United States, 1991, [ed. by Hofacker TH, Fowler RF, Webster K, Rieffe M]. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 125-127.

Hennon PE, 1993. Alaska Region Diseases. In: Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in the United States, 1992, [ed. by Hofacker TH, Fowler RF, Webster K, Riffe M]. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 132-135.

Hoffman JT, 1991. Intermountain region diseases. In: Forest Insect and Disease Conditions in the United States, 1990, [ed. by Hofacker TH, Loomis RC, Fowler RF, Webster K]. Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 52-55.

NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013. Pest status of harmful organisms in the Netherlands., Wageningen, Netherlands:

Parks C G, Flanagan P T, 2001. Dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium spp.), rust diseases, and stem decays in Eastern Oregon and Washington. Northwest Science. 75 (Special issue), 31-37.

Sharpf RF, 1993. Diseases of Pacific Coast Conifers., Washington, DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Agriculture Handbook. 521.

Singh P, 1978. Broom rusts of balsam fir and black spruce in Newfoundland. European Journal of Forest Pathology. 8 (1), 25-36.

UK, CAB International, 1968. Chrysomyxa arctostaphyli. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 441. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20056500441

Ziller W G, 1974. The tree rusts of Western Canada. Victoria, BC, Canadian Forestry Service, Dept. Environment. viii + 272 pp.

Distribution Maps

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