Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Chrysodeixis includens
(soybean looper)

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Datasheet

Chrysodeixis includens (soybean looper)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 May 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Chrysodeixis includens
  • Preferred Common Name
  • soybean looper
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Late-instar larva of C. includens.
TitleSoyabean looper larva
CaptionLate-instar larva of C. includens.
CopyrightMatthew Baur
Late-instar larva of C. includens.
Soyabean looper larvaLate-instar larva of C. includens.Matthew Baur
Adult moth of C. includens on a soyabean leaf.
TitleSoyabean looper adult
CaptionAdult moth of C. includens on a soyabean leaf.
CopyrightMatthew Baur
Adult moth of C. includens on a soyabean leaf.
Soyabean looper adultAdult moth of C. includens on a soyabean leaf.Matthew Baur
Damage caused by heavy infestation of C. includens in Louisiana, USA.
TitleLarval feeding damage on soyabean
CaptionDamage caused by heavy infestation of C. includens in Louisiana, USA.
CopyrightMatthew Baur
Damage caused by heavy infestation of C. includens in Louisiana, USA.
Larval feeding damage on soyabeanDamage caused by heavy infestation of C. includens in Louisiana, USA.Matthew Baur

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, 1858)

Preferred Common Name

  • soybean looper

Other Scientific Names

  • Autographa oo Stoll
  • Autographa rogationis
  • Phalaena oo Stoll, 1872
  • Phytometra oo Stoll
  • Phytometra rogationis
  • Plusia binotula Herrich-Schaffer, 1868
  • Plusia dyaus Grote, 1875
  • Plusia hamifera Walker, 1858
  • Plusia includens Walker, 1858
  • Plusia oo Stoll in Cramer, 1782
  • Plusia rogationis Guenee
  • Pseudoplusia includens (Walker, 1858)
  • Pseudoplusia oo Stoll in Cramer, 1782
  • Pseudoplusia pertusa Möschler, 1880
  • Pseudoplusia rogationis (Guenée, 1852)
  • Pusia culta Lintner, 1885

International Common Names

  • English: soyabean looper
  • Spanish: falso medidor; falso medidor de la soya; gusano falso medidor

EPPO code

  • PSEPIN (Pseudoplusia includens)
  • PYTOOO (Phytometra oo)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Noctuidae
  •                             Genus: Chrysodeixis
  •                                 Species: Chrysodeixis includens

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

North America

BermudaPresentLafontaine and Poole, 1991
CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Nova ScotiaPresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
-OntarioPresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
-QuebecPresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentEdelson and Hyche, 1980
-ArizonaPresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
-ArkansasPresentMueller, 1979
-CaliforniaPresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
-ColoradoPresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
-ConnecticutPresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
-FloridaPresentMitchell et al., 1975
-GeorgiaPresentLynch and Garner, 1980
-IllinoisPresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
-IndianaPresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
-KentuckyPresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
-LouisianaPresentAlford and Hammond, 1982
-MainePresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
-MassachusettsPresentAdamczyk et al., 2001
-MichiganPresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
-MississippiPresentJost and Pitre, 2002
-New HampshirePresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
-New JerseyPresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
-New MexicoPresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
-New YorkPresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
-North CarolinaPresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
-OhioPresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
-PennsylvaniaPresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
-South CarolinaPresentMitchell et al., 1975
-South DakotaPresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
-TennesseePresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
-TexasPresentHarding, 1976
-VirginiaPresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
-WisconsinPresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresentGelbic et al., 1982
HondurasPresentManley, 1983
NicaraguaPresentManley, 1983; Mulock et al., 1990
Puerto RicoWidespreadWolcott, 1948; Martorell, 1980

South America

ArgentinaPresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
BoliviaPresentWard et al., 1980
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Espirito SantoPresentBenassi et al., 2012
-MaranhaoPresentCamargo AJAde, 2001
-Minas GeraisPresentBastos et al., 2003
-ParanaPresentDetoni et al., 2018
-PernambucoPresentLopes, 1990
-Rio Grande do SulPresentde Moraes et al., 1991a; Costa et al., 1987
-Sao PauloPresentBusoli, 1984; Franca and Giordano, 1984
ChilePresent, few occurrencesLafontaine and Poole, 1991
ColombiaPresentRodriguez et al., 1984
EcuadorPresentStansly et al., 1990
GuyanaPresentSinha, 1982
PeruPresentCombe and Perez, 1978; Yabar, 1980

Oceania

AustraliaPresentEichlin and Cunningham, 1978

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / lesions: on pods
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / frass visible
Seeds / external feeding
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / frass visible

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen USA; South Carolina soyabeans
Brachymeria ovata Parasite Pupae
Calleida decora Predator Larvae
Calosoma calidum Predator Larvae
Calosoma sayi Predator Larvae
Campoletis flavicincta Parasite
Campoletis sonorensis Parasite
Casinaria plusiae Parasite
Chelonus curvimaculatus Parasite Larvae
Chrysoperla rufilabris Predator
Copidosoma floridanum Parasite Eggs
Copidosoma truncatellum Predator/parasite Eggs/Larvae
Cotesia grenadensis Parasite Larvae
Cotesia marginiventris Predator/parasite Larvae
Cycloneda zischkai Predator
Dendroica palmarum Predator
Densonucleosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Dorymyrmex insanus Predator
Encarsia porteri Parasite Eggs
Erynia crustosa Pathogen
Erynia gammae Pathogen South Carolina soyabeans
Erythemis simplicicollis Predator
Geocoris punctipes Predator
icosahedral viruses Pathogen Larvae
Labidura riparia Predator
Lebia analis Predator Larvae
Lespesia aletiae Predator/parasite Larvae
Mesochorus discitergus Parasite
Meteorus autographae Predator/parasite Larvae
Microcharops bimaculata Parasite
Microplitis demolitor Parasite Larvae
Microplitis rufiventris Parasite Larvae
Nomuraea rileyi Pathogen Larvae USA; South Carolina soyabeans
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Patelloa similis Parasite Larvae
Podisus maculiventris Predator
Solenopsis geminata Predator
Spanagonicus albofasciatus Predator
Sycanus indagator Predator
Voria ruralis Parasite Larvae

References

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Adamczyk JJ Jr, Adams LC, Hardee DD, 2001. Field efficacy and seasonal expression profiles for terminal leaves of single and double Bacillus thuringiensis toxin cotton genotypes. Journal of Economic Entomology, 94(6):1589-1593

Alford AR, Hammond AM Jr, 1982. Plusiinae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations in Louisiana soybean ecosystems as determined with looplure-baited traps. Journal of Economic Entomology, 75(4):647-650

Bastos CS, Galvão JCC, Picanço MC, Cecon PR, Pereira PRG, 2003. Insect phytophagous and predators incidence on maize and bean cultivated in exclusive and intercropped systems. (Incidência de insetos fitófagos e de predadores no milho e no feijão cultivados em sistema exclusivo e consorciado.) Ciência Rural, 33(3):391-397

Benassi VLRM, Valente FI, Comério EF, Carvalho S, 2012. The looper caterpillar, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker, 1857) new pest of yellow passion fruit cultive in Espirito Santo. (Lagarta-falsa-medideira, Pseudoplusia includens (Walker, 1857), nova praga do maracujazeiro no Espírito Santo.) Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura, 34(3):941-943. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_issues&pid=0100-2945&lng=pt&nrm=iso

Brown DW, Goyer RA, 1984. Comparative consumption rates for selected insect predators of two defoliating caterpillar species of soybean in Louisiana. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 19(3):299-303

Busoli AC, 1984. Efficiency of doses of the synthetic sex pheromone 'Z-7-dodecen-1-ol-acetate', in trapping Pseudoplusia includens (Walker, 1857) (Lepidoptera-Noctuidae). Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 13(2):205-212

Camargo AJAde, 2001. Insect diversity in cultivated areas and nature reserves: considerations and recommendations. (Diversidade de insetos em áreas cultivadas e reserva legal: considerações e recomendações.) Boletim de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento - Embrapa Cerrados, No.1:27 pp

Canerday TD, Arant FS, 1967. Biology of Pseudoplusia includens and notes on biology of Trichoplusia ni, Rachiplusia ou, and Autographa biloba. Journal of Economic Entomology, 60:870-871

Combe LI, Perez PG, 1978. Biology of the 'measuring worm' Pseudoplusia includens (Walk.) (Lep., Noctuidae) on cabbage. Revista Peruana de Entomologia, 21(1):61-62

Costa EC, Link D, Estefanel V, 1987. Spatial distribution and sequential sampling plan for soyabean caterpillars. Revista do Centro de Ciencias Rurais, 17(3):181-192

Covell CV Jr, 1984. A Field Guide to the Moths of Eastern North America. Boston, USA: Houghton Mifflin Co

Daigle CJ, Boethel DJ, Fuxa JR, 1990. Parasitoids and pathogens of soybean looper and velvetbean caterpillar (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in soybeans in Louisiana. Environmental Entomology, 19(3):746-752

Detoni, A. M., Carvalho, S. L. C., Hoshino, A. T., Pastório, M. A., Schmidt, M. A. H., Menezes Junior, A. O., Androcioli, H. G., 2018. First report of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker, [1858]) (Lepidotera: Noctuidae) injurious to pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) (Bromeliaceae) in Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 78(4), 796-798. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1519-69842018000400796&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en doi: 10.1590/1519-6984.174384

Edelson JV, Hyche LL, 1980. Insects associated with injury to deciduous tree seedlings growing in forest tree nurseries in Alabama. Journal of Economic Entomology, 73(5):698-701

Eichlin TD, Cunningham HB, 1978. The Plusiinp (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of America north of Mexico, emphasizing genitalic and larval morphology. Technical Bulletin, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 1567

FranÇa FH, Giordano LB, 1984. Pests of peas and their control in the Federal District. XXIV Congresso Brasileiro de Olericultura. I, Reuniao Latino-Americana de Olericultura, Jaboticabal, 16-21 Julho 1984, Resumos e Palestras., 140

Fuxa JR, Richter AR, McLeod PJ, 1992. Virus kills soybean looper years after its introduction into Louisiana. Louisiana Agriculture, 35(3):20-23

Gelbic I, Hrdy I, Spitzer K, 1982. Noctuid moths (Lepidoptera) recorded by pheromone traps in Cuba. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca, 79(5):393-395

Grant JF, Shepard M, 1986. Seasonal incidence of Meteorus autographp on soybean looper larvae on soybean in South Carolina and the influence of host density on parasitization. Journal of Entomological Science, 21(4):338-345

Gregory BMJr, Barfield CS, 1989. Guide to the identification of some Lepidoptera eggs found on Florida soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr. Monograph - Agricultural Experiment Stations, University of Florida, No. 15:15 pp.; 51 ref

Harding JA, 1976. Seasonal occurrence, hosts, parasitism and parasites of cabbage and soybean loopers in the Lower Rio Grande Valley. Environmental Entomology, 5(4):672-674

Heatherly LG, Bowers G, 1998. Early soybean production system handbook. Starkville, USA: Office of Agricultural Communications, Mississippi State University

Jost DJ, Pitre HN, 2002. Soyabean looper and cabbage looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations in cotton and soyabean cropping systems in Mississippi. Journal of Entomological Science, 37(3):227-235; 24 ref

Kenty MM, Hinson K, Quesenberry KH, Wofford DS, 1996. Inheritance of resistance to the soybean looper in soybean. Crop Science, 36(6):1532-1537; 39 ref

Kilen TC, Lambert L, 1998. Genetic control of insect resistance in soybean germplasm PI 417061. Crop Science, 38(3):652-654; 13 ref

Kitching IJ, 1987. Spectacles and silver Ys: a synthesis of the systematics, cladistics and biology of the Plusiinp (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology, 54(2):75-261

Kogan M, Herzog DC, 1980. Sampling methods in soybean entomology. New York, USA: Springer-Verlag

Kunimi Y, Fuxa JR, Richter AR, 1997. Survival times and lethal doses for wild and recombinant Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis viruses in different instars of Pseudoplusia includens. Biological Control, 9(2):129-135; 28 ref

Lafontaine JD, Poole RW, 1991. The moths of America North of Mexico. Noctuoidea, Noctuidae (Part) Fascicle 25.1. The Wedge Entomological Research Foundation

Linn CE Jr, Hammond A, Du J, Roelofs WL, 1988. Specificity of male response to multicomponent pheromones in noctuid moths Trichoplusia ni and Pseudoplusia includens. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 14(1):47-57

Lopes Filho F, 1990. Tomato for processing in the sub-middle San Francisco valley and the insect pests limiting its yield. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 25(2):283-288

Lynch RE, Garner JW, 1980. Insects associated with sunflower in south Georgia. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 15(2):182-189

Manley GV, 1983. Insects associated with tomatoes and cucumbers in the Upper Aguan Valley of Honduras. Turrialba, 33(4):409-415

Martorell LF, 1980. Annotated food plant catalog of the insects of Puerto Rico.Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin. Puerto Rico: University of Puerto Rico

Mascarenhas RN, Boethel DJ, 1997. Responses of field-collected strains of soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to selected insecticides using an artificial diet overlay bioassay. Journal of Economic Entomology, 90(5):1117-1124; 34 ref

Mascarenhas RN, Boethel DJ, Leonard BR, 1997. Development of discriminating concentrations for insecticide resistance monitoring in the soybean looper. 1997 Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, New Orleans, LA, USA, January 6-10, 1997: Volume 2., 1021-1024; 21 ref

Mascarenhas RN, Boethel DJ, Leonard BR, Boyd ML, Clemens CG, 1998. Resistance monitoring to Bacillus thuringiensis insecticides for soybean loopers (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) collected from soybean and transgenic Bt-cotton. Journal of Economic Entomology, 91(5):1044-1050; 38 ref

Mascarenhas RN, Pitre HN, 1997. Oviposition responses of soybean looper (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to varieties and growth stages of soybean. Environmental Entomology, 26(1):76-83; 25 ref

McCutcheon GS, Salley WZ Jr, Turnipseed SG, 1983. Biology of Apanteles ruficrus, an imported parasitoid of Pseudoplusia includens, Trichoplusia ni, and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Environmental Entomology, 12(4):1055-1058

McCutcheon GS, Turnipseed SG, 1981. Parasites of lepidopterous larvae in insect resistant and susceptible soybeans in South Carolina. Environmental Entomology, 10(1):69-74

Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería Servicio Fitosanitario del Estado (Costa Rica), 2009. Listado de Plagas (insectos y ácaros) en cultivos de importancia económica en Costa Rica (C). http://www.protecnet.go.cr/laboratorios/plagcul/cultivoc.htm

Mitchell ER, 1967. Life history of Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 2:53-57

Mitchell ER, Chalfant RB, Greene GL, Creighton CS, 1975. Soybean looper: populations in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina, as determined with pheromone-baited BL traps. Journal of Economic Entomology, 68(6):747-750

Moraes RR de, Loeck AE, Belarmino LC, 1991. Natural enemies of Rachiplusia nu (Guenee, 1852) and Pseudoplusia includens (Walker, 1857) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on soyabean in Rio Grande do Sul. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 26(1):57-64

Morales L, Moscardi F, 1993. Virulence of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus of Autographa californica Speyer to larvae of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) and Rachiplusia nu (Guenee) after sequential passage through C. includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 22(1):19-27

Morales L, Moscardi F, Gravena S, 1993. Potential of a baculovirus of Autographa californica (Speyer) for the control of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner (Lep.: Noctuidae). Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 28(2):237-243

Morps RR de, Loeck p, Belarmino LC, 1991. Population fluctuation of Plusiinp and Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, 1818 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on soyabean in Rio Grande do Sul. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira, 26(1):51-56

Mueller AJ, 1979. Soybean insect pests of the United States-with reference to potential problems in the Imperial Valley. First desert vegetable insect symposium. September 13, 1978, University of California, El Centro Cooperative Agricultural Extension. Berkeley, USA: University of California Cooperative Extension, A4-A7

Mulock BS, Swezey SS, Narvpz C, Castillo P, Rizo CM, 1990. Development of baculoviruses as a contribution to biological control of lepidopterous pests of basic grains in Nicaragua. Proceedings and abstracts, Vth International Colloquium on Invertebrate Pathology and Microbial Control. Glen Osmond, Australia: Department of Entomology, University of Adelaide, 179-183

Ovruski SM, Frfas EA, 1995. Presence of Encarsia porteri (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) parasitizing eggs of noctuid pests of soyabeans in Tucuman, Argentina. Revista de la Sociedad Entomolo^acute~gica Argentina, 54(1-4):25-29; 30 ref

Richman DB, Hemenway RC Jr, Whitcomb WH, 1980. Field cage evaluation of predators of the soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Environmental Entomology, 9(3):315-317

Rodriguez RCE, Madrinan GLM, Hallman G, 1984. The insect complex which attacks the reproductive structures of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): seasonal incidence, intensity of infestation and damage. Revista Colombiana de Entomologia, 10(3/4):20-24

Shepard M, Powell JE, Jones WA Jr, 1983. Biology of Microplitis demolitor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), an imported parasitoid of Heliothis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) spp. and the soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Environmental Entomology, 12(3):641-645

Shour MH, Sparks TC, 1981. Biology of the soybean looper, Pseudoplusia includens: characterization of last-stage larvae. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 74(6):531-535

Sinha AK, 1982. Integrated pest control programme in intermediate savannahs of Guyana. Caribbean Plant Protection Newsletter, 1(2)

Specht A, Paula-Moraes SVde, Sosa-Gómez DR, 2015. Host plants of Chrysodeixis includens (Walker) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Plusiinae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 59(4):343-345. HTTP://www.scielo.br/rbent

Stansly PA, Jacinto G, Orellana M, 1990. Field manipulation of Nomuraea rileyi (Moniliales: Moniliaceae): effects of soybean defoliators in coastal Ecuador. Journal of Economic Entomology, 83(6):2193-2195

Ward CR, Mitchell ER, Sparks AN, Serrate H, Villarroel D, 1980. Response of the fall armyworm and other lepidopterous pests of Bolivia to synthetic pheromones. Florida Entomologist, 63(1):151-153

Welland RT, McDonald PT, Kish MK, 1997. Efficacy of Dimilin)> (diflubenzuron) and transgenic Bt cotton on several lepidopteran species. 1997 Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, New Orleans, LA, USA, January 6-10, 1997: Volume 2., 1095-1099; 25 ref

Wolcott GN, 1948. Insects of Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 32:608

Yabar LE, 1980. Insecticides against the 'bean looper' (Pseudoplusia includens) and their effect on populations of spiders. Revista Peruana de Entomologia, 23(1):149-150

Distribution Maps

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