Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Choristoneura pinus pinus
(jack-pine budworm)

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Datasheet

Choristoneura pinus pinus (jack-pine budworm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Choristoneura pinus pinus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • jack-pine budworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Jack pine budworm moth.
TitleAdult
CaptionJack pine budworm moth.
CopyrightNatural Resources Canada
Jack pine budworm moth.
AdultJack pine budworm moth.Natural Resources Canada
Jack pine budworm egg mass on jack pine (Pinus banksiana) needle.
TitleEgg mass
CaptionJack pine budworm egg mass on jack pine (Pinus banksiana) needle.
CopyrightNatural Resources Canada
Jack pine budworm egg mass on jack pine (Pinus banksiana) needle.
Egg massJack pine budworm egg mass on jack pine (Pinus banksiana) needle.Natural Resources Canada
Early-stage jack pine budworm larva in pollen cone of jack pine (Pinus banksiana).
TitleLarva
CaptionEarly-stage jack pine budworm larva in pollen cone of jack pine (Pinus banksiana).
CopyrightNatural Resources Canada
Early-stage jack pine budworm larva in pollen cone of jack pine (Pinus banksiana).
LarvaEarly-stage jack pine budworm larva in pollen cone of jack pine (Pinus banksiana).Natural Resources Canada
Late-stage jack pine budworm larva.
TitleMature larva
CaptionLate-stage jack pine budworm larva.
CopyrightNatural Resources Canada
Late-stage jack pine budworm larva.
Mature larvaLate-stage jack pine budworm larva.Natural Resources Canada
Jack pine budworm pupae on damaged branch.
TitleDamage symptoms
CaptionJack pine budworm pupae on damaged branch.
CopyrightNatural Resources Canada
Jack pine budworm pupae on damaged branch.
Damage symptomsJack pine budworm pupae on damaged branch.Natural Resources Canada
Defoliation of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) by the jack pine budworm.  Parry Sound, Canada.
TitleDefoliation of jack pine
CaptionDefoliation of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) by the jack pine budworm. Parry Sound, Canada.
CopyrightNatural Resources Canada
Defoliation of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) by the jack pine budworm.  Parry Sound, Canada.
Defoliation of jack pineDefoliation of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) by the jack pine budworm. Parry Sound, Canada.Natural Resources Canada

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Choristoneura pinus pinus Freeman

Preferred Common Name

  • jack-pine budworm

Other Scientific Names

  • Archips fumiferana Graham
  • Choristoneura pinus Freeman

International Common Names

  • English: jack pine budworm; jackpine budworm
  • French: tordeuse du pin gris

EPPO code

  • CHONPI (Choristoneura pinus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Tortricidae
  •                             Genus: Choristoneura
  •                                 Species: Choristoneura pinus pinus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

North America

CanadaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentNativeHarvey (1985)
-ManitobaPresentNativeHarvey (1985)
-New BrunswickPresentNativeHarvey (1985)
-Nova ScotiaPresentNativeHarvey (1985)
-OntarioPresentNativeHarvey (1985)
-QuebecPresentNativeHarvey (1985)
-SaskatchewanPresentNativeHarvey (1985)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-MainePresent, LocalizedNativeHarvey (1985)
-MichiganPresentNativeHarvey (1985)
-MinnesotaPresentNativeHarvey (1985)
-New YorkPresent, LocalizedNativeHarvey (1985)
-WisconsinPresentNativeHarvey (1985)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cold lands / tundra Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Deserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Freshwater Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Marine Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / discoloration
Growing point / discoloration
Growing point / external feeding
Growing point / external feeding
Growing point / frass visible
Growing point / frass visible
Inflorescence / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Inflorescence / frass visible
Inflorescence / frass visible
Inflorescence / internal feeding
Inflorescence / internal feeding
Inflorescence / webbing
Inflorescence / webbing
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / frass visible
Leaves / frass visible
Leaves / webbing
Leaves / webbing
Stems / dieback
Stems / dieback
Stems / webbing
Stems / webbing
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / frass visible

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acropimpla pronexus Parasite Pupae
Anatis ocellata Predator Larvae
Apanteles fumiferanae Parasite Larvae
Apanteles morrisi Parasite Larvae USA; Michigan Pinus banksiana
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae
Camponotus novaeboracensis Predator Larvae
Deraeocoris albigulus Predator Pupae
Dolichogenidea petrovae Parasite Larvae
Formica exsectoides Predator Larvae
Formica pallidefulva nitidiventris Predator Larvae
Glypta fumiferanae Parasite Larvae
Lypha setifacies Parasite Larvae
Meteorus trachynotus Parasite Larvae
Molothrus ater Predator
Parus atricapillus Predator
Podisus serieventris Predator Larvae
Spizella passerina Predator
Trichogramma minutum Parasite Eggs
Zelus tetracanthus Predator Larvae

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark larvae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches larvae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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Albers J; Carroll M; Jones A, 1995. Jack pine budworm in Minnesota: past trends and changing perspectives. In: Volney WJA, Nealis VG, Howse GM,Westwood AR, McCullough DR, Laishley BL, eds. Jack Pine Budworm Biology and Management. Canadian Forest Service, Information Report NOR-X-342, 11-18.

Allen DC; Knight FB; Foltz JL, 1970. Invertebrate predators of the Jack-Pine budworm, Choristoneura pinus, in Michigan. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 63(1):59-64. [21 refs.].

Allen DC; Knight FB; Foltz JL; Mattson WJ, 1969. Influence of parasites on two populations of Choristoneura pinus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Michigan. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 62:1469-1475.

Batzer HO; Jennings DT, 1980. Numerical analysis of a jack pine budworm outbreak in various densities of jack pine. Environmental Entomology, 9(5):514-524

Brown AWA; MacKay MR, 1943. The Jack Pine budworm and the Spruce budworm, Cacoecia fumiferana Clem. (Torticidae). Canadian Entomologist, 75:207-11. I.I.E.

Cadogan BL, 1995. Jack pine budworm, Choristoneura pinus. In: Armstrong JA, Ives WGH, eds. Forest Insect Pests in Canada. Canada Communication Group, Catalogue No. Fo24-235/1995E, 123-126.

Campbell IM, 1953. Morphological differences between the pupae and the egg clusters of Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) and C. pinus Free. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist, 85:134-135.

Campbell IM, 1967. On coniferophagous species of Choristoneura (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in North America. IV. Sexual isolation between three species. Canadian Entomologist, 99(5):482-486. [3 refs.].

Clancy KM; Giese RL; Benjamin DM, 1980. Predicting jack-pine budworm infestations in northwestern Wisconsin. Environmental Entomology, 9(6):743-751

Critchfield WB, 1985. The late Quaternary history of lodgepole and jack pines. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 15(5):749-772; 194 ref.

Dang PT, 1985. Key to adult males of conifer-feeding species of Choristoneura Lederer (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Canada and Alaska. Canadian Entomologist, 117(1):1-5

Deverno LL; Smith GA; Harrison KJ, 1998. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA evidence of introgression in two closely related sympatric species of coniferophagous Choristoneura (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Atlantic Canada. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 91(3):248-259; 33 ref.

Dixon JC; Benjamin DM, 1963. Natural control factors associated with the Jack Pine budworm Choristoneura pinus. Journal of Economic Entomology, 56(3):266-70. 9 refs.

Foltz JL, 1968. A technique for sampling populations of the Jack-Pine budworm. Forest Science, 14(3):277-281. [9 refs.] [Cf. F.A. 24 No. 2408.].

Foltz JL; Knight FB; Allen DC, 1972. Numerical analysis of population fluctuations of the Jack Pine budworm [Choristoneura pinus]. Annals of Entomological Society of America, 65(1):82-89. [25 ref.].

Fowells HA, 1965. Silvics of the forest trees of the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 271. Washington DC, USA: USDA, Forest Service.

Fowler GW; Simmons GA, 1988. What sampling unit should be used in estimating jack pine budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) egg mass densities? Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(2):743-748.

Fowler GW; Simmons GA; Montgomery BA, 1987. Predicting numbers of eggs in jack pine budworm and spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) egg masses in Michigan. Journal of Economic Entomology, 80(3):712-715

Freeman TN, 1953. The spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) and an allied new species on Pine (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Repr. from Canadian Entomologist, 85(4):121-127. (Contr. Div. Ent. Dep. Agric. Can No. 3005.).

Freeman TN, 1958. The Archipinae of North America (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist, Supplement 7:89 pp.

Freeman TN, 1967. On coniferophagous species of Choristoneura (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in North America. I. Some new forms of Choristoneura allied to C. fumiferana. Canadian Entomologist, 99(5):449-455, + 1 plate.

Graham SA, 1929. Principles of Forest Entomology. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill.

Graham SA, 1935. The spruce budworm on Michigan pine. Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA: University of Michigan School of Forestry and Conservation, Bulletin No. 6.

Gross HL, 1992. Impact analysis for a jack pine budworm infestation in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 22(6):818-831

Gross HL; Meating JH, 1994. Impact of the 1982-1986 jack pine budworm infestation on jack pine in northeastern Ontario. Information Report - Great Lakes Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service, No. O-X-431:19 pp.; 36 ref.

Hall RJ; Volney WJA; Wang Y, 1998. Using a geographic information system (GIS) to associate forest stand characteristics with top kill due to defoliation by the jack pine budworm. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 28(9):1317-1327; 54 ref.

Hansen RW, 1988. Phenological and nutritional interactions between the jack pine budworm and jack pine, and sampling early instars of the jack pine budworm. PhD thesis. St. Paul. MN, USA: Department of Entomology, University of Minnesota.

Harvey GT, 1967. On coniferophagous species of Choristoneura (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in North America. V. Second diapause as a species character. Canadian Entomologist, 99(5):486-503. [21 refs.].

Harvey GT, 1985. The taxonomy of the coniferophagous Choristoneura (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): a review. Recent advances in spruce budworms research. Proceedings of the CANUSA Spruce Budworms Research Symposium. Bangor, Maine, September 16-20, 1984 [edited by Sanders, C.J.; Stark, R.W.; Mullins, E.J.; Murphy, J.] Ottawa, Canada; Minister of Supply and Services, 16-48

Harvey GT, 1996. Genetic relationships among Choristoneura species (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in North America as revealed by isozyme studies. Canadian Entomologist, 128(2):245-262; 35 ref.

Harvey GT, 1997. Interspecific crosses and fertile hybrids among the coniferophagous Choristoneura, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae. Canadian Entomologist, 129:519-536.

Harvey GT; Stehr G, 1967. On coniferophagous species of Choristoneura (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in North America. III. Some characters of immature forms helpful in the identification of species. Canadian Entomologist, 99(5): 464-481. [18 refs.].

Heym DC, 1995. The Raco Plains jack pine ecosystem project: a practical approach to budworm infestations. In: Volney WJA, Nealis VG, Howse GM, Westwood AR, McCullough DR, Laishley BL, eds. Jack Pine Budworm Biology and Management. Canadian Forest Service, Information Report NOR-X-342, 143-147.

Hopkin AA; Howse GM, 1995. Impact of the jack pine budworm in Ontario: a review. In: Volney WJA, Nealis VG, Howse GM, Westwood AR, McCullough DR, Laishley BL, eds. Jack Pine Budworm Biology and Management. Canadian Forest Service, Information Report NOR-X-342, 111-119.

Kouki J; McCullough DG; Marshall LD, 1997. Effect of forest stand and edge characteristics on the vulnerability of jack pine stands to jack pine budworm (Choristoneura pinus pinus) damage. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27(11):1765-1772; 33 ref.

Kulman HM; Hodson AC, 1961. Feeding and oviposition habits of the Jack-Pine budworm. Journal of Economic Entomology, 54(6):1138-1140. 5 refs.

Kulman HM; Hodson AC; Duncan DP, 1963. Distribution and effects of Jack Pine budworm defoliation. Forest Science, 9(2):146-157. 18 refs.

Lysyk TJ, 1989. A multiple-cohort model for simulating jack pine budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) development under variable temperature conditions. Canadian Entomologist, 121(4-5):373-387

Lysyk TJ; Nealis VG, 1988. Temperature requirements for development of the Jack pine budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and two of its parasitoids (Hymenoptera). Journal of Economic Entomology, 81(4):1045-1051

Mackay MR, 1953. The larvae of Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) and C. pinus Free. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Repr. from Canadian Entomologist, 85(4):128-133. 2 refs. (Contr. Div. For. Biol. Dep Agric. Can. No. 60.).

Mackay MR, 1962. Larvae of the North American Tortricinae (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist, Supplement 28:182 pp.

Mallett KI; Volney WJA, 1990. Relationships among jack pine budworm damage, selected tree characteristics, and Armillaria root rot in jack pine. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 20(11):1791-1795

Mattson WJ, 1974. Negligible feeding responses by birds to variations in abundance of the budworm, Choristoneura pinus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Great Lakes Entomologist, 7(4):109-111

Mattson WJ; Knight FB; Allen DC; Foltz JL, 1968. Vertebrate predation on the jack-pine budworm in Michigan. Journal of Economic Entomology, 61:229-234.

McCullough DG, 2000. A review of factors affecting the population dynamics of jack pine budworm (Choristoneura pinus pinus Freeman). Population Ecology, 42(3):243-256; Many ref.

McCullough DG; Marshall LD; Buss LJ; Kouki J, 1996. Relating jack pine budworm damage to stand inventory variables in northern Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 26(12):2180-2190; 56 ref.

McGugan BM, 1955. Certain host-parasite relationships involving the Spruce budworn. Canadian Entomologist, 87(4):178-187. 8 refs. (Contr. Div. For. Biol. Dep. Agric. Can. No. 200.).

Nealis V, 1987. The number of instars in jack pine budworm, Choristoneura pinus pinus Free. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the effect of parasitism on head capsule width and development time. Canadian Entomologist, 119(9):773-777

Nealis VG, 1990. Jack pine budworm populations and staminate flowers. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 20(8):1253-1255

Nealis VG, 1991. Parasitism in sustained and collapsing populations of the jack pine budworm, Choristoneura pinus pinus Free. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in Ontario, 1985-1987. Canadian Entomologist, 123(5):1065-1075

Nealis VG, 1995. Population biology of the jack pine budworm. In: Volney WJA, Nealis VG, Howse GM, Westwood AR, McCullough DR, Laishley BL, eds. Jack Pine Budworm Biology and Management. Canadian Forest Service, Information Report NOR-X-342, 55-71.

Nealis VG; Lomic PV, 1994. Host-plant influence on the population ecology of the jack pine budworm, Choristoneura pinus (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Ecological Entomology, 19(4):367-373

Nealis VG; Lomic PV; Meating JH, 1997. Forecasting defoliation by the jack pine budworm. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 27(8):1154-1158; 20 ref.

Nealis VG; Lysyk TJ, 1988. Sampling overwintering jack pine budworm, Choristoneura pinus pinus Free. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and two of its parasitoids (Hymenoptera). Canadian Entomologist, 120(12):1101-1111

Nealis VG; Magnussen S; Hopkin AA, 2003. A lagged, density-dependent relationship between jack pine budworm Choristoneura pinus pinus and its host tree Pinus banksiana. Ecological Entomology, 28(2):183-192; 36 ref.

Pines IL; Knowles K; Westwood AR, 1995. Monitoring jack pine budworm in Manitoba with pheromone-baited traps and reference to pollen cone levels. In: Volney WJA, Nealis VG, Howse GM, Westwood AR, McCullough DR, Laishley BL, eds. Jack Pine Budworm Biology and Management. Canadian Forest Service, Information Report NOR-X-342, 89-96.

Powell JA, 1995. Biosystematic studies of conifer-feeding Choristoneura (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the western United States. University of California Publications in Entomology, 115:vii + 275 pp.

Prebble ML; DeBoo RF; Sippell WL; Howse GM; Lejeune RR, 1975. Jack-pine budworm. In: Prebble ML, ed. Aerial Control of Forest Insects in Canada. Information Canada, Catalogue No. Fo23/19/1975, 152-158.

Rose AH; Lindquist OH, 1984. Insects of eastern pines. Publ. 1313. Ottawa, ON, Canada: Department of Environment, Canadian Forestry Service.

Sanders CJ, 1971. Daily activity patterns and sex pheromone specificity as sexual isolating mechanisms in two species of Choristoneura (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist, 103(4):498-502. [8 ref.].

Sanders CJ, 1990. Practical use of insect pheromones to manage coniferous tree pests in eastern Canada. In: Ridgway, RL, Silverstein RM, Inscoe MI, eds. Behavior-modifying Chemicals for Insect Management. New York, USA: Marcel Dekker, 345-361.

Silk PJ; Kuenen LPS, 1988. Sex pheromones and behavioural biology of the coniferophagous Choristoneura. Annual Review of Entomology, 33:83-101

Silk PJ; Kuenen LPS; Tan SH; Roelofs WL; Sanders CJ; Alford AR, 1985. Identification of sex pheromone components of jack pine budworm, Choristoneura pinus pinus Freeman. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 11(2):159-167

Stehr GW, 1967. On coniferophagous species of Choristoneura (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in North America. II. Geographic distribution in accordance with forest regions. Canadian Entomologist, 99(5):456-63. [26 refs.].

Volney WJA, 1988. Analysis of historic jack pine budworm outbreaks in the Prairie provinces of Canada. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 18(9):1152-1158; 17 ref.

Volney WJA, 1992. The distribution and estimation of jack pine budworm defoliation. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 22(8):1079-1088; 18 ref.

Volney WJA, 1998. Ten-year tree mortality following a jack pine budworm outbreak in Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 28(12):1784-1793; 41 ref.

Volney WJA; McCullough DG, 1994. Jack pine budworm population behaviour in northwestern Wisconsin. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 24(3):502-510

Wallin KF; Raffa KF, 1998. Association of within-tree jack pine budworm feeding patterns with canopy level and within-needle variation of water, nutrient, and monoterpene concentrations. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 28(2):228-233; 44 ref.

Wilson GG, 1986. A comparison of the effects of Nosema fumiferanae and a Nosema sp. (microsporida) on Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) and Choristoneura pinus pinus Free. Canadian Forestry Service, Information Report FPM-X-77.

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