Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Choristoneura fumiferana
(spruce budworm)



Choristoneura fumiferana (spruce budworm)


  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Choristoneura fumiferana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • spruce budworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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TitleC. fumiferana; adult male (museum set specimen)
Copyright©David Agassiz
C. fumiferana; adult male (museum set specimen)©David Agassiz


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens)

Preferred Common Name

  • spruce budworm

Other Scientific Names

  • Archips fumiferana McDunnough
  • Archips retiniana Fernald
  • Cacoecia fumiferana Swaine, Craighead and Bailey
  • Cacoecia retiniana Meyrick
  • Choristoneura fumiferana Freeman
  • Choristoneura lambertiana lindseyana Obraztsov
  • Choristoneura retiniana Freeman
  • Harmologa fumiferana Meyrick
  • Lazotaenia retiniana Walsingham
  • Tortrix fumiferana Clemens
  • Tortrix nigridia Robinson

International Common Names

  • Spanish: tortrix de las yemas de la picea
  • French: tordeuse des bourgeons de l'épicéa; tordeuse des bourgeons de l'épinette; ver du bourgeon de l'épinette

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Fichtenwickler; nordamerikanischer Tannenknospenwickler; Wickler, Fichten-
  • Italy: tortrice delle gemme dell'abete rosso

EPPO code

  • CHONFU (Choristoneura fumiferana)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Tortricidae
  •                             Genus: Choristoneura
  •                                 Species: Choristoneura fumiferana

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / external feeding
Growing point / internal feeding; boring
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / internal feeding
Leaves / webbing
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Absidia repens Pathogen
Acropimpla pronexus Parasite Arthropods|Pupae
Actia maksymovi Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Agathis tumidula Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Canada forest trees
Agonum decentis Predator Arthropods|Larvae
Agria affinis Parasite Abies; Picea
Agria housei Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Ambystoma maculatum Predator
Anatis mali Predator
Ancistrocerus adiabatus Predator USA; Maine Abies; Picea
Ancistrocerus antilope Predator USA; Maine Abies; Picea
Apanteles fumiferanae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Apanteles morrisi Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Apechthis ontario Parasite Newfoundland
Apechthis quadridentatus Parasite Canada forest trees
Apechthis rufata Parasite Canada forest trees
Apophua bipunctoria Parasite
Bacillus cereus Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis
Bacillus thuringiensis galleriae Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae Ontario
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Arthropods|Larvae
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
Brachymeria tibialis Parasite
Bufo americanus Predator
Calosoma frigidum Predator Arthropods|Larvae
Campoplex rufinator Parasite
Cephaloglypta laricis Parasite
Cephaloglypta murinanae Parasite Canada forest trees
Ceromasia auricaudata Parasite Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae
Chorinaeus funebris Parasite
Compsilura concinnata Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Picea
Copidosoma geniculatum Parasite Eggs
Diadegma chrysostictos Parasite Canada forest trees
Diadegma rufipes Parasite Canada forest trees
Dictyna phylax Predator
Dirophanes maculicornis Parasite Canada forest trees
Dolichogenidea absonus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Dolichogenidea petrovae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Canada Picea
Endoreticulatus schubergi Pathogen
Entomophaga aulicae Pathogen
Enytus apostatus Parasite
Enytus montanus Parasite
Ephialtes inquisitoriella Parasite Canada forest trees
Erynia radicans Pathogen Canada; Newfoundland; North America Pinopsida
Euodynerus leucomelas Predator USA; Maine Abies; Picea
Formica lugubris Predator Quebec
Frontinella pyramitela Predator
Glypta fumiferanae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Granulosis virus Pathogen
Habronyx nigricornis Parasite
Heterorhabditis heliothidis Parasite
Hirsutella gigantea Pathogen
Hirsutella longicolla Pathogen
Itoplectis maculator Parasite Canada forest trees
Lissonota folii Parasite
Metaphidippus flavipedes Predator
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen
Meteorus ictericus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Meteorus ruficeps Parasite Arthropods|Larvae Canada forest trees
Meteorus trachynotus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Nemorilla maculosa Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Nosema fumiferanae Pathogen Canada; Newfoundland Abies; Picea; Pinopsida
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen
Omotoma fumiferanae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Oncophanes laevigatus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Paecilomyces farinosus Pathogen
Phaeogenes maculicornis hariolus Parasite Canada; Newfoundland Abies; Picea; Pinopsida
Phytodietus arcuatorius Parasite
Phytodietus fumiferanae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Phytodietus segmentator Parasite Canada forest trees
Pimpla contemplator Parasite Canada forest trees
Pimpla disparis Parasite Bennett (2008)
Pleistophora schubergi Pathogen
Psychophagus tortricis Parasite
Pterostichus adstrictus Predator Arthropods|Larvae
Rana sylvatica Predator
Scambus buolianae Parasite
Scambus calobatus Parasite
Seiurus aurocapillus Predator
Sitta canadensis Predator
Sorex cinereus Predator
Synetaeris tenifemur Parasite
Tamiasciurus hudsonicus Predator
Theridion pictum Predator
Tranosema interrupta Parasite
Tranosema rostrale Parasite
Tranosema rostrale Parasite
Trichogramma evanescens Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma minutum Parasite Eggs
Triclistus globulipes Parasite
Vairimorpha necatrix Pathogen


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Bennett AMR, 2008. Review and identification keys to the ichneumonid parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) of Nearctic Choristoneura species (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist, 140(1):1-47.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CIE, 1971. Distribution Maps of Pests, Map No. 283. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Dang PT, 1985. Key to adult males of conifer-feeding species of Choristoneura Lederer (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Canada and Alaska. Canadian Entomologist, 117(1):1-5

Dang PT, 1992. Morphological study of male genitalia with phylogenetic inference of Choristoneura Lederer (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist, 124(1):7-48

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Fleming RA; Frankenhuyzen Kvan, 1992. Forecasting the efficacy of operational Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner applications against spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana Clemens (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), using dose ingestion data: initial models. Canadian Entomologist, 124(6):1101-1113; 29 ref.

Furniss RL; Carolin VM, 1977. Western Forest Insects. Washington DC, USA: US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Miscellaneous Publication No. 1339.

Harvey GT, 1996. Genetic relationships among Choristoneura species (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in North America as revealed by isozyme studies. Canadian Entomologist, 128(2):245-262; 35 ref.

Harvey GT, 1997. Interspecific crosses and fertile hybrids among the coniferophagous Choristoneura (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Canadian Entomologist, 129(3):519-536; 44 ref.

Harvey GT; Stehr G, 1967. On coniferophagous species of Choristoneura in North America. I. Some characters of immature forms helpful in the identification of species. Canadian Entomologist, 99:464-481.

Huber JT; Eveleigh E; Pollock S; McCarthy P, 1996. The chalcidoid parasitoids and hyperparasitoids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) of Choristoneura species (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in America north of Mexico. Canadian Entomologist, 128(6):1167-1220; 4 pp. of ref.

Kelleher JS; Hulme MA, eds. , 1981. Biological control programmes against insects and weeds in Canada 1969-1980. Slough, UK: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux.

Kondakov SYu, 2001. A leaf roller moth - a pest of spruce needles. Zashchita i Karantin Rastenii, No.6:36.

Prebble ML; Carolin VM, 1967. Important forest insects and diseases of mutual concern to Canada, the United States and Mexico. Ottawa, Canada: Department of Forestry and Rural Development, 75-80.

Smith SM; Wallace DR; Howse G; Meating J, 1990. Suppression of spruce budworm populations by Trichogramma minutum Riley, 1982-1986. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, No. 153:56-81; [In Inundative release of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma minutum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), against forest insect pests such as the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): the Ontario project 1982-1986.]; 27 ref.

USDA, 1979. A guide to common insects and diseases of forest trees in the Northeastern United States. Washington, USA: Forest Service, USDA, 61.

Valéro JR, 1989. Results of three years of experimental aerial application of Bacillus thuringiensis at 2.0 L/ha against Choristoneura fumiferana C. Information Report - Quebec Region, Forestry Canada, No. LAU-X-89B:vi + 12 pp.; 10 ref.

Distribution References

CABI Data Mining, 2001. CAB Abstracts Data Mining.,

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

EPPO, 2022. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. 1 pp.

Harvey G T, 1996. Genetic relationships among Choristoneura species (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in North America as revealed by isozyme studies. Canadian Entomologist. 128 (2), 245-262.

Kondakov S Yu, 2001. A leaf roller moth - a pest of spruce needles. Zashchita i Karantin Rasteniĭ. 36.

UK, CAB International, 1971. Choristoneura fumiferana. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 283. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20056600283

Distribution Maps

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