Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Choanephora cucurbitarum
(Choanephora fruit rot)

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Datasheet

Choanephora cucurbitarum (Choanephora fruit rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Choanephora cucurbitarum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Choanephora fruit rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Zygomycota
  •       Subphylum: Mucoromycotina
  •         Order: Mucorales

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
C. cucurbitarum (suspected blossom blight) on okra plant.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionC. cucurbitarum (suspected blossom blight) on okra plant.
CopyrightM. Rutherford/CABI BioScience
C. cucurbitarum (suspected blossom blight) on okra plant.
Field symptomsC. cucurbitarum (suspected blossom blight) on okra plant.M. Rutherford/CABI BioScience

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Choanephora cucurbitarum (Berk. & Ravenel) Thaxt.

Preferred Common Name

  • Choanephora fruit rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Choanephora americana A. Møller

International Common Names

  • English: blight of cowpea; blight of potato; blight of watercress; blossom blight; blossom end rot of watermelon; boll rot of cotton; bud rot of chilli pepper; Choanephora blight; Choanephora blossom blight; Choanephora blossom mould; Choanephora mould; Choanephora rot; flower blight; foliar blight of beans; fruit rot of Capsicum spp.; fruit rot of cucurbits; leaf and stem wet rot (Amaranthus); pod rot of cowpea; premature fruit rot of cucurbits; wet rot of bean
  • Spanish: muerte regresiva de la papa/patata; podredumbre acuosa de la judia/frijol
  • French: pourriture des cucurbitacees; pourriture des fleurs et des fruits; pourriture du haricot

EPPO code

  • CHOACU (Choanephora cucurbitarum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Zygomycota
  •             Subphylum: Mucoromycotina
  •                 Order: Mucorales
  •                     Family: Choanephoraceae
  •                         Genus: Choanephora
  •                             Species: Choanephora cucurbitarum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresent, WidespreadGrubben (1974); CABI and EPPO (2008)
Congo, Republic of thePresent, LocalizedMakambila and Goma (1993); CABI and EPPO (2008)
EgyptPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
GhanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
KenyaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
MalawiPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
MauritiusPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
NigeriaPresent, WidespreadOladiran (1980); CABI and EPPO (2008)
SenegalPresentLagiere (1973); CABI and EPPO (2008)
SeychellesPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
Sierra LeonePresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
South AfricaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
SudanPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
TanzaniaPresent, LocalizedTeri and Mlasani (1994); CABI and EPPO (2008)
ZimbabwePresentCABI and EPPO (2008)

Asia

BangladeshPresentMeah and Mian (1981); CABI and EPPO (2008)
BruneiPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
CambodiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
ChinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-JiangsuPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-JilinPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
IndiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-Andhra PradeshPresentPrabhavathy and Reddy (1995); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-AssamPresent, LocalizedRoy and Deka (1989); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-BiharPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-ChhattisgarhPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-DelhiPresent, LocalizedSiddiqui et al. (1974); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-GujaratPresent, LocalizedPatel et al. (1983); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-KeralaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-Madhya PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-PunjabPresentChahal and Grover (1974); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-RajasthanPresentMathur and Tyagi (1984); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-Uttar PradeshPresent, LocalizedSingh and Pavgi (1972); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-West BengalPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); Ravat et al. (2015)
IndonesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008);
-JavaPresent, WidespreadVos et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2008)
IraqPresentAssawah et al. (1984); CABI and EPPO (2008)
JapanPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-HokkaidoPresent, LocalizedNaito and Sugimoto (1989); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-HonshuPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-KyushuPresentKaratsu et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2008)
MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-SabahPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-SarawakPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
OmanPresentHammouda (1988); CABI and EPPO (2008)
PakistanPresentBashir et al. (1985); CABI and EPPO (2008)
SingaporePresentLim (1988); Yik (1988); AVA (2001); CABI and EPPO (2008)
South KoreaPresentPark et al. (2016); CABI and EPPO (2008); Park et al. (2015); Park et al. (2015a)
Sri LankaPresentGunasekara et al. (1985); CABI and EPPO (2008)
TaiwanPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
ThailandPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)

North America

CubaPresentPino (1980); CABI and EPPO (2008)
JamaicaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
PanamaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
Puerto RicoPresentEchávez-Badel (1990); CABI and EPPO (2008)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
United StatesPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-ConnecticutPresentFarr et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-DelawarePresentFarr et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-FloridaPresent, WidespreadMcMillan (1972); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-GeorgiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-HawaiiPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-IowaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-LouisianaPresentFarr et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-MainePresentFarr et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-MarylandPresentFarr et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-MassachusettsPresentFarr et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-MichiganPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-MississippiPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-New JerseyPresentFarr et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-New YorkPresentFarr et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-North CarolinaPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-OhioPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-OklahomaPresentFarr et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-PennsylvaniaPresentFarr et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-Rhode IslandPresentFarr et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-South CarolinaPresent, WidespreadFarr et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-TexasPresentFarr et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-VirginiaPresentFarr et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-West VirginiaPresentFarr et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-WisconsinPresentFarr et al. (1989); CABI and EPPO (2008)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-New South WalesPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-Northern TerritoryPresentConde and Diatloff (1991); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-QueenslandPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
FijiPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
French PolynesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
New CaledoniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
SamoaPresentGerlach (1988); CABI and EPPO (2008)
Solomon IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
TongaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
VanuatuPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)

South America

BrazilPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-ParaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
ColombiaPresentMuñoz and Tamayo M. (1994); CABI and EPPO (2008)
PeruPresentTurkensteen (1979); CABI and EPPO (2008)
VenezuelaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Growing point / dieback
Inflorescence / dieback
Inflorescence / lesions; flecking; streaks (not Poaceae)
Inflorescence / rot
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / odour
Leaves / rot
Seeds / rot
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / rot
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Piptocephalis virginiana Pathogen

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Adebanjo A, 1990. An inflorescence disease of Amaranthus spp. in Nigeria associated with Choanephora cucurbitarum. Journal of Phytopathology, 128(2):146-152

Adebanjo A, 1994. Environmental influence on the incidence of shoot diseases and health of Amaranthus seeds in humid tropics: Nigeria. Ambio, 23(3):206-209

Adebanjo A, Dede APO, 1985. Resistance of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) cultivars to premature fruit abortion induced by Choanephora cucurbitarum. Scientia Horticulturae, 27(1/2):45-48

Adebanjo A, Ikotun T, 1994. Effect of harvest seasons on the incidence of seed-borne mycoflora of three Amaranthus cultivars. Mycopathologia, 128(1):25-32

Adisa VA, 1985. Fruit rot diseases of guava (Psidium guajava) in Nigeria. Indian Phytopathology, 38(3):427-430; 13 ref

Agrios GN, 1978. Plant pathology. Edition 2. London, UK: Academic Press Inc., 703 pp

Assawah MW, Al-Zarari AJ, Ahmed KA-J, 1984. Identification and study of fungi causing diseases and post-harvest rots of squash in Ninevah province, Iraq. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences "ZANCO", 2(3):67-75; [2 fig.]; 12 ref

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore

Bashir M, Qureshi SH, Alam SS, Malik BA, 1985. Choanephora pod-rot of cowpea - a new disease record in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(3):240

Bhargava SN, Pandey RS, Shukla DN, Dwivedi DK, 1982. New fruit rot of fig. National Academy Science Letters, 5(8):251

CABI/EPPO, 2008. Choanephora cucurbitarum. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, October (Edition 1). Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 1034

Chahal AS, Grover RK, 1974. Chemical control of soft fruit rot of chillies caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 3(3/4):190-194

Conde BD, Diatloff A, 1991. Diseases of mungbeans. Mungbean: the Australian experience. Proceedings of the first Australian mungbean workshop, Brisbane, 1991 Brisbane, Queensland, Australia: Division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, CSIRO, 73-77

Cuthbert FP Jr, Fery RL, 1975. Relationship between cowpea curculio injury and Choanephora pod rot of southern peas. Journal of Economic Entomology, 68(1):105-106

Dougherty DE, 1979. Bud rot of pepper. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 92:103-106

Dublish PK, Singh PN, 1976. Wet rot of Brinjals (Solanum melongena L.) caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum (Berk & Rev.) Thaxter. Current Science, 45:156

Echavez-Badel R, 1990. Choanephora cucurbitarum, foliar blight of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 74(2):203

Engelhard AW, 1987. Foliage disease management on poinsettia plants. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 100:364-368

Farr DF, Bills GF, Chamuris GP, Rossman AY, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 1252 pp

Farr DF, Bills GF, Chamuris GP, Rossman AY, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 1252 pp

French ER, 2000. Choanephora blight. In Compendium of Potato Diseases. Second edition. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, in press

Gerlach WWP, 1988. Plant diseases of Western Samoa. Apia, Western Samoa: Samoan German Crop Protection Project, 215 pp

Grubben G, 1974. Amaranth cultivation in Dahomey (L'amarante et sa culture au Dahomey). Agronomie Tropicale, 29:97-102

Gunasekara SA, Liyanage NP, Price TV, 1985. Choanephora blight of winged bean flowers in Sri Lanka. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 85(2):344-345

Gunasekera SA, Shanthichandra WKN, 1990. Pod yield of winged bean after chemical treatment for Choanephora blight disease. Journal of the National Science Council of Sri Lanka, 18(1):27-30

Hammouda AM, 1988. Fungal diseases of vegetable marrow and their control in the southern region of Oman (Dhofar). Tropical Pest Management, 34(2):156-158; 15 ref

Hare WW, Thompson PG, 1985. Mississippi Shipper Cowpea. HortScience, 20(6):1142-1143

Hesseltine EW, Benjamin CR, 1957. Notes on the Choanephoraceae. Mycologia, 49:723-733

Holcomb GE, 1998. First report of Choanephora flower spot and blight of periwinkle. Plant Disease, 82(4):447; 1 ref

Ikediugwu FEO, Emoghene AO, Ajiodo PO, 1994. Biological control of the shoot disease of Amaranthus hybridus caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum with Bacillus subtilis. Journal of Horticultural Science, 69(2):351-356; 13 ref

Kagiwada S, Kayano Y, Hoshi H, Kawanishi T, Oshima K, Hamamoto H, Horie H, Namba S, 2010. First report of Choanephora rot of ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum) caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum in Japan. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 76(5):345-347. http://www.springerlink.com/content/h14322904622p8n1/

Kamal, Singh S, 1975. Wet rot of castor plants. Indian Phytopathology, 28(3):410-411

Kamal, Singh S, 1976. Wet rot of sesame seedlings in India. Science and Culture, 42(5):269-270

Kangatharalingam N, 1979. Pod rot of cowpea 'Bush Sitao' caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum. Tropical Grain Legume Bulletin, No. 16:7

Karatsu T, Kijima Y, Kohashiguchi S, 1995. Occurrence of Choanephora rot of spinach caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum. Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu, 41:33-35; 6 ref

Kirk PM, 1984. A monograph of the Choanephoraceae. Mycological Papers, No. 152:61 pp

Lagiere R, 1973. Boll rots of cotton in Senegal. II. Fungi isolated from bolls during rot (Les pourritures des capsules du cotonnier au Senegal. II. Champignons isoles des capsules en cours de pourriture. Coton et Fibres Tropicales, 28:493-507

Lim G, 1988. Plant diseases in Singapore. Singapore Journal of Primary Industries, 16(2, Supplement):12-29

Makambila C, Goma JB, 1993. Choanephora cucurbitacearum Curr., a new pathogenic fungus of Amaranthus in Congo. Cahiers Agricultures, 2(3):217-219

Mathur AK, Tyagi RNS, 1984. Occurrence of Choanephora pod rot on kharif pulses in Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 14(2):152

McMillan RT Jr, 1972. Choanephora wet-rot of pole beans. Plant Disease Reporter, 56(11):967-968

Meah MB, Mian MAW, 1981. Pathogenicity of Choanephora cucurbitarum on chilli (Capsicum annuum) and possibility of its chemical control. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 16(1/2):1-7

Munoz MA, Tamayo-M PJ, 1994. The presence of Choanephora cucurbitarum in cowpea (vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) (Presencia de Choanephora cucurbitarum en frijol caupi (vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)). ASCOLFI Informa, 20:4-5

Naimuddin, Chaudhary RG, Vishwa Dhar, 1999. A note on the seedling blight of pigeonpea caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum (Berk. and Rav.) Thaxt. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 7(1):107-109; 3 ref

Naito S, Sugimoto T, 1989. Choanephora rot in sugar beets at flowering. Research Bulletin of the Hokkaido Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 151:1-5

Oikawa K, Kuwata H, Shimada K, Washio S, 1986. Preliminary experiment on Choanephora rot of garden pea caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum and its chemical control. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, No. 37:83-86

Oladiran AO, 1980. Choanephora pod rot of cowpea in southern Nigeria. Tropical Pest Management, 26(4):396-402

Park JH, Cho SE, Han KS, Kim BS, Shin HD, 2015. First report of choanephora rot caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum on Hosta plantaginea in Korea. Plant Disease, 99(1):158. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Park JH, Cho SE, Park MJ, Han KS, Shin HD, 2015. First report of Choanephora cucurbitarum causing Choanephora blight on Phlox paniculata in Korea. Plant Disease, 99(8):1180. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Park JH, Choi IY, Park MJ, Han KS, Shin HD, 2016. First report of Choanephora flower blight on Dahlia pinnata caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum in Korea. Plant Disease, 100(2):534-535. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Park JiHyun, Cho SungEun, Choi InYoung, Shin HyeonDong, 2015. First report of choanephora rot of okra caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum in Korea. Journal of Phytopathology, 163(6):503-506. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434

Patel BN, Patel DJ, Patel RC, 1983. Choanephora "twig blight" of Crotalaria spectabilis. Indian Phytopathology, 36(4):764-766

Pino JA, 1980. Preliminary study of the disease caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum in clones of cassava (Manihot esculenta) in Cuba (Estudio preliminar sobre la enfermedad causada por Choanephora cucrbitarum en clones de yuca (Manihot esculenta) en las condiciones de Cuba). Ciencia y Tecnica en la Agricultura, 3:23-29

Prabhavathy KG, Reddy SR, 1995. Post-harvest fungal diseases of chilli (Capsicum annuum) from Andhra Pradesh. Indian Phytopathology, 48(4):492

Ravat VK, Sanchari Roy, Amitava Basu, 2015. Rice: a new host of Choanephora cucurbitarum in West Bengal. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 23(1):180-181. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Roy AK, Deka KC, 1989. Outbreaks and new records. India. Top rot, Choanephora cucurbitarum (Berk. & Rav.) Thaxter, of a grain amaranth. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 37(2):96

Saroj A, Kumar A, Qamar N, Alam M, Singh HN, Khaliq A, 2012. First report of wet rot of Withania somnifera caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum in India. Plant Disease, 96(2):293. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Siddhartha Das, Subrata Dutta, Ray, S. K., 2017. First report of twig blight of ban tulsi (Croton bonplandianus Bail.) caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum (Berk. & Ravenel) Thaxt. in India. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 57(4), 441-446. http://www.plantprotection.pl/First-report-of-twig-blight-of-ban-tulsi-Croton-bonplandianus-Bail-caused-by-Choanephora,87107,0,2.html

Siddiqui MR, Nath R, Majumdar A, Gaur A, Singh D, 1974. First record of Choanephora cucurbitarum (Berk. and Rev.) Thaxt. on cauliflower seed crop. Seed Research, 2:41-45

Singh CS, Kanaujia RS, 1978. Wet rot of Amaranthus viridis. Indian Phytopathology, 31(1):99

Singh RA, Pavgi MS, 1972. Some diseases of pigeon pea in Uttar Pradesh, India. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 20:116-118

Soni SR, Mohnot K, 1977. New pre-emergence seed rot of jowar caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 7(1):90

Tai Luang Huan, Musa Bin Jamil M, 1975. Seed-borne pathogens in okra fruit rot. MARDI Research Bulletin, 3(2):38-45

Teri JM, Mlasani DK, 1994. Choanephora blight and Alternaria leaf spot of amaranth in Tanzania. Plant Pathology, 43(1):228-229

Thind TS, Jhooty JS, 1985. Relative prevalence of fungal diseases of chilli fruits in Punjab. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 15(3):305-307; 10 ref

Tripathi HS, Vishwakarma SN, Chaudhary KCB, 1978. Evaluation of fungicides for the control of (i) leaf blight and tip rot, (ii) damping off and wilt of sannhemp (Crotalaria juncea L.). Science and Culture, 44(1):30-33

Turkensteen LJ, 1979. Choanephora blight of potatoes and other crops grown under tropical conditions in Peru. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 85(2):85-86

Velupillai M, French ER, 1986. Diseases and pests of potato in Sri Lanka: 1975-1985. Journal of the Indian Potato Association, 13:47-54

Vos JGM, Uhan TS, Sutarya R, 1995. Integrated crop management of hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) under tropical lowland conditions: effects of rice straw and plastic mulches on crop health. Crop Protection, 14(6):445-452

Yasmin Ahmad, Mirza MS, 1988. Maize - a new host for Choanephora cucurbitarum in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 9(2):268

Yik CP, 1988. Plant disease research and service, Primary Production Department. Singapore Journal of Primary Industries, 16(2, Supplement):30-37

Distribution References

Assawah M W, Al-Zarari A J, Ahmed K A-J, 1984. Identification and study of fungi causing diseases and post-harvest rots of squash in Ninevah province, Iraq. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences "ZANCO". 2 (3), 67-75.

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services., Singapore: Plant Health Centre Agri-food & Veterinary Authority.

Bashir M, Qureshi S H, Alam S S, Malik B A, 1985. Choanephora pod-rot of cowpea - a new disease record in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research. 6 (3), 240.

CABI, EPPO, 2008. Choanephora cucurbitarum. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 1034.

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chahal A S, Grover R K, 1974. Chemical control of soft fruit rot of chillies caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences. 3 (3/4), 190-194.

Conde B D, Diatloff A, 1991. Diseases of mungbeans. In: Mungbean: the Australian experience. Proceedings of the first Australian mungbean workshop, Brisbane, 1991. [Mungbean: the Australian experience. Proceedings of the first Australian mungbean workshop, Brisbane, 1991.], Brisbane, Queensland, Australia: Division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, CSIRO. 73-77.

Echávez-Badel R, 1990. Choanephora cucurbitarum, foliar blight of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico. 74 (2), 203.

Farr DF, Bills GF, Chamuris GP, Rossman AY, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States., St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press.

Gerlach W W P, 1988. Plant diseases of Western Samoa. Apia, Western Samoa: Samoan German Crop Protection Project. vii + 215 pp.

Grubben G, 1974. Amaranth cultivation in Dahomey. (L'amarante et sa culture au Dahomey). In: Agronomie Tropicale, 29 97-102.

Gunasekara S A, Liyanage N P, Price T V, 1985. Choanephora blight of winged bean flowers in Sri Lanka. Transactions of the British Mycological Society. 85 (2), 344-345.

Hammouda A M, 1988. Fungal diseases of vegetable marrow and their control in the southern region of Oman (Dhofar). Tropical Pest Management. 34 (2), 156-158.

Karatsu T, Kijima Y, Kohashiguchi S, 1995. Occurrence of Choanephora rot of spinach caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum. Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu. 33-35.

Lagiere R, 1973. Boll rots of cotton in Senegal. II. Fungi isolated from bolls during rot. (Les pourritures des capsules du cotonnier au Senegal. II. Champignons isoles des capsules en cours de pourriture.). Coton et Fibres Tropicales. 28 (4), 493-507.

Lim G, 1988. Plant diseases in Singapore. Singapore Journal of Primary Industries. 16 (2, Supplement), 12-29.

Makambila C, Goma J B, 1993. Choanephora cucurbitacearum Curr., a new pathogenic fungus of Amaranthus in Congo. (Choanephora cucurbitacearum Curr., un nouveau champignon pathogène de l'amarante au Congo.). Cahiers Agricultures. 2 (3), 217-219.

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