Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Choanephora cucurbitarum
(Choanephora fruit rot)

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Datasheet

Choanephora cucurbitarum (Choanephora fruit rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Choanephora cucurbitarum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Choanephora fruit rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Zygomycota
  •       Subphylum: Mucoromycotina
  •         Order: Mucorales

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
C. cucurbitarum (suspected blossom blight) on okra plant.
TitleField symptoms
CaptionC. cucurbitarum (suspected blossom blight) on okra plant.
CopyrightM. Rutherford/CABI BioScience
C. cucurbitarum (suspected blossom blight) on okra plant.
Field symptomsC. cucurbitarum (suspected blossom blight) on okra plant.M. Rutherford/CABI BioScience

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Choanephora cucurbitarum (Berk. & Ravenel) Thaxt.

Preferred Common Name

  • Choanephora fruit rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Choanephora americana A. Møller

International Common Names

  • English: blight of cowpea; blight of potato; blight of watercress; blossom blight; blossom end rot of watermelon; boll rot of cotton; bud rot of chilli pepper; Choanephora blight; Choanephora blossom blight; Choanephora blossom mould; Choanephora mould; Choanephora rot; flower blight; foliar blight of beans; fruit rot of Capsicum spp.; fruit rot of cucurbits; leaf and stem wet rot (Amaranthus); pod rot of cowpea; premature fruit rot of cucurbits; wet rot of bean
  • Spanish: muerte regresiva de la papa/patata; podredumbre acuosa de la judia/frijol
  • French: pourriture des cucurbitacees; pourriture des fleurs et des fruits; pourriture du haricot

EPPO code

  • CHOACU (Choanephora cucurbitarum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Zygomycota
  •             Subphylum: Mucoromycotina
  •                 Order: Mucorales
  •                     Family: Choanephoraceae
  •                         Genus: Choanephora
  •                             Species: Choanephora cucurbitarum

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentMeah and Mian, 1981; CABI/EPPO, 2008
Brunei DarussalamPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
CambodiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-JiangsuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-JilinPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
IndiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-Andhra PradeshPresentPrabhavathy and Reddy, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-AssamRestricted distributionRoy and Deka, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-BiharPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-ChhattisgarhPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-DelhiRestricted distributionSiddiqui et al., 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-GujaratRestricted distributionPatel et al., 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-Indian PunjabPresentChahal and Grover, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-KarnatakaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-KeralaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-Madhya PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-RajasthanPresentMathur and Tyagi, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-Uttar PradeshRestricted distributionSingh and Pavgi, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-West BengalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008; Ravat et al., 2015
IndonesiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-JavaWidespreadVos et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-KalimantanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
IraqPresentAssawah et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2008
JapanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-HokkaidoRestricted distributionNaito and Sugimoto, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-HonshuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-KyushuPresentKaratsu et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2008
Korea, Republic ofPresentPark et al., 2015a; Park et al., 2015b; CABI/EPPO, 2008; Park et al., 2016
MalaysiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-SabahPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-SarawakPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
OmanPresentHammouda, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2008
PakistanPresentBashir et al., 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2008
SingaporePresentLim, 1988; Yik, 1988; AVA, 2001; CABI/EPPO, 2008
Sri LankaPresentGunasekara et al., 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2008
TaiwanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
ThailandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008

Africa

BeninWidespreadGrubben, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2008
CongoRestricted distributionMakambila and Goma, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2008
EgyptPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
GhanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
GuineaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
KenyaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
MalawiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
MauritiusPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
NigeriaWidespreadOladiran, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2008
SenegalPresentLagiere, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2008
SeychellesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
Sierra LeonePresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
South AfricaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
SudanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
TanzaniaRestricted distributionTeri and Mlasani, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2008
ZimbabwePresentCABI/EPPO, 2008

North America

USAPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-ConnecticutPresentFarr et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-DelawarePresentFarr et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-FloridaWidespreadMcMillan, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-GeorgiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-HawaiiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-IowaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-LouisianaPresentFarr et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-MainePresentFarr et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-MarylandPresentFarr et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-MassachusettsPresentFarr et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-MichiganPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-MississippiWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-New JerseyPresentFarr et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-New YorkPresentFarr et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-North CarolinaWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-OhioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-OklahomaPresentFarr et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-PennsylvaniaPresentFarr et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-Rhode IslandPresentFarr et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-South CarolinaWidespreadFarr et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-TexasPresentFarr et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-VirginiaPresentFarr et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-West VirginiaPresentFarr et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-WisconsinPresentFarr et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2008

Central America and Caribbean

CubaPresentPino, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2008
JamaicaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
PanamaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
Puerto RicoPresentEchavez-Badel, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2008
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
United States Virgin IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008

South America

BrazilPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-ParaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
ColombiaPresentMunoz and Tamayo, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2008
PeruPresentTurkensteen, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2008
VenezuelaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentConde and Diatloff, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2008
-New South WalesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
-QueenslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
FijiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
French PolynesiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
New CaledoniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
SamoaPresentGerlach, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2008
Solomon IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
TongaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008
VanuatuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2008

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Growing point / dieback
Inflorescence / dieback
Inflorescence / lesions; flecking; streaks (not Poaceae)
Inflorescence / rot
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / odour
Leaves / rot
Seeds / rot
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / rot
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Piptocephalis virginiana Pathogen

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Adebanjo A, 1990. An inflorescence disease of Amaranthus spp. in Nigeria associated with Choanephora cucurbitarum. Journal of Phytopathology, 128(2):146-152

Adebanjo A, 1994. Environmental influence on the incidence of shoot diseases and health of Amaranthus seeds in humid tropics: Nigeria. Ambio, 23(3):206-209

Adebanjo A; Dede APO, 1985. Resistance of okra (Hibiscus esculentus L.) cultivars to premature fruit abortion induced by Choanephora cucurbitarum. Scientia Horticulturae, 27(1/2):45-48

Adebanjo A; Ikotun T, 1994. Effect of harvest seasons on the incidence of seed-borne mycoflora of three Amaranthus cultivars. Mycopathologia, 128(1):25-32

Adisa VA, 1985. Fruit rot diseases of guava (Psidium guajava) in Nigeria. Indian Phytopathology, 38(3):427-430; 13 ref.

Agrios GN, 1978. Plant pathology. Edition 2. London, UK: Academic Press Inc., 703 pp.

Assawah MW; Al-Zarari AJ; Ahmed KA-J, 1984. Identification and study of fungi causing diseases and post-harvest rots of squash in Ninevah province, Iraq. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences "ZANCO", 2(3):67-75; [2 fig.]; 12 ref.

AVA, 2001. Diagnostic records of the Plant Health Diagnostic Services, Plant Health Centre, Agri-food & Veterinary Authority, Singapore.

Bashir M; Qureshi SH; Alam SS; Malik BA, 1985. Choanephora pod-rot of cowpea - a new disease record in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(3):240

Bhargava SN; Pandey RS; Shukla DN; Dwivedi DK, 1982. New fruit rot of fig. National Academy Science Letters, 5(8):251

CABI/EPPO, 2008. Choanephora cucurbitarum. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, October (Edition 1). Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 1034.

Chahal AS; Grover RK, 1974. Chemical control of soft fruit rot of chillies caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum. Haryana Journal of Horticultural Sciences, 3(3/4):190-194

Conde BD; Diatloff A, 1991. Diseases of mungbeans. Mungbean: the Australian experience. Proceedings of the first Australian mungbean workshop, Brisbane, 1991 Brisbane, Queensland, Australia: Division of Tropical Crops and Pastures, CSIRO, 73-77

Cuthbert FP Jr; Fery RL, 1975. Relationship between cowpea curculio injury and Choanephora pod rot of southern peas. Journal of Economic Entomology, 68(1):105-106

Dougherty DE, 1979. Bud rot of pepper. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 92:103-106

Dublish PK; Singh PN, 1976. Wet rot of Brinjals (Solanum melongena L.) caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum (Berk & Rev.) Thaxter. Current Science, 45:156.

Echavez-Badel R, 1990. Choanephora cucurbitarum, foliar blight of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 74(2):203

Engelhard AW, 1987. Foliage disease management on poinsettia plants. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 100:364-368

Farr DF; Bills GF; Chamuris GP; Rossman AY, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 1252 pp.

Farr DF; Bills GF; Chamuris GP; Rossman AY, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 1252 pp.

French ER, 2000. Choanephora blight. In Compendium of Potato Diseases. Second edition. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, in press.

Gerlach WWP, 1988. Plant diseases of Western Samoa. Apia, Western Samoa: Samoan German Crop Protection Project, 215 pp.

Grubben G, 1974. Amaranth cultivation in Dahomey (L'amarante et sa culture au Dahomey). Agronomie Tropicale, 29:97-102.

Gunasekara SA; Liyanage NP; Price TV, 1985. Choanephora blight of winged bean flowers in Sri Lanka. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 85(2):344-345

Gunasekera SA; Shanthichandra WKN, 1990. Pod yield of winged bean after chemical treatment for Choanephora blight disease. Journal of the National Science Council of Sri Lanka, 18(1):27-30

Hammouda AM, 1988. Fungal diseases of vegetable marrow and their control in the southern region of Oman (Dhofar). Tropical Pest Management, 34(2):156-158; 15 ref.

Hare WW; Thompson PG, 1985. Mississippi Shipper Cowpea. HortScience, 20(6):1142-1143.

Hesseltine EW; Benjamin CR, 1957. Notes on the Choanephoraceae. Mycologia, 49:723-733.

Holcomb GE, 1998. First report of Choanephora flower spot and blight of periwinkle. Plant Disease, 82(4):447; 1 ref.

Ikediugwu FEO; Emoghene AO; Ajiodo PO, 1994. Biological control of the shoot disease of Amaranthus hybridus caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum with Bacillus subtilis. Journal of Horticultural Science, 69(2):351-356; 13 ref.

Kagiwada S; Kayano Y; Hoshi H; Kawanishi T; Oshima K; Hamamoto H; Horie H; Namba S, 2010. First report of Choanephora rot of ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum) caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum in Japan. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 76(5):345-347. http://www.springerlink.com/content/h14322904622p8n1/

Kamal; Singh S, 1975. Wet rot of castor plants. Indian Phytopathology, 28(3):410-411

Kamal; Singh S, 1976. Wet rot of sesame seedlings in India. Science and Culture, 42(5):269-270

Kangatharalingam N, 1979. Pod rot of cowpea 'Bush Sitao' caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum. Tropical Grain Legume Bulletin, No. 16:7

Karatsu T; Kijima Y; Kohashiguchi S, 1995. Occurrence of Choanephora rot of spinach caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum. Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu, 41:33-35; 6 ref.

Kirk PM, 1984. A monograph of the Choanephoraceae. Mycological Papers, No. 152:61 pp.

Lagiere R, 1973. Boll rots of cotton in Senegal. II. Fungi isolated from bolls during rot (Les pourritures des capsules du cotonnier au Senegal. II. Champignons isoles des capsules en cours de pourriture. Coton et Fibres Tropicales, 28:493-507.

Lim G, 1988. Plant diseases in Singapore. Singapore Journal of Primary Industries, 16(2, Supplement):12-29

Makambila C; Goma JB, 1993. Choanephora cucurbitacearum Curr., a new pathogenic fungus of Amaranthus in Congo. Cahiers Agricultures, 2(3):217-219

Mathur AK; Tyagi RNS, 1984. Occurrence of Choanephora pod rot on kharif pulses in Rajasthan. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 14(2):152

McMillan RT Jr, 1972. Choanephora wet-rot of pole beans. Plant Disease Reporter, 56(11):967-968

Meah MB; Mian MAW, 1981. Pathogenicity of Choanephora cucurbitarum on chilli (Capsicum annuum) and possibility of its chemical control. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 16(1/2):1-7

Munoz MA; Tamayo-M PJ, 1994. The presence of Choanephora cucurbitarum in cowpea (vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) (Presencia de Choanephora cucurbitarum en frijol caupi (vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.)). ASCOLFI Informa, 20:4-5.

Naimuddin; Chaudhary RG; Vishwa Dhar, 1999. A note on the seedling blight of pigeonpea caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum (Berk. and Rav.) Thaxt. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 7(1):107-109; 3 ref.

Naito S; Sugimoto T, 1989. Choanephora rot in sugar beets at flowering. Research Bulletin of the Hokkaido Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 151:1-5

Oikawa K; Kuwata H; Shimada K; Washio S, 1986. Preliminary experiment on Choanephora rot of garden pea caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum and its chemical control. Annual Report of the Society of Plant Protection of North Japan, No. 37:83-86

Oladiran AO, 1980. Choanephora pod rot of cowpea in southern Nigeria. Tropical Pest Management, 26(4):396-402

Park JH; Cho SE; Han KS; Kim BS; Shin HD, 2015. First report of choanephora rot caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum on Hosta plantaginea in Korea. Plant Disease, 99(1):158. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Park JH; Cho SE; Park MJ; Han KS; Shin HD, 2015. First report of Choanephora cucurbitarum causing Choanephora blight on Phlox paniculata in Korea. Plant Disease, 99(8):1180. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Park JH; Choi IY; Park MJ; Han KS; Shin HD, 2016. First report of Choanephora flower blight on Dahlia pinnata caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum in Korea. Plant Disease, 100(2):534-535. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Park JiHyun; Cho SungEun; Choi InYoung; Shin HyeonDong, 2015. First report of choanephora rot of okra caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum in Korea. Journal of Phytopathology, 163(6):503-506. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0434

Patel BN; Patel DJ; Patel RC, 1983. Choanephora "twig blight" of Crotalaria spectabilis. Indian Phytopathology, 36(4):764-766

Pino JA, 1980. Preliminary study of the disease caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum in clones of cassava (Manihot esculenta) in Cuba (Estudio preliminar sobre la enfermedad causada por Choanephora cucrbitarum en clones de yuca (Manihot esculenta) en las condiciones de Cuba). Ciencia y Tecnica en la Agricultura, 3:23-29.

Prabhavathy KG; Reddy SR, 1995. Post-harvest fungal diseases of chilli (Capsicum annuum) from Andhra Pradesh. Indian Phytopathology, 48(4):492.

Ravat VK; Sanchari Roy; Amitava Basu, 2015. Rice: a new host of Choanephora cucurbitarum in West Bengal. Annals of Plant Protection Sciences, 23(1):180-181. http://www.indianjournals.com/ijor.aspx?target=ijor:apps&type=home

Roy AK; Deka KC, 1989. Outbreaks and new records. India. Top rot, Choanephora cucurbitarum (Berk. & Rav.) Thaxter, of a grain amaranth. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 37(2):96

Saroj A; Kumar A; Qamar N; Alam M; Singh HN; Khaliq A, 2012. First report of wet rot of Withania somnifera caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum in India. Plant Disease, 96(2):293. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Siddiqui MR; Nath R; Majumdar A; Gaur A; Singh D, 1974. First record of Choanephora cucurbitarum (Berk. and Rev.) Thaxt. on cauliflower seed crop. Seed Research, 2:41-45

Singh CS; Kanaujia RS, 1978. Wet rot of Amaranthus viridis. Indian Phytopathology, 31(1):99

Singh RA; Pavgi MS, 1972. Some diseases of pigeon pea in Uttar Pradesh, India. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 20:116-118.

Soni SR; Mohnot K, 1977. New pre-emergence seed rot of jowar caused by Choanephora cucurbitarum. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 7(1):90

Tai Luang Huan; Musa Bin Jamil M, 1975. Seed-borne pathogens in okra fruit rot. MARDI Research Bulletin, 3(2):38-45

Teri JM; Mlasani DK, 1994. Choanephora blight and Alternaria leaf spot of amaranth in Tanzania. Plant Pathology, 43(1):228-229

Thind TS; Jhooty JS, 1985. Relative prevalence of fungal diseases of chilli fruits in Punjab. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 15(3):305-307; 10 ref.

Tripathi HS; Vishwakarma SN; Chaudhary KCB, 1978. Evaluation of fungicides for the control of (i) leaf blight and tip rot, (ii) damping off and wilt of sannhemp (Crotalaria juncea L.). Science and Culture, 44(1):30-33

Turkensteen LJ, 1979. Choanephora blight of potatoes and other crops grown under tropical conditions in Peru. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 85(2):85-86

Velupillai M; French ER, 1986. Diseases and pests of potato in Sri Lanka: 1975-1985. Journal of the Indian Potato Association, 13:47-54.

Vos JGM; Uhan TS; Sutarya R, 1995. Integrated crop management of hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) under tropical lowland conditions: effects of rice straw and plastic mulches on crop health. Crop Protection, 14(6):445-452

Yasmin Ahmad; Mirza MS, 1988. Maize - a new host for Choanephora cucurbitarum in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 9(2):268

Yik CP, 1988. Plant disease research and service, Primary Production Department. Singapore Journal of Primary Industries, 16(2, Supplement):30-37

Distribution Maps

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