Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Pulvinaria psidii
(green shield scale)

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Datasheet

Pulvinaria psidii (green shield scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Pulvinaria psidii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • green shield scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Pulvinaria psidii Maskell, 1893

Preferred Common Name

  • green shield scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Chloropulvinaria psidii Borchsenius, 1957
  • Lecanium vacuolatum Green Dash, 1916
  • Pulvinaria cupaniae Cockerell, 1893
  • Pulvinaria cussoniae Hall, 1932
  • Pulvinaria darwiniensis Froggatt, 1915
  • Pulvinaria gymnosporiae Hall, 1932
  • Pulvinaria psidii philippina Cockerell, 1905

International Common Names

  • English: guava mealy scale; guava pulvinaria; guava scale; mango scale
  • Spanish: cochinilla parda; guaga harinosa
  • French: cochenille du goyavier; cochenille verte

Local Common Names

  • Netherlands: groene Djamboe-dopluis
  • South Africa: koejawel pulvinaria

EPPO code

  • PULVPS (Pulvinaria psidii)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Coccidae
  •                                     Genus: Pulvinaria
  •                                         Species: Pulvinaria psidii

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
AngolaPresent
Cabo VerdePresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent
EritreaPresent
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MauritiusPresent
MozambiquePresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresent
Saint HelenaPresent
SeychellesPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
-Zanzibar IslandPresent
TunisiaPresent
UgandaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

BangladeshPresent
BhutanPresent
BruneiPresent
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-GuangdongPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent
-BiharPresent
-GujaratPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-OdishaPresent
-SikkimPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-Irian JayaPresent
-JavaPresent
-SulawesiPresent
-SumatraPresent
JapanPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
NepalPresent
PhilippinesPresent
SingaporePresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent

Europe

SpainPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Canary IslandsPresent

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
BahamasPresent
BarbadosPresent
BermudaPresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
GrenadaPresent
GuadeloupePresent
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent
MexicoPresent
MontserratPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Saint Kitts and NevisPresent
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresent
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresent
-District of ColumbiaPresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-New YorkPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
Cook IslandsPresent
FijiPresent
French PolynesiaPresent
KiribatiPresent
Marshall IslandsPresent
NauruPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
NiuePresent
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent
PalauPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent
TongaPresent
VanuatuPresent

South America

BrazilPresent
-GoiasPresent, Localized
-Sao PauloPresent
ColombiaPresent
GuyanaPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
Inflorescence / external feeding
Inflorescence / fall or shedding
Inflorescence / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / dieback
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphycus angustifrons Parasite Bermuda guavas
Argutencyrtus luteolus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Bothriophryne pulvinariae Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Bothriophryne tenuicornis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Cheilomenes sexmaculata Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Chilocorus angolensis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda guavas
Chilocorus melanophthalmus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Chilocorus nigrita Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coccophagus bogoriensis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda guavas
Coccophagus ceroplastae Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda guavas
Coccophagus cowperi Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coccophagus hawaiiensis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda guavas
Coccophagus lycimnia Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda guavas
Cryptolaemus affinis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bahamas; Bermuda guavas
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda; Puerto Rico avocados; Cocos nucifera; Erythrina; guavas
Fusarium oxysporum Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Laetilia coccidivora Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Metaphycus luteolus Parasite Bermuda guavas
Metaphycus stanleyi Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda guavas
Microterys kotinskyi Parasite Bermuda guavas
Microterys nietneri Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Pseudazya orbigera Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Pseudoazya orbigera Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bahamas; Bermuda guavas
Pyroderces rileyi Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Scymnus coccivora Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Bermuda guavas

References

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Annecke DP; Moran VC, 1982. Insects and mites of cultivated plants in South Africa. Durban, South Africa: Butterworths.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc., 536 pp.

Ben-Dov Y; Hodgson CJ, 1997. Soft scale insects: their biology, natural enemies and control. Volume 7B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers, xvi + 442 pp.

BENNETT FD; HUGHES IW, 1959. Biological control of insect pests in Bermuda. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 50(pt. 3):423-436 pp.

CIE, 1994. Distribution Maps of Pests. Map No. 59, first revision. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Crowe TJ, 1962. The white waxy scale. Kenya Coffee, 27:93-95.

El-Minshawy AM; Moursi K, 1976. Biological studies on some soft scale-insects (Hom., Coccidae) attacking guava trees in Egypt. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, 81(4):363-371

Gill RJ, 1997. Coccid pests of important crops - citrus. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects - their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control Vol. 7B. Netherlands, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B. V., 207-215.

Greathead DJ, 1997. Tea. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects - their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control Vol. 7B. Netherlands, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B. V., 387-392.

Green EE, 1909. The Coccidae of Ceylon. Part IV. London, UK: Dulou & Co, 251-334.

Hammon AB; Williams ML, 1984. The soft scale insects of Florida (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas, 11:1-94.

Hodgson CJ, 1994. The scale insect family Coccidae: an identification manual to genera. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 639 pp.

Kondo T; Muñoz JA, 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) associated with avocado crop, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) in Valle del Cauca and neighboring departments of Colombia. Insecta Mundi, No.0465:1-24. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2016

Kosztarab M, 1997. Deciduous forest trees. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects - their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control Vol. 7B. Netherlands, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B. V., 347-355.

Kosztarab M, 1997. Ornamental and house plants. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects - their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control Vol. 7B. Netherlands, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B. V., 357-366.

Mahmood R; Mohyuddin AI, 1986. Integrated control of mango pests. Islamabad, Pakistan: Commonwealth Institute of Biological Control, Pakistan Agricultural Research Council.

Monaco R; D'Abbicco M, 1987. Biological observations on Saissetia coffep Walk. (Rhynchota-Hom.-Coccidae) on fig (Ficus carica L.). Entomologica, 22:75-85

Murphy ST, 1997. Coffee. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects - their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control Vol. 7B. Netherlands, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B. V., 367-380.

Nada S; Rabo SA; Hussain GE Deen, 1990. Scale insects infesting mango trees in Egypt (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium of Scale Insect Studies, Crakow, Poland August 1990, Part II, 133-134.

Pawar MB; Teli VS; Ambekar JS; Kalbhor SE, 1981. Efficacy of some organo-phosphorus insecticides against scales, Pulvinaria psidii Maskell on guava. Pestology, 5(9):21-22

Salama HS; Saleh MR, 1970. Distribution of the scale insect Pulvinaria psidi Maskel. (Coccoidea) on orchard trees in relation to environmental factors. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie, 66(4):380-385

Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp.

Stauffer S; Rose M, 1997. Biological control of soft scale insects in interior plantscapes in the USA. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 183-205.

Swirski E; Ben-Dov; Y; Wysoki; M, 1997. Other subtropical fruit trees. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects, their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests, Vol 7B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Press, 271-292.

Swirsky E; Ben-Dov Y; Wysoki M, 1997. Coccid pests of important crops - guava. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson CJ, eds. Soft Scale Insects - their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control Vol. 7B. Netherlands, Amsterdam: Elsevier Science B. V., 255-263.

Tan JC; Hu JW; Chen E, 1991. Study on the bionomics of Chloropulvinaria psidii (Maskell) [Pulvinaria psidii, a pest of tea and fruit trees] and its control. Insect Knowledge, 28(4):224-227; 2 ref.

Villiers EA de; Berg MA van den, 1987. Soft and wax scales. In: Myburgh AC, ed. Crop Pests in Southern Africa. Pretoria, South Africa: Plant Protection Reserach Institute, 33-37.

Williams DJ; Watson GW, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 267 pp.

Wolcott GN, 1958. The evanescence of perfect biological control. 10th International Congress of Entomology, Proceedings (1956), 4:511-513.

Distribution References

Anon, 1997. Soft scale insects: their biology, natural enemies and control. Volume 7B. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers. xvi + 442 pp.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. In: Technical Document No. 135, Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc. xxviii + 536 pp.

Brhane D, Girmay M, Debru H, Hayelom M, Tekie M H M, Sharma V K, Naqvi S D Y, 2018. Survey on insect-pests of guava and management practices around Hamelmalo sub-zoba. Journal of Eco-friendly Agriculture. 13 (1), 69-71. http://ecoagrijournal.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Full-paper131.pdf

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

International Institute of Entomology, 1994. Distribution Maps of Pests. In: Distribution Maps of Pests, 4 pp.

Kondo T, Muñoz J A, 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) associated with avocado crop, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) in Valle del Cauca and neighboring departments of Colombia. Insecta Mundi. 1-24. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2016

NHM, 1951. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1987. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, Undated. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

Schotman C Y L, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. In: RLAC-PROVEG, 80 pp.

Tan J C, Hu J W, Chen E, 1991. Study on the bionomics of Chloropulvinaria psidii (Maskell) [Pulvinaria psidii, a pest of tea and fruit trees] and its control. Insect Knowledge. 28 (4), 224-227.

Williams D J, Watson G W, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. In: The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 267 pp.

Distribution Maps

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