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Datasheet

Chilo partellus
(spotted stem borer)

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Datasheet

Chilo partellus (spotted stem borer)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Chilo partellus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • spotted stem borer
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adult female C. partellus. Relatively small moths, wing lengths 7-17 mm, females generally larger than males.
TitleAdult - line drawing
CaptionAdult female C. partellus. Relatively small moths, wing lengths 7-17 mm, females generally larger than males.
CopyrightDennis S. Hill
Adult female C. partellus. Relatively small moths, wing lengths 7-17 mm, females generally larger than males.
Adult - line drawingAdult female C. partellus. Relatively small moths, wing lengths 7-17 mm, females generally larger than males.Dennis S. Hill
TitleAdult
Caption
Copyright©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin
Adult©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Chilo partellus (Swinhoe, 1885)

Preferred Common Name

  • spotted stem borer

Other Scientific Names

  • Argyria lutulentalis Tams, 1932
  • Chilo zonellus (Swinhoe, 1884)
  • Crambus zonellus

International Common Names

  • English: durra stalk borer; pink borer; spotted sorghum stem borer; spotted stalk borer
  • Spanish: barrenador manchado del tallo del sorgo; perforador
  • French: pyrale tachée de la tige du sorgho

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Stengelbohrer, Blassroter

EPPO code

  • CHILZO (Chilo partellus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Crambidae
  •                             Genus: Chilo
  •                                 Species: Chilo partellus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Chilo partellus was first described by Swinhoe in 1885 and is one of many species of Chilo that develop on cereal crops and wild grasses, mostly in the tropics. Bleszynski (1970) published a thorough revision of all known species of Chilo on a world basis and clarified many taxonomic confusions. Before then, the scientific literature often referred to this species as Chilo zonellus (Swinhoe), which is now a synonym.

Bhattacherjee (1971) described two subspecies of Chilo partellus: Chilo partellus acutus and Chilo partellus kanpurensis.

Description

Top of page In coloration and general appearance C. partellus closely resembles many other species of Chilo and can only be identified accurately by examination of the male and female genitalia. In doubtful cases, specimens should be referred to taxonomic specialists for positive identification. Illustrated descriptions are included in Polaszek (1998).

Eggs

Eggs are scale-like, about 1.5 mm across, creamy-white and laid in overlapping batches.

Larvae

Larvae are up to 25 mm long when fully grown, with a prominent reddish-brown head. The body is creamy-white to yellowish-brown, with four purple-brown longitudinal stripes and usually with very conspicuous dark-brown dorsal spots. The prothoracic shield is reddish-brown to dark-brown, shining and with a pale medial furrow. Prominent dark-brown plates give the larva its characteristic spotted appearance.

Pupae

Female pupae are up to 15 mm long and male pupae are a few millimetres shorter. They are light yellow-brown to dark red-brown, with bands of small spines on the dorsal anterior margins of the fifth to seventh abdominal segments and with six dorsal spines and two large, thorn-like, flattened ventral spines on the last abdominal segment.

Adults

Bleszynski (1970) published technical descriptions of adults, including illustrated descriptions of the male and female genitalia.

Adults are relatively small moths with wing lengths ranging from 7 to 17 mm. Females are generally larger than males and both sexes rest with the wings folded over the abdomen. The forewings are generally light yellow-brown with some darker scale patterns forming longitudinal striations which are usually darker at the wing margins. The hindwings are white.

The male genitalia have a median, strong, tapering projection on the edge of the valve; the juxta plate has a large triangular central lobe, two basal notches and lateral arms not extending dorsally to the edge of the valve. The aedeagus has a bulbous basal projection and a ventral arm.

The female genitalia have a heavily sclerotized and swollen ostial pouch which is longitudinally wrinkled and deeply notched caudally between two semi-circular lobes. There is no bridge linking the ostial pouch with the eighth tergite, and the posterior apophyses are not dilated.

Also see Betbeder-Matibet (1990) for an illustrated data sheet on C. partellus.

Distribution

Top of page C. partellus is native of Asia, but became established in East Africa in the 1950s. Since then it has spread to southern and central Africa and there has been an unconfirmed report from Benin (Inter-African Phytosanitary Council, 1985).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014
BangladeshPresentCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014
CambodiaPresentCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014
IndiaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-Andhra PradeshPresentEPPO, 2014
-AssamPresentEPPO, 2014
-BiharPresentEPPO, 2014
-DelhiPresentEPPO, 2014
-GujaratPresentEPPO, 2014
-HaryanaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentEPPO, 2014
-Indian PunjabPresentEPPO, 2014
-Jammu and KashmirPresentBhat and Baba, 2007
-JharkhandPresentSingh et al., 2005
-KarnatakaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Madhya PradeshPresentEPPO, 2014
-MaharashtraPresentEPPO, 2014
-OdishaPresentEPPO, 2014
-RajasthanPresentEPPO, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentEPPO, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresentEPPO, 2014
-UttarakhandPresentArun and Rameshwar, 2003
-West BengalPresentEPPO, 2014
IndonesiaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-JavaPresentEPPO, 2014
IranPresentGhahari et al., 2009
IsraelRestricted distributionEPPO, 2011; EPPO, 2014
JapanAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
LaosPresentCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014
NepalPresentCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014
PakistanPresentCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014
Sri LankaPresentCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
ThailandPresentCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentBayram and Tonga, 2016
VietnamPresentCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014
YemenPresentCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014

Africa

BeninAbsent, unreliable recordEPPO, 2014
BotswanaPresentCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014
CameroonPresentCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014
ComorosPresentCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014
EritreaPresentHaile Hofsvang, 2001
EthiopiaPresentCIE, 1989; Leul and Thangavel, 2013; EPPO, 2014
KenyaPresentCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014
LesothoPresentEbenebe et al., 2001; EPPO, 2014
MalawiPresentCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014
MozambiquePresentCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014
RéunionAbsent, invalid recordCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014
SomaliaPresentCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaPresentCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014; Assefa, 2015
SudanPresentCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014
SwazilandPresentEPPO, 2014
TanzaniaPresentCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014
-ZanzibarPresentAli et al., 2006
UgandaPresentCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014
ZambiaPresentSohati et al., 2001; EPPO, 2014
ZimbabwePresentCIE, 1989; EPPO, 2014

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page C. partellus is an important pest of cultivated cereals, especially maize, sorghum and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum). It has also been recorded from rice, foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and finger millet (Eleusine coracana) and from many grass hosts, including Sorghum halepense, Sorghum verticilliflorum, Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpureum, Hyparrhenia rufa, Vossia cuspidata and Rottboellia compressa.

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page C. partellus larvae feed in leaf funnels, causing characteristic scars and holes. They later feed at the growing point, which may be killed. The dead central leaves then form a characteristic 'dead-heart', especially in young plants. Older larvae tunnel extensively in stems and in maize cobs, weakening the stems, which may break and lodge; damage to inflorescences may interfere with grain formation, causing chaffy heads in sorghum. Similar symptoms are produced by other species of cereal stem borer.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / internal feeding
Growing point / dead heart
Growing point / internal feeding; boring
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / internal feeding
Stems / dead heart
Stems / internal feeding
Whole plant / dead heart

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Many accounts of the biology and ecology of C. partellus have been published. Harris (1990) reviewed recent literature, noting that many research papers relate to work in India, especially at Indian Agricultural Research Institutes and universities, but that there had been a recent increase in the number of papers published from Africa, mostly resulting from work at ICIPE on this pest. Useful summaries of biological, ecological and other information include Nye (1960), Grist and Lever (1969), Siddig (1977), Appert and Deuse (1982), Hill (1983), Harris (1985, 1989), Rensburg (1987) and Polaszek (1998) which includes coloured photographs of live adults and larvae.

In Kenya, work at ICIPE has focused on larval movements (Berger, 1992); dispersal of early instars (Pats and Ekbom, 1992); flight periodicity (Pats and Wiktelius, 1992); and on pheromones (Lwande et al., 1993). In South Africa, work has been carried out at the Plant Protection Institute, Pretoria on duration of diapause (Kfir, 1991a); on seasonal abundance and parasitoids (Kfir, 1992); and on diapause termination (Kfir, 1993); studies have also been made at various locations in India.

Adults emerge from pupae in the late afternoon or early evening and are active at night. They rest on plants and plant debris during the day and are seldom seen, unless disturbed. Females release a pheromone to attract males (Nesbitt et al., 1979; Lwande et al., 1993) and mate soon after emergence. On two or three nights after emergence, each female lays up to a total of 200-600 scale-like overlapping eggs in 10-80 separate batches on the undersides of leaves, mostly near mid-ribs. Larvae hatch after 4-8 days, usually between 06.00 and 08.00 h, and initially feed in the leaf whorl. Subsequent larval instars tunnel into stems, eating out extensive galleries. Larval development is usually completed in 2-4 weeks. Larvae pupate in damaged stems and adults emerge 5-12 days later. The life cycle is completed in 25-50 days when climate and growing conditions are favourable. Five or more successive generations may develop in areas with suitable climates, such as southern India, but in less favourable areas larvae pass the winter or dry season in diapause in stems and stubble. They may remain inactive for up to six months, before pupating and completing their development early in the following growing season.

Biological and ecological studies that are of particular importance in understanding the factors that determine the pest status of C. partellus include Chapman et al. (1983) and Bernays et al. (1985) on survival and dispersal of first- and second-instar larvae on young sorghum plants; Woodhead and Taneja (1987) on larval behaviour and host-plant resistance in sorghum; Ampofo and Kidiavai (1987) on larval movements in maize; Alghali and Saxena (1988) on larval movement, feeding and development in sorghum; Rensburg et al. (1988) on larval infestations in maize; Alghali (1988) on oviposition in sorghum; Kumar (1988) on ovipositional responses in maize; and Sharma and Sharma (1987) on maize floral initiation and infestation.

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Apanteles diatraeae Parasite Larvae
Aspergillus flavus Antagonist
Bacillus thuringiensis
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis thuringiensis Pathogen Larvae
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Larvae
Bracon albolineatus Parasite Larvae
Campoplex collinus Parasite
Chelonus curvimaculatus Parasite Larvae
Chelonus narayani Parasite Larvae
Chrysoperla carnea Predator
Coccinella undecimpunctata Predator
Cotesia chilonis Parasite Larvae India;Pakistan sorghum
Cotesia flavipes Parasite Larvae Comoros; Kenya; Pakistan; South Africa; Uganda; Tanzania maize; sorghum
Cotesia glomeratus Parasite Larvae
Cotesia sesamiae Parasite Larvae Comoros; India maize; sorghum
Dentichasmias busseolae Parasite Pupae Comoro Islands; Kenya maize
Eurytoma braconidis Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Goniozus indicus Parasite Larvae
Granulosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Hyperchalcidia sp. Parasite Pupae
Invreia soudanensis Parasite Pupae Comoro Islands
Itoplectis naranyae Parasite Comoro Islands
Lixophaga diatraeae Parasite Larvae Comoros maize
Macrocentrus Parasite Larvae
Macrocentrus sp. Parasite Larvae
Myosoma chinensis Parasite Larvae Comoros maize
Myosoma nyanzaensis Parasite Larvae
Nosema bordati Pathogen
Nosema marucae Pathogen
Nosema partelli Pathogen
Ovomermis albicans Parasite
Oxyopes pandae Predator
Parallorhogas pyralophagus Parasite Larvae India
Paratheresia claripalpis Parasite Larvae
Pediobius furvus Parasite Pupae Comoro Islands; Comoros; Kenya; Pakistan maize; sorghum
Rhaconotus roslinensis Parasite Larvae
Serratia marcescens Pathogen
Steinernema carpocapsae Parasite
Stenobracon deesae Parasite Larvae
Stenobracon nicevillei Parasite Larvae
Stenobracon rufus Parasite Larvae
Sturmiopsis inferens Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Sturmiopsis parasitica Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Tetrastichus atriclavus Parasite Eggs Comoros maize; sorghum
Tetrastichus howardi Parasite Pupae South Africa
Tetrastichus israeli Parasite
Tetrastichus sesamiae Parasite
Trichogramma bournieri Parasite Eggs Comoros
Trichogramma chilonis Parasite Eggs Comoros; South Africa maize
Trichogramma chilotraeae Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma evanescens Parasite Eggs Comoros maize
Trichogramma exiguum Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma japonicum Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma mwanzai Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma nagarkattii Parasite Eggs
Trichogramma perkinsi Parasite Eggs
Trichogrammatoidea australicum Parasite Eggs
Trichogrammatoidea lutea Parasite Eggs
Trichogrammatoidea simmondsi Parasite Eggs
Trichospilus diatraeae Parasite Pupae Comoros maize
Tropobracon comorensis Parasite Larvae
Xanthopimpla stemmator Parasite Pupae South Africa

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Records of natural enemies of C. partellus are scattered in the stem borer literature and there have been few attempts to collate and authenticate them. Mohyuddin and Greathead (1970) published an annotated list of parasites of stem borers in East Africa, and Smith et al. (1993) published an illustrated account of the parasites of lepidopteran stem borers of tropical gramineous plants that includes C. partellus. The main parasitoids mentioned are Hymenoptera (Braconidae, Bethylidae, Chalcididae, Elasmidae, Eulophidae, Ichneumonidae, Scelionidae and Trichogrammatidae) and Diptera (Tachinidae). Smith et al. (1993) and Polaszek (1998) provide details of the biology of the main genera and species, together with identification keys.

The importance of predators has not been fully assessed. Mohyuddin and Greathead (1970) noted the importance of ants as predators on eggs, larvae and pupae.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Impact

Top of page Economic Impact

In Asia, and in parts of Africa where it has become established, C. partellus is a major pest of maize, sorghum and pearl millet. It is generally less important on rice, sugarcane and other crops, although it may be locally troublesome. In southern Africa its importance is growing. Kfir (1997) shows how it had overtaken other stemborers even at higher altitudes than the coastal areas where it had first become established. In East Africa it is acquiring greater importance since it is proving more successful than indigenous congeners (Ofomata et al., 2000).

Reddy and Sum (1992) studied yield-infestation relationships of this species on maize in Kenya and determined economic injury levels, and Bate et al. (1992) developed predictive estimation of maize loss in South Africa. In India, Subhedar et al. (1992) have assessed avoidable losses caused by this species in grain sorghum.

Detection and Inspection

Top of page Field infestations of C. partellus are detected by walking through young crops looking for characteristic holing of funnel leaves, the presence of dead hearts and holes in tunnelled stems. Samples of affected stems are then removed and dissected to retrieve larvae and pupae, from which adults are reared for identification. As similar symptoms may be caused by other species of lepidopterous stem borer, by some species of Diptera (especially Chloropidae and Atherigona shoot-flies) and by some diseases, retrieval of larvae or pupae and confirmation of their identity by rearing adults for identification by a taxonomic specialist is essential to ensure a correct diagnosis.

The presence of this species in older crops and in crop residues may be detected by taking random samples of stems or stools for dissection.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page In external appearance C. partellus resembles many other species of Chilo (see Bleszynski, 1970, Plates I and II), but can be distinguished from them by diagnostic characters of the male and female genitalia. According to Bleszynzski (1970), it is most closely related to Chilo tamsi, a species described from southern India.

Prevention and Control

Top of page Introduction

The main international research organizations working on the development of effective control of C. partellus are ICRISAT, in Asia and Africa, mainly for sorghum and pearl millet, and ICIPE in Kenya, mainly for maize and sorghum. Active national research programmes are also well established in India and South Africa. There seems to be little current interest in this species as a pest of rice or of any crops other than maize, sorghum and pearl millet. A review of control in Africa is included in Polaszek (1998).

The relevance of other stem borers must be considered in situations where more than one species is of importance, as on maize in East Africa and southern Africa.

Cultural Control

Good crop hygiene, including the destruction of crop residues (stems and stubbles), and removal of volunteer crop plants and/or alternative hosts reduces carryover of diapausing larvae and active populations from one growing season to the next and will help to limit the most damaging attacks on young crops early in the growing season. Manipulation of sowing dates may also be used to avoid periods of peak adult activity.

Verma and Singh (1989) reviewed cultural control measures used against sorghum stem borers, which include time of sowing, crop rotation, tillage, plant spacing, water management, fertilizer management, removal of dead hearts, management of crop residues, field sanitation, mulching and intercropping.

Kfir (1990) assessed the prospects for cultural control of C. partellus (and Busseola fusca) in summer grain crops in South Africa.

Biological Control

Biological control by conservation, augmentation or introduction of natural enemies has potential, but has not been adequately researched. Greathead (1971) reviewed biological control attempts in tropical Africa, including the introduction of parasitoids for use against C. partellus and other species of Chilo. Ingram (1983) also reviewed the situation and noted the need for further critical ecological studies to determine more precisely which exotic parasitoid species are likely to be successfully introduced. Greathead (1990) reviewed the use of natural enemies against Chilo species in Africa and indicated possible lines of further development, including enhancement of the action of indigenous natural enemies by manipulation of the environment and the development of microbial biopesticides. Kfir (1991b, 1994) reported attempted classical biological control of C. partellus (and Busseola fusca) in South Africa by the introduction of egg, larval and pupal parasitoids and concluded that, because of adverse climatic and other factors, the prospect of satisfactory biological control by the introduction of exotic natural enemies is poor.

The efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauvaria bassiana as a control agent has been assessed on maize in Kenya (Maniania, 1993); formulations of the protozoan Nosema marucae have also been evaluated (Odindo and Mbai, 1993). A new species, Nosema partelli, has been described from C. partellus in South Africa (Walters and Kfir, 1993). Four commercial preparations of Bacillus thuringiensis have also been evaluated in laboratory trials against C. partellus (Brownbridge and Onyango, 1992 a,b).

Host-Plant Resistance

Plant breeding for resistance or tolerance is generally considered to be the best long-term method of control and much work has been done to identify and use sources of resistance, especially in maize and sorghum. ICRISAT has developed screening procedures for sorghum (Leuschner, 1989), and some progress has been made in breeding for resistance (Agrawal and Taneja, 1989) and in understanding mechanisms of resistance (Taneja and Woodhead, 1989). Gethi and Mihm (1997) reviewed progress in East Africa.

Chemical Control

Chemical control is effective in some circumstances but is inappropriate in much of Africa and Asia. Kishore (1989) reviewed recent research and recommendations for chemical control of stem borers on sorghum and maize in India and South Africa and concluded that control can be achieved by applications of granules or dusts to the leaf whorl early in crop growth to kill early larval instars. This method reduces pollution and limits harmful effects on non-target organisms.

Rensburg et al. (1991) reported on progress towards cost-effective control of C. partellus and other pests on maize in South Africa.

Integrated Pest Management

The development of IPM programmes against C. partellus is complicated by the fact that it is only one of a number of species of lepidopterous stem borers that attack its main crop hosts. Biological and ecological differences between these species affect their relative importance on different crops and at different localities. IPM programmes must therefore be developed at local levels to meet local needs. There seem to be few cases where this has actually been achieved.

Pheromonal Control

The components of the female pheromone have been identified (Nesbitt et al., 1979). The possible uses of pheromones to monitor and control stem borers were reviewed by Campion and Nesbitt (1983). They concluded that control by mass trapping is unlikely to be effective, but that control by mating disruption had shown encouraging results and might be used effectively on rice, maize and sugarcane grown under plantation conditions.

Phytosanitary Measures

No formal phytosanitary measures have been developed against C. partellus and its introduction to Africa from Asia, possibly by introduction of larvae or pupae in infested cereal or grass stems, pre-dates the establishment of phytosanitary services in Africa. Prevention of further spread within Africa might be attempted by controlling the movement of larvae and pupae in stems but, although the species is not known to be a migrant, it seems likely that adults may at times disperse over long distances, and it is impossible to prevent such movements.

References

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Agrawal BL; Taneja SL, 1989. Breeding for resistance to stem borer (Chilo partellus Swinhoe) in sorghum. International workshop on sorghum stem borers, held in Patancheru, India, on 17-20 November 1987 Patancheru, India; ICRISAT, 159-168

Alghali AM, 1988. Oviposition on sorghum by the stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Journal of Plant Protection in the Tropics, 5(1):45-50

Alghali AM; Saxena KN, 1988. Larval movement, feeding and development of Chilo partellus Swinhoe (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on two sorghum cultivars. Insect Science and its Application, 9(1):7-11; 15 ref.

Ali AI; Jiang NanQing; Schulthess F; Ogol CKPO; Omwega CO, 2006. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer level on infestations of lepidopterous stemborers and yields of maize in Zanzibar. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 42(3/4):481-486. [Special Issue: The cereal stem borers of Sub-Saharan Africa and their antagonists.]

Ampofo JKO; Kidiavai EL, 1987. Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepid., Pyralidae) larval movement and growth on maize plants in relation to plant age and resistance or susceptibility. Journal of Applied Entomology, 103(5):483-488

Appert J; Deuse J, 1982. Pests of food and market-garden crops in the tropics. Les ravageurs des cultures vivrieres et maraicheres sous les tropiques., 420 pp.; [col.pl., 160 X 240 mm].

Arun Bhatt; Rameshwar Singh, 2003. Association between stem borer [Chilo partellus (Swinhoe)] incidence and sweet stalks in sorghum [Sorhum bicolor (L.) Moench.]. Insect Environment, 9(3):131-132.

Assefa Y, 2015. Potential new pests in the neighbourhood: diversity and abundance of sugarcane stem borers in the Pondoland region of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Proceedings of the Annual Congress - South African Sugar Technologists' Association [88th Annual Congress of the South African Sugar Technologists' Association, Durban, South Africa, 18-20 August 2015.], No.88:292-303. http://www.sasta.co.za/publications/congress-proceedings

Bate R; Rensburg JBJvan, 1992. Predictive estimation of maize yield loss caused by Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in maize. South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 9(3):150-154

Bayram A; Tonga A, 2016. First report of Chilo partellus in Turkey, a new invasive maize pest for Europe. Journal of Applied Entomology, 140(3):236-240. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0418

Berger A, 1992. Larval movements of Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) within and between plants: timing, density responses and survival. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 82(4):441-448

Bernays E; Woodhead S; Haines L, 1985. Climbing by newly hatched larvae of the spotted stalk borer Chilo partellus to the top of sorghum plants. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 39(1):73-79

Betbeder-Matibet M; ed, 1990. In: Insect Pests of Food Crops in Africa and the Indian Ocean Region. Montpellier, France: CIRAD-IRAT Entomologie, 15-16.

Bhat ZH; Baba ZA, 2007. Efficacy of different insecticides against maize stem borer Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) and maize aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) infesting maize. Pakistan Entomologist, 29(2):73-76.

Bhattacherjee NS, 1971. Studies on the maize and jowar stem borer, Chilo zonellus (Swinhoe). Entomologist, 104(1302-1303):298-304

Bleszynski S, 1970. A revision of the world species of Chilo Zincken (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology, 25:101-195.

Bonhof MJ; Overholt WA; Huis Avan; Polaszek A, 1997. Natural enemies of cereal stemborers in East Africa: a review. Insect Science and its Application, 17(1):19-35; 4 pp. of ref.

Brownbridge M; Onyango T, 1992. Laboratory evaluation of four commercial preparations of Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) against the spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lep., Pyralidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 113(2):159-167; 24 ref.

Brownbridge M; Onyango T, 1992. Screening of exotic and locally isolated Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) strains in Kenya for toxicity to the spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe). Tropical Pest Management, 38(1):77-81; 20 ref.

Campion DG; Nesbitt BF, 1983. The utilisation of sex pheromones for the control of stem-borers. Insect Science and its Application, 4(1/2):191-197

Chapman RF; Woodhead S; Bernays EA, 1983. Survival and dispersal of young larvae of Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in two cultivars of sorghum. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 73(1):65-74

CIE, 1989. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 184. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

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