Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Chenopodiastrum murale
(nettle-leaf goosefoot)

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Datasheet

Chenopodiastrum murale (nettle-leaf goosefoot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 September 2022
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Chenopodiastrum murale
  • Preferred Common Name
  • nettle-leaf goosefoot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Chenopodiastrum murale is a widespread noxious weed reported in more than 100 countries. It is a nitrophilous species that can cause substantial yield losses in vegetable crops through both competition and allelopathy, and exhibits invasi...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Habit. Großjedlersdorf, Floridsdorf, Vienna. August 2018.
TitleHabit
CaptionChenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Habit. Großjedlersdorf, Floridsdorf, Vienna. August 2018.
Copyright©Stefan Lefnaer (Stefan.lefnaer)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Habit. Großjedlersdorf, Floridsdorf, Vienna. August 2018.
HabitChenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Habit. Großjedlersdorf, Floridsdorf, Vienna. August 2018.©Stefan Lefnaer (Stefan.lefnaer)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Habit. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.
TitleHabit
CaptionChenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Habit. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.
Copyright©Stefan Lefnaer (Stefan.lefnaer)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Habit. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.
HabitChenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Habit. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.©Stefan Lefnaer (Stefan.lefnaer)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Seedheads. Kula, Maui, Hawaii. May 2011.
TitleSeedheads
CaptionChenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Seedheads. Kula, Maui, Hawaii. May 2011.
Copyright©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Seedheads. Kula, Maui, Hawaii. May 2011.
SeedheadsChenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Seedheads. Kula, Maui, Hawaii. May 2011.©Forest and Kim Starr/via Starr Environmental - CC BY 4.0
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Stipe with leaves. Zwingendorfer, Lower Austria. October 2016.
TitleFoliage
CaptionChenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Stipe with leaves. Zwingendorfer, Lower Austria. October 2016.
Copyright©Stefan Lefnaer (Stefan.lefnaer)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Stipe with leaves. Zwingendorfer, Lower Austria. October 2016.
FoliageChenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Stipe with leaves. Zwingendorfer, Lower Austria. October 2016.©Stefan Lefnaer (Stefan.lefnaer)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Habit. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.
TitleHabit
CaptionChenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Habit. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.
Copyright©Stefan Lefnaer (Stefan.lefnaer)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Habit. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.
HabitChenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Habit. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.©Stefan Lefnaer (Stefan.lefnaer)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Plant. Zwingendorfer, Lower Austria. October 2016.
TitlePlant
CaptionChenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Plant. Zwingendorfer, Lower Austria. October 2016.
Copyright©Stefan Lefnaer (Stefan.lefnaer)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Plant. Zwingendorfer, Lower Austria. October 2016.
PlantChenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Plant. Zwingendorfer, Lower Austria. October 2016.©Stefan Lefnaer (Stefan.lefnaer)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Leaf, dorsal side. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.
TitleLeaf
CaptionChenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Leaf, dorsal side. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.
Copyright©Stefan Lefnaer (Stefan.lefnaer)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Leaf, dorsal side. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.
LeafChenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Leaf, dorsal side. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.©Stefan Lefnaer (Stefan.lefnaer)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Leaf, ventral side. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.
TitleLeaf
CaptionChenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Leaf, ventral side. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.
Copyright©Stefan Lefnaer (Stefan.lefnaer)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Leaf, ventral side. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.
LeafChenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Leaf, ventral side. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.©Stefan Lefnaer (Stefan.lefnaer)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Inflorescence. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionChenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Inflorescence. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.
Copyright©Stefan Lefnaer (Stefan.lefnaer)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Inflorescence. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.
InflorescenceChenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Inflorescence. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.©Stefan Lefnaer (Stefan.lefnaer)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Inflorescence. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionChenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Inflorescence. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.
Copyright©Stefan Lefnaer (Stefan.lefnaer)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Inflorescence. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.
InflorescenceChenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Inflorescence. Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.©Stefan Lefnaer (Stefan.lefnaer)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Seeds (without shell). Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.
TitleSeeds
CaptionChenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Seeds (without shell). Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.
Copyright©Stefan Lefnaer (Stefan.lefnaer)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0
Chenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Seeds (without shell). Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.
SeedsChenopodiastrum murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Seeds (without shell). Stockerau, Korneuburg, Lower Austria. October 2016.©Stefan Lefnaer (Stefan.lefnaer)/via Wikimedia Commons - CC BY-SA 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Chenopodiastrum murale (L.) S. Fuentes, Uotila & Borsch

Preferred Common Name

  • nettle-leaf goosefoot

Other Scientific Names

  • Anserina muralis (L.) Montandon
  • Atriplex muralis (L.) Crantz
  • Chenopodium biforme Nees
  • Chenopodium carthagenense Zuccagni
  • Chenopodium congestum Hook.f.
  • Chenopodium flavum Forssk.
  • Chenopodium guineense Jacq.
  • Chenopodium laterale Aiton
  • Chenopodium longidjawense Peter
  • Chenopodium lucidum Gilib.
  • Chenopodium maroccanum Pau
  • Chenopodium murale L.
  • Chenopodium triangulare Forssk.
  • Rhagodia baccata (Labill.) Moq.
  • Rhagodia congesta (Hook. f.) Moq.
  • Vulvaria trachisperma Bubani

International Common Names

  • English: Australian spinach; goosefoot; green fat hen; nettle goosefoot; nettle-leaved fat-hen; nettle-leaved goosefoot; pigweed; salt-green; sowbane; sow-bane; swine-bane; wall goosefoot
  • Spanish: cardo ruso; cenizo; chenopodio des murs; chual; chual; hierba de perro; hierba del gallinazo; pie de ganso; quelite cenizo; quelite de perro
  • French: ansérine des murs; chenópode des murailles; chénopode des murs; sénille
  • Arabic: abu-efein; mentab; muntinab; rumram; sentar; zurbaih

Local Common Names

  • Czechoslovakia: merlík zední
  • Portuguese: pé de ganço; pé de ganso; pe-de-ganso; pedegoso
  • USA (Hawaii): ‘āheahea
  • Albania: minueri i murit
  • Argentina: quinoa negra; yuyo negro
  • Azerbaijan: Дивар тәрә
  • Bahamas: greens
  • Bolivia: akara; khachi yullu; yerba del susto; yuyo negro
  • Croatia: loboda kamenjarka
  • Denmark: mur-gåsefod
  • Dominican Republic: celedonia; corralera; tullida
  • Estonia: müür-hanemalts
  • Ethiopia: hamedmado; hamlikebbo
  • Finland: rauniosavikka
  • Germany: Mauer-Gänsefuß
  • Greece: xηνοπόδιον το επιτοίχιον
  • Guatemala: hedionda; hediondilla; paletilla
  • Hungary: kőfali libatop
  • India: bahu; barello; goyalo; khad-bathod; khartua; kurunal
  • Ireland: praiseach an bhalla
  • Italy: chenopodio dei muri; farinello murale; piè d’oca; piede anserino
  • Italy/Sardinia: cadoni
  • Latvia: mūru balanda
  • Lesser Antilles: épinard bord de mer, sprainbush
  • Lithuania: mūrinė balanda
  • Mexico: catzú; gedeondilla; hediondilla; quelite de puerco
  • Netherlands: muurganzevoet
  • Norway: gatemelde
  • Poland: komosa murowa
  • Qatar: abu ’affeyn; khaisa; weraq; zarbeeh
  • Romania: frunză de potcă
  • Saudi Arabia: haref al-deek; khubaisa; lissan et-teir; rugul; uwaijjiman
  • Slovakia: mrlík múrový
  • Slovenia: pozidna metlika
  • South Africa: gansevoet; koringbossie; misbredie; muurhondebossie; serua; thumana; tjuana-seep; umdongabatwa
  • Spain: blet; blet de paret; ceñiglo; cenizo negro; pata de ganso dos valos; quenopodio; sabia; salaillo; salao; salao verde
  • Sudan: dorora hamraa
  • Sweden: gattmaalla
  • Syria: rRamram, zarbykh

EPPO Code

  • CHEMU (Chenopodium murale)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Chenopodiastrum murale is a widespread noxious weed reported in more than 100 countries. It is a nitrophilous species that can cause substantial yield losses in vegetable crops through both competition and allelopathy, and exhibits invasive traits in many areas like high phenotypic plasticity, resource utilization capability, high reproductive potential, and seeds that remain viable in the soil for many years. It has been listed as invasive in Mexico, USA, Puerto Rico, Czech Republic and Japan.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Chenopodiaceae
  •                             Genus: Chenopodium
  •                                 Species: Chenopodiastrum murale

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Chenopodiastrum murale was previously known as Chenopodium murale. It was recently segregated from this heterogeneous genus as a result of a molecular phylogenetic study (Fuentes-Bazan et al., 2012).

At present, Chenopodiastrum includes eight species, all segregated from Chenopodium: Chenopodiastrum badachschanicum, Chenopodiastrum coronopus, Chenopodiastrum erosum, Chenopodiastrum fasciculosum, Chenopodiastrum gracilispicum, Chenopodiastrum hybridum, Chenopodiastrum murale and Chenopodiastrum simplex. Although morphologically very similar to Chenopodium, the two genera differ in the type of trichomes on young stems and leaves, the venation of perianth segments and the features of the seeds (Fuentes-Bazan et al., 2012; Uotila, 2017). The generic name means ‘false Chenopodium’.

Chenopodium, in the broad sense, had been considered one of the largest genera of Chenopodiaceae (now Amaranthaceae), with an estimated number of 150 species (Fuentes-Bazan et al., 2012). Some species traditionally placed in this genus are used as pot herbs, pseudocereals (e.g. quinoa), condiments and in traditional medicine (Duke, 1961). The generic name is derived from the Greek Chen or khen (= goose) and podion (= foot), and alludes to the shape of the leaves of some species.

Chenopodiastrum murale is a widespread, highly variable species with numerous varieties described (Maire, 1962).

Description

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The following description is from Duke (1961), Brenan (1988) and Brenan and Akeroyd (1993):

Annual green herb, up to 70-90 cm tall, erect or spreading, usually much-branched, the branches often deeply sulcate or angular, more or less farinose especially on young parts. Leaves with petioles 3-7 cm long, sometimes quite as long as the blades; blade 1.5-9 x 1-5 cm, deltoid to rhombic-ovate, cuneate to truncate at base, acute to acuminate at apex and often mucronate, the margin irregular, coarsely and acutely dentate, somewhat lustrous and occasionally bullate above, glabrous to rather densely farinose below. Inflorescences leafy, composed of divaricately branching cymes up to 5 cm long, terminal and from upper and sometimes median axils. Flowers hermaphrodite, small, ca. 1-1.5 mm in diameter, greenish, irregularly disposed in sessile glomerules along the rhachises. Sepals five, subequal, 1-1.5 mm long, ovate, obtuse, cucullate, bluntly keeled above, basally connate; petals absent; stamens five, caducous, the filaments flattened, the anthers orbicular, exserted; ovary subglobose, the style quite short, the 2 (-3) stigmata ca. twice as long, spreading, irregularly glandular. Fruit an indehiscent utricle partially enclosed by the sepals, the pericarp hardly separable from the single seed. Seed round, 1.2-1.5 mm in diameter, horizontal, lenticular, acutely keeled, black, slightly shining; testa marked with minute rounded pits.

Plant Type

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Annual
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed / spore propagated

Distribution

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Chenopodiastrum murale is a nearly cosmopolitan species. It is presumably native to central and southern Europe, northern Africa and southwestern Asia, but has naturalized as a weed elsewhere, including the Americas, central and southern Africa and Australia. It can be found as far north as Canada and Sweden, and as far south as New Zealand (Holm et al., 1997; Freitag et al., 2001; Clemants and Mosyakin, 2003).

This species is mainly regarded as a summer weed in the Mediterranean region. It is generally less frequent in cooler temperatures.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 29 Jul 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNative
BotswanaPresent
ChadPresentNative
Congo, Republic of thePresent
EgyptPresent, Widespread
EswatiniPresent
EthiopiaPresent
KenyaPresent
LesothoPresent
LibyaPresentNative
MadagascarPresentIntroducedNaturalized
MaliPresentIntroduced
MauritaniaPresentIntroduced
MoroccoPresent
NamibiaPresent
NigerPresentIntroduced
SenegalPresent
South AfricaPresent, Widespread
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TunisiaPresentNative
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresentIntroduced1931

Asia

AfghanistanPresent, Widespread
BahrainPresentNative
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-GujaratPresentIntroduced
-PunjabPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasive
IndonesiaPresentPresent, based on regional distribution
-JavaPresentIntroduced
IranPresent
IraqPresent, Widespread
IsraelPresent, Widespread
JapanPresentIntroducedInvasive
JordanPresent, Widespread
KuwaitPresentNative
LebanonPresent
NepalPresent
OmanPresent, Widespread
PakistanPresent, Widespread
QatarPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent, Widespread
Sri LankaPresentIntroduced
SyriaPresentNative
TurkeyPresent
TurkmenistanPresentNative
United Arab EmiratesPresent, Widespread
YemenPresentNative

Europe

AlbaniaPresent
AustriaPresent
BelgiumPresentNative
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentNative
BulgariaPresentNative
CroatiaPresentNative
CyprusPresentNative
CzechiaPresentIntroducedInvasive
DenmarkPresent
EstoniaPresentIntroduced1944
FinlandPresentIntroducedCasual immigrant
FrancePresent
-CorsicaPresentNative
GermanyPresent, Widespread
GibraltarPresentNative
GreecePresent, Widespread
HungaryPresent, Widespread
IcelandPresentIntroduced1946
IrelandPresentIntroduced1866
ItalyPresent
LatviaPresentNative
LithuaniaPresentIntroduced1954
LuxembourgPresentNative
NetherlandsPresentNative
NorwayPresentIntroduced1840As: Chenopodiastrum murale
PolandPresent, Widespread
PortugalPresent
-AzoresPresentIntroduced1838
-MadeiraPresentNative
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresentNative
-Central RussiaPresentNative
-Russian Far EastPresentIntroduced
-Southern RussiaPresentNative
SerbiaPresentNative
Serbia and MontenegroPresentNative
SlovakiaPresentIntroduced
SloveniaPresentNative
SpainPresentNative
-Balearic IslandsPresentNative
-Canary IslandsPresent, Widespread
SwedenPresent, Widespread
SwitzerlandPresentNative
UkrainePresentNative
United KingdomPresentIntroduced1634

North America

AnguillaPresentIntroduced
Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroduced
ArubaPresentIntroduced
BahamasPresentIntroduced
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-BonairePresentIntroduced
-Sint EustatiusPresentIntroduced
CanadaPresent, Widespread
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced
-New BrunswickPresentIntroduced
-OntarioPresentIntroduced
-QuebecPresentIntroduced
-SaskatchewanPresentIntroduced
CubaPresent, Widespread
CuraçaoPresentIntroduced
DominicaPresentIntroduced
Dominican RepublicPresent
El SalvadorPresent
GuadeloupePresentIntroduced
GuatemalaPresentIntroduced
HaitiPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresentIntroduced
MartiniquePresentIntroduced
MexicoPresent, Widespread
MontserratPresentIntroduced
NicaraguaPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedOnly one collection in Jinotega
PanamaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedOnly on San Jose Island
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced1885Invasive
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroduced
Saint MartinPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedSt. Croix, St. Thomas
United StatesPresentIntroducedInvasive
-ArizonaPresentIntroduced
-ArkansasPresentIntroduced
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced
-DelawarePresentIntroduced
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroduced
-FloridaPresentIntroduced
-GeorgiaPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced
-IndianaPresentIntroduced
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced
-MainePresentIntroduced
-MarylandPresentIntroduced
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced
-MichiganPresentIntroduced
-MissouriPresentIntroduced
-NevadaPresentIntroduced
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced
-New YorkPresentIntroduced
-North CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-OhioPresentIntroduced
-OklahomaPresentIntroduced
-OregonPresentIntroduced
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroduced
-South CarolinaPresentIntroduced
-TennesseePresentIntroduced
-TexasPresentIntroduced
-UtahPresentIntroduced
-VermontPresentIntroduced
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced
-West VirginiaPresentIntroduced
-WisconsinPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-Lord Howe IslandPresentIntroduced1898
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced
-Northern TerritoryPresentIntroduced
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced
-South AustraliaPresentIntroduced
-TasmaniaPresentIntroduced
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced
New ZealandPresent
TongaPresentIntroduced
United States Minor Outlying Islands
-Johnston AtollPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresent, Widespread
BoliviaPresentIntroduced
BrazilPresentIntroducedNaturalized
-AlagoasPresentIntroduced
-BahiaPresentIntroduced
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroduced
-ParaibaPresentIntroduced
-PernambucoPresentIntroduced
-Sao PauloPresentIntroduced
-SergipePresentIntroduced
ChilePresentIntroduced1849
ColombiaPresentIntroduced
EcuadorPresentIntroduced
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroduced
PeruPresent, Widespread
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

History of Introduction and Spread

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Chenopodiastrum murale has made its way into many areas across the world as a contaminant in imported grains, packing material and ship’s ballast. According to Uotila and Suominen (1976), this species may have reached Northern Europe in the 19th century on ballast soil. In Finland, it is largely confined to harbours, some of which were ballast localities; other occurrences have been attributed to the import of Moroccan cork, timber and grains. This species was found in Finnish mill dumps in the 70s and may have been introduced several times between 1960 and 1975 with American maize (Uotila and Suominen, 1976).

The presence of C. murale in the Tampere (Finland) railway station yards suggests that it may have also been introduced by train, particularly by “USSR railway wagons which were unloaded and switched there” (Uotila and Suominen, 1976).

The oldest records for some New World countries are 1859-1860 for USA, 1786 for Mexico, 1850 for Colombia, 1815 for Brazil (GBIF, 2018), 1849 for Chile (Ugarte et al., 2011) and 1885 for Puerto Rico (Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2015). The earliest collection from Australia is from 1803 (GBIF, 2018).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of C. murale into new areas is high. Besides being a very widely distributed weed of anthropogenic habitats, this species is a prolific seed producer. The tiny seeds can be transported inadvertently through many different means.

Habitat

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Chenopodiastrum murale occurs as a weed in gardens, lawns, cultivated fields, waste places, roadsides, railways and pastures; it is also found along banks of rivers, on clay mounds, open woods, rocky hillsides, sandy fields and open disturbed coastal areas. It can be found from sea level to over 2000 m, in both open and shaded sites (Brenan, 1988; Holm et al., 1997; Clemants and Mosyakin, 2003).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Principal habitat Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalDeserts Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalArid regions Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal dunes Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Chenopodiastrum murale has been reported to affect more than 35 crops (Holm et al., 1997; Villaseñor and Espinosa, 1998). These include a wide range of plants of diverse botanical affiliation and economic importance, which reflects the adaptability of this weed to different habitats and environmental conditions. It competes with relatively weakly (onions, cumin, fenugreek) and also strongly competitive crops (brassicas, potato, sorghum) of different habits and at varying planting densities. C. murale is also able to invade orchards of fruit trees and colonize the space available between rows and/or around trunks and, therefore, it may become dominant under suitable levels of irrigation and high fertilization.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Allium cepa (onion)LiliaceaeMain
Allium sativum (garlic)LiliaceaeMain
Apium graveolens (celery)ApiaceaeMain
Beta vulgaris (beetroot)ChenopodiaceaeMain
Brassica juncea var. juncea (Indian mustard)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassica oleracea var. botrytis (cauliflower)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage)BrassicaceaeMain
Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli)BrassicaceaeMain
Carthamus tinctorius (safflower)AsteraceaeMain
Cicer arietinum (chickpea)FabaceaeMain
CitrusRutaceaeUnknown
Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeMain
Cuminum cyminum (cumin)ApiaceaeMain
Daucus carota (carrot)ApiaceaeMain
Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)MalvaceaeMain
Helianthus annuus (sunflower)AsteraceaeMain
Hordeum vulgare (barley)PoaceaeMain
Linum usitatissimum (flax)Main
Medicago sativa (lucerne)FabaceaeMain
Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeMain
Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear)CactaceaeMain
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain
Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeMain
Plantago ovata (spogel plantain)PlantaginaceaeMain
Raphanus sativus (radish)BrassicaceaeMain
Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)PoaceaeMain
Sesamum indicum (sesame)PedaliaceaeMain
Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeMain
Solanum tuberosum (potato)SolanaceaeMain
Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)PoaceaeMain
Spinacia oleracea (spinach)ChenopodiaceaeMain
Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek)FabaceaeMain
Triticum (wheat)PoaceaeMain
Vicia faba (faba bean)FabaceaeMain
Zea mays (maize)PoaceaeMain

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number of C. murale is 2n = 18 (Bhargava et al., 2007).

Reproductive Biology

The small flowers of C. murale are perfect, possess five exserted stamens, and are likely wind-pollinated (Blackwell and Powell, 1981). No studies on the pollination biology of this species have been conducted. However, other weedy annual species of Chenopodium have been reported to be self-compatible and able to reproduce both by self- and cross-pollination (Bassett and Crompton, 1978).

A single plant of C. murale can produce over 24,000 seeds with an average weight of 0.68 mg each (Herron, 1953). The tiny seeds exhibit dormancy and can remain viable for many years. Dry storage at room temperature for 2 years resulted in 92% germination (Holm et al., 1997). Spira and Wagner (1983) reported the germination of 183-year-old seeds of C. murale recovered from adobe walls of a historic building in the USA.

Physiology and Phenology

Chenopodiastrum murale is a long-day, C3 annual and early flowering species (Holm et al., 1997; Živanović et al., 2010). Flowering and fruiting occur from July to September in Europe (Holm et al., 1997) and from August to March in India (Paul, 2012).

In exposed dry sites, and under stress, plants of C. murale may be much reduced in size and can set seed when only 10-15 cm tall. Conversely, under favourable conditions, they may grow over 1 m tall before flowering (Holm et al., 1997).

In the laboratory, 5 days of continuous day light induced flowering in the majority of plants as early as at the phase of the first pair of leaves (Pavlova et al., 1989).

Photoperiodic flower induction is not correlated with changes in cytokinin level in the plant (Macháčková et al., 1993), and flowering can be induced by aminoethoxy vinyl glycine (AVG) and silver thiosulphate, which completely reverse flowering inhibition imposed by indole acetic acid (IAA) (Macháčková et al., 1985).

Plants cultured in vitro on optimal medium composition, and under an adequate photoperiodic regime, produce seeds in 18 weeks (Živanović et al., 2010).

Seed germination is induced by nitrate (Kasera and Sen, 1992), and weed growth is greatly favoured by a high level of fertilization (Walter, 1981). It is a nutrient accumulator, and better at accumulating N, P, K and Mg than associated vegetable crops and many other weed species with which it coexists in the field (Qasem, 1992). C. murale is a comparatively better accumulator of N and P than fenugreek (Maliwal and Gupta, 1988) and has been reported to accumulate appreciable levels of selenium (Abuereish and Lahham, 1987).

Longevity

Chenopodiastrum murale is an annual species (Holm et al., 1997).

Environmental Requirements

Chenopodiastrum murale can be found under many different climatic conditions but is best adapted to the subtropics and warm-temperate regions. In the Mediterranean and other temperate regions, it is regarded as a summer weed.

This species is adapted to many ecological conditions, although it grows most vigorously on substrates with a high level of fertilization, especially nitrogen-rich soils (Walter, 1981; Holm et al., 1997). It has been regarded as a nutrient accumulator with a high demand for potassium and nitrogen (Qasem, 1992). Animal manure is a major cause of weed establishment in newly reclaimed land (Bloomfield, 1975).

In certain parts of the world, it is a weed of arid zones and may be found growing in heavy clay soil types of varying salinity (Bhati et al., 1979).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
64 44

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 4 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall302000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • Free

Soil reaction

  • Acid
  • Alkaline
  • Neutral

Soil texture

  • Heavy
  • Light
  • Medium

Special soil tolerances

  • Saline

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Amrasca devastans [Amrasca biguttula biguttula] Herbivore Plants|Leaves not specific
Ascochyta caulina Pathogen Plants|Leaves not specific
Ascochyta chenopodii Pathogen Plants|Leaves not specific
Beet yellows virus Pathogen Plants|Leaves not specific
Bemisia tabaci Herbivore Plants|Leaves; Plants|Stems not specific
Camarosporium atriplicis Pathogen not specific
Cercospora beticola Pathogen Plants|Leaves not specific
Cercospora dubia Pathogen Plants|Leaves not specific
Circulifer tenellus Herbivore Plants|Leaves; Plants|Stems not specific
Hendersonia chenopodiicola Pathogen not specific
Leveillula cylindrospora Pathogen Plants|Leaves not specific
Leveillula taurica Pathogen Plants|Leaves not specific
Lygus elisus Herbivore Plants|Inflorescence not specific
Lygus hesperus Herbivore Plants|Inflorescence not specific
Macrosiphum euphorbiae Herbivore Plants|Leaves; Plants|Stems not specific
Myzus persicae Herbivore Plants|Leaves; Plants|Stems not specific
Odium Pathogen not specific
Pepino mosaic virus Pathogen Plants|Leaves not specific
Peronospora chenopodii Pathogen Plants|Leaves not specific
Peronospora effusa Pathogen Plants|Leaves not specific
Peronospora farinosa Pathogen Plants|Leaves not specific
Peronospora variabilis Pathogen Plants|Leaves to genus
Phenacoccus solenopsis Herbivore Plants|Inflorescence; Plants|Leaves; Plants|Stems not specific
Phomopsis desmazieri Pathogen
Puccinia aristidae Pathogen Plants|Leaves not specific
Puccinia subnitens Pathogen Plants|Leaves not specific
Septoria chenopodii Pathogen Plants|Leaves
Septoria undilospora Pathogen Plants|Leaves to genus
Spodoptera exigua Herbivore Plants|Leaves; Plants|Stems not specific
Stagonospora atriplicus Pathogen Plants|Leaves not specific
Tomato spotted wilt virus Pathogen Plants|Leaves not specific
Uromyces peckianus Pathogen Plants|Leaves not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Large numbers of natural enemies have been reported for C. murale, including species of fungi, nematodes and insects of economic importance.

Some of the fungal diseases include leaf spots (Ascochyta caulina, Ascochyta chenopodii, Cercospora beticola, Cercospora dubia, Stagonospora atriplicis, Septoria chenopodii, Septoria undilospora), blight (Camarosporium atriplicus), powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica, Leveillula cylindrospora), downy mildew (Peronospora farinosa, Peronospora effusa, Peronospora chenopodii, Peronospora variabilis), and the rusts (Puccinia aristidae, Puccinia subnitens, Uromyces peckianus) (Farr and Rossman, 2018).

Among the insects that feed on this species are: the cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) (Arif et al., 2009), the cotton leafhopper Amrasca devastans [Amrasca biguttula biguttula] (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) (Saeed et al., 2015), the beet leafhopper Circulifer tenellus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) (Cook, 1967), the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (Berdegue and Trumble, 1996), the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) (Attique et al., 2003), the aphids Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (Sánchez et al., 2010), and the plant bugs Lygus elisus and Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) (Clancy, 1968).

Chenopodiastrum murale also serves as a host or indicator for a wide range of serious viral diseases which affect a number of crops of economic importance. Some of these viruses include: the Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) (Cho et al., 1987), the Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) (Córdoba et al., 2004), and the Beet yellows virus (BYV) (Bennett, 1960).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Chenopodiastrum murale spreads by seed. It is a prolific seed producer that can form persistent propagule banks within a short period of time (Gupta and Narayan, 2012). The seeds have no obvious mechanism for dispersal, although they have been reported to be consumed by birds including the common house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and the Eurasian collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto) (Sharma, 1977; Tomar and Singh, 1980).

Accidental Introduction

The spread of C. murale is favoured by agricultural practices and soil movement, among others. The tiny seeds can remain in the soil for a long time. They are also often harvested in the field with the grain crop with which it coexists (e.g. wheat) (Holm et al., 1997) and so they can be transported accidentally as a contaminant.

Uotila and Suominen (1976) discuss several ways by which this species reached Northern Europe which include the import of grains, cork and timber, and ship ballast.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionA weed of cultivated fields. Seeds can be unintentionally harvested with grain crops. e.g. wheat Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
DisturbanceA weed of disturbed habitats Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)
HitchhikerSeeds can be transported as a contaminant with imported grain Yes Yes Uotila and Suominen (1976)
Timber tradeIntroduced to Finland with oak timber Yes Yes Uotila and Suominen (1976)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Containers and packaging - woodThis species may have arrived in Finland with material used for packing and insulating Mediterranean food Yes Yes Uotila and Suominen (1976)
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesFound in the vicinity of mill dumps Yes Yes Uotila and Suominen (1976)
Ship ballast water and sedimentLikely introduced into Northern Europe in ship ballast Yes Yes Uotila and Suominen (1976)
Soil, sand and gravelA prolific seed producer; seeds can remain viable in the soil for many years Yes Yes Holm et al. (1997)

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Positive

Impact

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Chenopodiastrum murale is a widespread noxious weed infesting more than 25 crop species (mainly field crops) and tree orchards in at least 57 countries around the world (Holm et al., 1997). These include carrots in Egypt, cereals and vegetables in Italy, cotton in Mexico, dates in Arabia, flax and safflower in Mexico, lucerne in Canada and USA, millets in India, orchards and vines in South Africa, sugarcane in Iran, wheat in several different parts of the world. It causes considerable yield losses, especially in vegetables, through both competition and allelopathy.

This species has a high phenotypic plasticity and is found under different climatic conditions including temperate and cool climates. It harbours economically important insects and serves as a host for many fungal and viral diseases and for some plant parasitic nematodes. This increases the negative impact of this weed on different crops. It is regarded as a nutrient accumulator (Qasem, 1992), strongly competing with other species under various conditions (Qasem, 1997).

It is highly competitive in wheat (Singh, 1973) and exerts its effect through both competition and allelopathy. A density of 248 plants/m² of C. murale (and C. album) caused 16% loss of wheat yield in Pakistan (Holm et al., 1997).

In garlic, when C. murale was a dominant weed species occurring at a density of 50 plants/m², bulb yield reduction reached 78% (Qasem, 1996). In tomato, a pot experiment with two C. murale and one tomato plant/pot resulted in a 33% reduction in tomato shoot dry weight compared with the control (weed-free tomato) (Qasem, 1997).

Extracts of C. murale show pesticidal properties and affected a wide range of living organisms. They have antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum and Alternaria solani (Qasem and Abu-Blan, 1995); nematicidal effects on Melodogyne incognita; antiviral activity against tobacco mosaic tobamovirus and sunn-hemp mosaic tobamovirus and induced resistance to these viruses in tobacco and Crotalaria juncea (Neeta and Verna, 1995). The extracts of this weed inhibited tobacco mosaic tobamovirus and cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (Allam et al., 1978). Herbicidal activity of this species has also been reported against Cuscuta campestris (Habib and Rahman, 1988), mustard (Brassica juncea) seeds (Datta and Ghosh, 1987) and some weed species (Saeed et al., 1977). However, the negative impact of its allelopathic influence is mainly due to the harmful effect that the weed imposes on different crop species including wheat, barley and a number of vegetable crops through extracts, leachates and/or its residues in the soil (Qasem, 1993a, b, 1995), and also on Abutilon indicum and Evolvulus numularius (Datta and Ghosh, 1987). Allelopathic agents were also detected in the pericarp and perianth associated with seeds of this species (Qasem, 1990).

Economic Impact

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Chenopodiastrum murale is a widespread agricultural weed that affects more than 35 crop species (mainly field crops) and tree orchards in at least 57 countries around the world (Holm et al., 1997; Villaseñor and Espinosa, 1998). These include carrots in Egypt, cereals and vegetables in Italy, cotton in Mexico, dates in Arabia, flax and safflower in Mexico, lucerne in Canada and the USA, millets in India, orchards and vines in South Africa, sugarcane in Iran, and wheat in several different parts of the world. It causes considerable yield losses, especially in vegetables, through both competition and allelopathy.

Chenopodiastrum murale is a nutrient accumulator (Qasem, 1992), strongly competing with other species under various conditions (Qasem, 1997). For example, it is highly competitive in wheat (Singh, 1973); a density of 248 plants/m² of C. murale (and C. album) caused 16% loss of wheat yield in Pakistan (Holm et al., 1997). In garlic, when C. murale was a dominant weed species occurring at a density of 50 plants/m², bulb yield reduction reached 78% (Qasem, 1996). In tomato, a pot experiment with two C. murale and one tomato plant/pot resulted in a 33% reduction in tomato shoot dry weight compared with the control (weed-free tomato) (Qasem, 1997).

Chenopodiastrum murale also exerts allelopathic effects on neighbouring species. Soil collected from the rhizosphere of this plant had a strong inhibitory effect on the emergence and growth of seedlings of economically important species such as wheat, tomato, cucumber and Egyptian clover (El-Khatib et al., 2004). The root exudate was also shown to inhibit growth and induce oxidative stress in collard greens (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala [Brassica oleracea var. viridis]) (Mitić et al., 2015). Allelopathic agents have also been detected in the pericarp and perianth associated with seeds of C. murale (Qasem, 1990).

Chenopodiastrum murale harbours economically important insects and serves as a host for many fungal and viral diseases which increases its negative impact on different crops.

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

Chenopodiastrum murale is a species of disturbed habitats usually found in association with other weeds, but can also exert a negative impact on native plants through both competition and allelopathy. It releases toxic allelochemicals through the root and other parts of the plants which can inhibit the growth of other species (El-Khatib et al., 2004; Mitić et al., 2015). It has been cited among the competitive weeds threatening the endangered Sesbania tomentosa and Scaevola coriacea in Hawaii (USA) (US Fish and Wildlife Service, 2010a, b).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Scaevola coriacea (dwarf naupaka)NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition (unspecified)US Fish and Wildlife Service (2010a)
Sesbania tomentosaNational list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiCompetition - monopolizing resourcesUS Fish and Wildlife Service (2010b)

Social Impact

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Pollen of C. murale causes allergy (Paul, 2012).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Modification of nutrient regime
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Allelopathic
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition (unspecified)
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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Economic Value

Extracts of C. murale show pesticidal properties and affect a wide range of living organisms. They have antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Qasem and Abu-Blan, 1995); nematicidal effects on Steinernema feltiae, bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus carnosus and Escherichia coli (Al-Marby et al., 2016), and antiviral activity against Tobacco mosaic virus, Sunn-hemp mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus (Allam et al., 1978; Srivastava and Verma, 1995).

Herbicidal activity of extracts of this species has been reported against the weeds Cuscuta campestris (Habib and Rahman, 1988), Abutilon indicum and Evolvulus nummularius (Datta and Ghosh, 1987). This pesticidal and herbicide activity is due to the presence of phytotoxins which include terpenes, tannins and oxalic acid (Datta and Ghosh, 1987).

Social Benefit

The social value of C. murale is very limited. It is sometimes eaten in Africa and Asia as a vegetable and the seeds used as cereal (Jansen, 2004; Paul, 2012). The plant is said to be good forage although in Australia poisoning of livestock has been reported (Jansen, 2004). The crushed leaves are used in Ethiopia as a topical remedy to treat tetanus and vitiligo (Araya et al., 2015).

Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of cyanogenic glycosides, saponins, tannins and naphthoquinones, alkaloids, flavonoids (Verma and Agarwal, 1985) and oxalic acid (Datta and Ghosh, 1987). The presence of many toxic compounds in this plant greatly restricts its value as a feed or fodder species. In contrast, there is good potential for this weed to be used as a source of natural chemical compounds with pesticidal and antimicrobial activity, and for use in medicine. The aqueous methanolic extract exhibited hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol-induced liver damage in mice (Saleem et al., 2014).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Forage

Environmental

  • Host of pest

Human food and beverage

  • Cereal
  • Emergency (famine) food
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Pesticide

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Chenopodiastrum murale resembles the cosmopolitan Chenopodium album (‘fat hen’), but can be distinguished by the rhombic-ovate leaves with more or less numerous jagged teeth, clearly cymose inflorescences, and the sharply keeled seeds with the testa surface closely pitted (Brenan, 1988; Jansen, 2004). Chenopodium ambrosioides [Dysphania ambrosioides], another widely distributed Chenopodium, differs in being highly aromatic when crushed.

Chenopodiastrum murale is sister to Chenopodiastrum coronopus, but this species is restricted to the Macaronesian islands (Fuentes-Bazan et al., 2012; Uotila, 2017).

Chenopodiastrum fasciculosum, the East African and Arabian relative of C. murale can be distinguished by its seeds with obtuse margins and irregularly sinuous pits (Al-Turki and Ghafoor, 1996).

Ivens (1967) provides a useful table indicating the differences among East African species of Chenopodium.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

Cultural control methods depend on the crop species and the growing system adopted. Among these is hand weeding. Where this method is used, it should be carried out during early growth stages before the weed starts flowering and seeding.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Hand weeding is widely practised in fruit tree and vegetable crop cultivation where labour costs are reasonable. Sometimes herbicide application may be necessary in combination with hand weeding. Hoeing is an alternative mechanical method of weed control, but it is more effective when accompanied by herbicides. Hoeing twice with pendimethalin was recommended for weed control in fenugreek (Maliwal and Gupta, 1989).

Effective control of C. murale and other weed species in onion and tomato crops was also achieved by soil solarization (Satour et al., 1991).

Biological Control

The common house sparrow (Passer domesticus) feeds on seeds of C. murale. In India, an adult male consumes an average of 8.6 g of seeds per day, and thus this species might contribute to the control of this weed by reducing the seed reservoir (Sharma, 1977).

Chemical Control

Different herbicides have been recommended for the effective control of C. murale in different crop species, for example, fluchloralin in chickpea (incorporated pre-sowing), onion (post-emergence), radish, potato (pre-planting), fenugreek and Cucumis (incorporated immediately after sowing). Other herbicides are also effective and selective in different crop species including oxadiazon and fluorodifen applied post-emergence in onion; bromoxynil and oxyfluorfen as a pre-emergence application were also highly effective in this crop (Porwal and Singh, 1993Farag and Koriem, 1995); and pendimethalin, which ensured the greatest yield of onion (Iqbal et al., 1990). In garlic, Qasem (1996) reported that post-emergence application of oxyfluorfen and oxadiazon at the 3- to 4-leaf stage controlled weeds effectively and resulted in garlic yields comparable with a weed-free crop. Pendimethalin in pre-emergence treatment, was the best for weed control in fenugreek and gave the highest crude protein content in grains (Maliwal and Gupta, 1988).

In potato, different herbicides have been recommended including methabenzthiazuron which was highly effective and gave the highest benefit cost value (Randhawa and Sandhu, 1981Maliwal and Jain, 1991), trifluralin, metribuzin (pre-emergence) and dinitramine (Ahmed et al., 1988) were also useful. For weed control in transplanted tomato, Trabulsi and Abu-Hayja (1982) reported metobromuron, diphenamid and dinitramine as effective herbicides against C. murale. They found that diphenamid was the most promising for its control and tomato yield. For radish weeds, nitrofen was effective (Gambhir et al., 1983), while in sugarbeet, cycloate may be used. Pendimethalin is used prior to sowing in cotton (Nielsen, 1974), and terbutryn is used in cumin (Chaudhary and Gupta, 1991).

For effective and selective control of C. murale in wheat, triasulfuron is highly recommended (Biljon et al., 1988). In addition, bentazone + dichlorprop, bromoxynil + MCPA (Tag-El-Din et al., 1989) or a mixture of isoproturon and 2,4-D ester have been used (Bhan et al., 1985). Chlorotoluron applied at the 4- to 5-leaf stage resulted in 90% weed control and increased yield by 29-71% (Subhan-I and Khan, 1991).

References

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Abdelhakim, H., 2019. Ecological study for groups of citrus weeds in the Skikda region, Algeria. Journal of Research in Weed Science, 2(3), 216-223. doi: 10.26655/JRWEEDSCI.2019.2.3.4

Abuereish, G.M., Lahham, J.N., 1987. Selenium in soils and plants of the Jordan Valley. Journal of Arid Environments, 12(1):1-7.

Acebes Ginovés, J.R., León Arencibia, M.C., Rodríguez Navarro, M.L., Arco Aguilar, M. del, García Gallo, A., Pérez de Paz, P.L., Rodríguez Delgado, O., Martín Osorio, V.E., Wildpret de la Torre, W., 2010. Spermatophyta. In: Lista de especies silvestres de Canarias. Hongos, plantas y animales terrestres. 2009 [ed. by Arechavaleta, M., Rodríguez, S., Zurita, N., García, A.]. Gobierno de Canarias. 122-172.

Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M.T., 2012. Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1-1192.

Agamalian, H.S., 1988. Weed control in crucifer crops with nitrogen fertilizers. California Agriculture, 42(6):16-17

Aheer, G.M., Akbar, S., Chaudhri, W.M., 1997. New species of the genera Cheletomorpha and Ker (Acarina: Cheyletidae) from Pakistan. Acarologia, 38(2):117-121.

Ahmed, S.A., Ali, A.W.M., Salman, A.M., 1988. Effect of weed control on the diversity and abundance of insects in potatoes. Acta Horticulturae, (220):417-424.

Allam, E.K., Morsy, A.A., Ali, M.D.H., Abo-El-Ghar, A.I., 1978. Inhibitors from some higher plants inhibiting TMV and CMV infection. Egyptian Journal of Phytopathology, 10(1):9-20.

Al-Marby, A., Ejike, C.E., Nasim, M.J., Awadh-Ali, N.A., Al-Badani, R.A., Alghamdi, G.M., Jacob, C., 2016. Nematicidal and antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of 17 plants of importance in ethnopharmacology obtained from the Arabian Peninsula. Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology, 5(2):114-121.

Al-Oudat, M., Qadir, M., 2011. The halophytic flora of Syria. Aleppo, Syria: International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA). 186 pp.

Al-Turki, T.A., Ghafoor, A., 1996. The genus Chenopodium L. in Saudi Arabia. Feddes Repertorium, 107(3/4):189-208.

Amerson, A.B., Shelton, P.C., 1976. The natural history of Johnston Atoll. In: Atoll Research Bulletin No. 192. Washington, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 479 pp.

Anaya, A.L., Ramos, L., Cruz, R., Hernandez, J.G., Nava, V., 1987. Perspectives on allelopathy in Mexican traditional agroecosystems: a case study in Tlaxcala. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 13(11):2083-2101. DOI: 10.1007/BF01012873

Aragón, L., Gutiérrez, W., 1992. Downy mildew on four Chenopodium species. (El mildiu en cuatro especies de Chenopodium). Fitopatologia, 27(2):104-109.

Araya, S., Abera, B., Giday, M., 2015. Study of plants traditionally used in public and animal health management in Seharti Samre District, Southern Tigray, Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 11(22):1-25. http://www.ethnobiomed.com/content/11/1/22

Arif, M.I., Rafiq, M., Ghaffar, A., 2009. Host plants of cotton mealybug (Phenacoccus solenopsis): a new menace to cotton agroecosystem of Punjab, Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 11(2):163-167. http://www.fspublishers.org/

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER)http://www.hear.org/pier/species/chenopodium_murale.htm
US National Plant Germplasm Systemhttps://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomydetail?id=466031

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