Chenopodium murale (nettleleaf goosefoot)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Threatened Species
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Chenopodium murale L.
Preferred Common Name
- nettleleaf goosefoot
Other Scientific Names
- Chenopodiastrum murale (L.) S. Fuentes, Uotila & Borsch
- Chenopodium lucidum Gilib.
- Chenopodium triangulare Forssk.
International Common Names
- English: nettle-leaved goosefoot
- Spanish: cenizo; chenopodio des murs; chual; quelite cenizo
- French: ansérine des murs; chénopode des murs
- Arabic: abu-efein; mentab; muntinab; rumram; sentar; zurbaih
- Portuguese: pe-de-ganso
Local Common Names
- Germany: Mauer- Gaensefuss
- Italy: chenopodio dei muri
- Netherlands: Muurganzevoet
- Sweden: gattmaalla
- CHEMU (Chenopodium murale)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Caryophyllales
- Family: Chenopodiaceae
- Genus: Chenopodium
- Species: Chenopodium murale
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Anatomical characters (cortex, pericycle, nature of abnormal secondary thickening in vascular cylinder and interxyllary phloem, leaf mesophyll, number of vascular bundles at the mid-rib region and foliar trichome types), foliage, floral, morphological and phenological aspects (habit, aroma, stem position, leaf base, blade shape, structure and density of inflorescence, ovarian shape, number of length of stigmatic arms, ovule position within ovary, pericarp surface, seed colour and diameter and embryo shape) are of considerable diagnostic use in identification (Ahmad and Safa, 1995a, 1995b).
The chromosome number (2n = 18).
DescriptionTop of page
DistributionTop of page
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 09 Jun 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Congo, Republic of the||Present|
|South Africa||Present, Widespread|
|Saudi Arabia||Present, Widespread|
|United Arab Emirates||Present, Widespread|
|Spain||Present, Widespread||Original citation: Rivas (1978)|
|-Canary Islands||Present, Widespread|
|United States||Present, Widespread|
|-New South Wales||Present|
HabitatTop of page
Habitat ListTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Biology and EcologyTop of page
It is a nutrient accumulator, and better at accumulating N, P, K and Mg than associated vegetable crops and many other weed species it co-exists with under field conditions (Qasem, 1992). It is a comparatively better accumulator of N and P than fenugreek (Maliwal and Gupta, 1988) and has been reported to accumulate appreciable levels of Se (selenium) (Abuereish and Lahham, 1987).
The weed exhibits severe growth reduction in response to intraspecific competition, and is better at competing in the spring than in the summer. It was superior in growth when it emerged at the same time or before tomato, and reduced K level in the soil decreased its competitive effect (Qasem, 1997).
Some further information is provided by Holm et al. (1997), including the observation that seeds have been found viable after 132 years.
Natural enemiesTop of page
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
ImpactTop of page
This species has a high phenotypic plasticity and is found under different climatic conditions including temperate and cool climates. It harbours economically important insects and serves as a host for many fungal and viral diseases and for some plant parasitic nematodes. This increases the negative impact of this weed on different crops. It is regarded as a nutrient accumulator (Qasem, 1992), strongly competing with other species under various conditions (Qasem, 1997).
It is highly competitive in wheat (Singh, 1973) and exerts its effect through both competition and allelopathy. A density of 248 plants/m² of C. murale (and C. album) caused 16% loss of wheat yield in Pakistan (Holm et al., 1997).
In garlic, when C. murale was a dominant weed species occurring at a density of 50 plants/m², bulb yield reduction reached 78% (Qasem, 1996). In tomato, a pot experiment with two C. murale and one tomato plant/pot resulted in a 33% reduction in tomato shoot dry weight compared with the control (weed-free tomato) (Qasem, 1997).
Extracts of C. murale show pesticidal properties and affected a wide range of living organisms. They have antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum and Alternaria solani (Qasem and Abu-Blan, 1995); nematicidal effects on Melodogyne incognita; antiviral activity against tobacco mosaic tobamovirus and sunn-hemp mosaic tobamovirus and induced resistance to these viruses in tobacco and Crotalaria juncea (Neeta and Verna, 1995). The extracts of this weed inhibited tobacco mosaic tobamovirus and cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (Allam et al., 1978). Herbicidal activity of this species has also been reported against Cuscuta campestris (Habib and Rahman, 1988), mustard (Brassica juncea) seeds (Datta and Ghosh, 1987) and some weed species (Saeed et al., 1977). However, the negative impact of its allelopathic influence is mainly due to the harmful effect that the weed imposes on different crop species including wheat, barley and a number of vegetable crops through extracts, leachates and/or its residues in the soil (Qasem, 1993a, b, 1995), and also on Abutilon indicum and Evolvulus numularius (Datta and Ghosh, 1987). Allelopathic agents were also detected in the pericarp and perianth associated with seeds of this species (Qasem, 1990).
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
|Threatened Species||Conservation Status||Where Threatened||Mechanism||References||Notes|
|Scaevola coriacea (dwarf naupaka)||NatureServe; USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||Competition (unspecified)||US Fish and Wildlife Service (2010a)|
|Sesbania tomentosa||National list(s); USA ESA listing as endangered species||Hawaii||Competition - monopolizing resources||US Fish and Wildlife Service (2010b)|
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Competition (unspecified)
UsesTop of page
Uses ListTop of page
- Host of pest
Human food and beverage
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Ivens (1968) provides a useful table indicating the differences among East African species.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Cultural control methods depend on crop species and the growing system adopted. Among these is hand weeding which is widely practised in fruit trees and vegetable crops especially where labour costs are reasonable. Where this method is used, it should be carried out during early growth stages before the weed starts flowering and seeding. Sometimes herbicide application may be necessary in combination with hand weeding. Hoeing is an alternative mechanical method of weed control, but more effective when accompanied by herbicides. Hoeing twice with pendimethalin was recommended for weed control in fenugreek (Maliwal and Gupta, 1989), while effective control of C. murale with other weed species in onion and tomato crops, was achieved by soil solarization (Satour et al., 1991).
Despite the long list of natural enemies which attack or are harboured by this weed (see Natural Enemies), only two have been tested for biological control. These were Indian ring dove (Streptopelia decaoto) and the common house sparrow (Paser domesticus). Both were found to feed on seeds of this weed species (Sharma, 1977; Tomar and Singh, 1980).
Different herbicides have been recommended for effective control of C. murale in different crop species, for example, fluchloralin in chickpea (incorporated pre-sowing), onion (post-emergence), radish, potato (pre-planting), fenugreek and Cucumis (incorporated immediately after sowing). However, other herbicides are also effective and selective in different crop species including oxadiazon and fluorodifen applied post-emergence in onion; bromoxynil and oxyfluorfen as a pre-emergence application were also highly effective in this crop (Porwal and Singh, 1993; Farag and Koriem, 1995); and pendimethalin, which ensured the greatest yield of onion (Iqbal et al., 1990). In garlic, Qasem (1996) reported that post-emergence application of oxyfluorfen and oxadiazon at 3-4 leaf stage controlled weeds effectively and resulted in garlic yields comparable with a weed free crop. Pendimethalin in pre-emergence treatment, was the best for weed control in fenugreek and gave the highest crude protein content in grains (Maliwal and Gupta, 1988).
In potato, different herbicides have been recommended including methabenzthiazuron which was highly effective and gave the highest benefit cost value (Randhaw and Sandhu, 1981; Maliwal and Jain, 1991), trifluralin, metribuzin (pre-emergence) and dinitramine (Ahmed et al., 1988) were also useful. For weed control in transplanted tomato, Trabulsi and Abu-Hayja (1982) reported metobromuron, diphenamid and dinitramine as effective herbicides against C. murale. They found that diphenamid was the most promising for weed control and tomato yield. For radish weeds, nitrofen were effective (Gambhir et al., 1983), while in sugarbeet, cycloate may be used. Pendimethalin is used prior to sowing in cotton (Nielsen, 1974), and terbutryn is used in cumin (Chaudhary and Gupta, 1991).
For effective and selective control of C. murale in wheat, triasulfuron is highly recommended (Biljon et al., 1988). In addition, bentazone + dichlorprop, bromoxynil + MCPA (Tag-El-Din et al., 1989) or a mixture of isoproturon and 2,4-D ester have been used (Bhan et al., 1985). Chlorotoluron applied at the 4-5 leaf stage resulted in 90% weed control and increased yield by 29-71% (Fazali and Muhammad, 1991).
ReferencesTop of page
Bhan VM, Yadav SK, Panwar RS, Singh SP, 1985. The influence of substituted urea herbicides alone and in combination with 2,4-D on the control of weeds in wheat. Beitrage zur Tropischen Landwirtschaft und Veterinarmedizin, 23(2):177-181
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Schratt-Ehrendorfer L, 2012. Occurrence of Chenopodium-taxa in Zillertal (Northern Tyrol, Austria). (Zu Vorkommen von Chenopodium-Sippen im Zillertal (Tirol, Österreich).). In: Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Österreich. 148/149 Wien, Austria: Zoologisch-Botanische Gesellschaft in Österreich. 133-136.
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Wells M J, Balsinhas A A, Joffe H, Engelbrecht V M, Harding G, Stirton C H, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in southern Africa incorporating the national weed list of South Africa. Memoirs, Botanical Survey of South Africa. v + 658pp.
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