Chrysopogon aciculatus (golden false beardgrass)
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IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin.
Preferred Common Name
- golden false beardgrass
Other Scientific Names
- Andropogon aciculata Retz.
- Rhaphis aciculatus (Retz.) Honda
International Common Names
- English: lovegrass
Local Common Names
- Malaysia: rumput jarum; temuchut
- Philippines: tinloi
- CYSAC (Chrysopogon aciculatus)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page C. aciculatus is a widespread grass with nuisance value but limited capacity for widespread invasion. It is listed as a noxious weed in Florida, USA (USDA-ARS, 2003).
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Monocotyledonae
- Order: Cyperales
- Family: Poaceae
- Genus: Chrysopogon
- Species: Chrysopogon aciculatus
DescriptionTop of page C. aciculatus is a rhizomatous or stoloniferous, spreading perennial. Culm often erect, 15-25 cm tall, geniculate, branching; always rooting at the nodes. Leaves 3-15 cm long, 2-6 mm wide (15 to 20 times as long as wide), linear, often hairy at mouth only. Ligule membranous and truncate. Inflorescence a panicle, 5-10 cm long, 2.5 cm wide, composed of several whorls of short reddish branches which gradually spread horizontally when ripe. Each branch bearing at its end a group of three spikelets. Branch axis jointed below the spikelet group. Spikelets ternate and similar: one sessile hermaphrodite aproximately 4 mm long with a hairy oblique callus; two pedicelled, male or neuter. Glumes: G1 2-4 mm long, 3- to 2-nerved; G2 2-4 mm long, 3-nerved with 1.5- to 2-mm-long awn. Lemmas: L1 2-3 mm long, hyaline; L2 hyaline, 1-nerved, awned, awn 2.5-8 mm long, straight. Caryopsis oblong, 2 mm long.
DistributionTop of page Häfliger and Scholz (1980) list Chrysopogon aciculatus as being present in Central and Western Africa, the Indian subcontinent, the South-East Asian subcontinent, China, Philippines, Indonesia, Australia and the Pacific Islands. It is native to South-East Asia, Australia and Fiji (USDA-ARS, 2003) and probably native elsewhere in the Pacific and an early introduction on other islands.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
HabitatTop of page C. aciculatus is a tropical grassland species. Lehmkuhl (1992) noted that it dominated grazed pasture based on a study in lowland Nepal. It occurs throughout the Philippines in open grasslands (Pancho and Obien, 1983). It is an exotic in Nigeria where it is well established as a lawn grass (Stanfield, 1970).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details|
|Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details|
|Disturbed areas||Present, no further details|
|Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details|
|Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page C. aciculatus is recorded as a weed species from tea fields in Assam, India (Barthakur et al., 1989), rubber plantations in Malaysia (Wycherley and Ahmad Azli bin Mohd, 1974) and from tobacco farms in the Philippines (Pancho and Obien, 1983).
Biology and EcologyTop of page In a study of vegetation dynamics, Mueller-Dombois (1981) recorded C. aciculatus from tropical grasslands with mediterranean seasonal rainfall on leeward Hawaii. Wycherley and Ahmad Azli bin Mohd (1974) describe it as prefering rather dry, open conditions although it can also persist in turf for a long time. It proliferates under heavy grazing regimes (Robertson and Humphrys, 1976; Partridge, 1986). Grasslands in Kalimantan, Indonesia, probably originated through shifting cultivation of forest land and subsequent burning. Cattle grazing on these grasslands resulted in the replacement of Imperata cylindrica by Axonopus compressus and C. aciculatus if sufficiently intensive (Seavoy, 1975).
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||seeds|
|Seedlings/Micropropagated plants||whole plants|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||seeds|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||None|
Threatened SpeciesTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Competition - monopolizing resources
- Produces spines, thorns or burrs
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
UsesTop of page C. aciculatus has been used for erosion control, lawns, forage and medicines (USDA-ARS, 2003).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Cultural Control
Mueller-Dumbois (1981) noted the reduction in this species during a study in Hawaii where the grassland was protected from grazing goats.
ReferencesTop of page
Bai CJ, 1994. Exploitation and utilization of wild sods. Pratacultural Science, 11(2):34-36.
Banerjee BC, 1985. On the occurrence of some grasses in Coorg district of Karnataka state. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany, 7(2):479-480.
Barnes DE, Chandapillai MM, 1975. Common Malaysian Weeds and their Control. Malaysia: Shah Alam, Ancom.
Bhandari BS, Mehta JP, Tiwari SC, 1998. Impact of grazing and burning on growth, reproductive performance and crude protein content of some forage grasses in a submontane grazingland of Garhwal Himalaya. Range Management and Agroforestry, 19(1):1-12.
Chandrasena JPNR, Perera DN, 1987. The allelopathic potential of torpedograss (Panicum repens L.). Proceedings, 11th Asian Pacific Weed Science Society Conference Taipei, Taiwan; Asian Pacific Weed Science Society, No. 2:581-592
Clayton WD, Renvoize SA, 1982. Gramineae (Part 3). In: Polhill RM, ed. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Rotterdam, Netherlands: Balkema.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Fosberg FR, Sachet M-H, Oliver R, 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae. Micronesia 20: 1-2, 19-129.
Holm L, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. Toronto, Canada: John Wiley and Sons Inc.
Häfliger E, Scholz H, 1980. Grass Weeds 1: Weeds of the subfamily Panicoideae. Basle, Switzerland: Documenta CIBA GEIGY.
Lehmkuhl JF, 1992. Above-ground production and response to defoliation on a native pasture in lowland Nepal. Tropical Grasslands, 26(2): 82-88.
Misra MK, Misra BN, 1981. Seasonal changes in leaf area index and chlorophyll in an Indian grassland. Journal of Ecology, 69(3):797-805.
Mueller-Dombois D, 1981. Vegetation dynamics in a coastal grassland of Hawaii. In: Poissonet P, et al., eds. Vegetation dynamics in grasslands, heathlands and mediterranean ligneous formations. Netherlands: Dr. W. Junk, 131-140.
Pancho JV, Obien SR, 1983. Manual of Weeds of Tobacco farms in the Philippines. Batac, Ilocos Norte, Philippines: Philippines Tobacco Research and Training Center, Mariano Marcos State University.
Partridge IJ, 1986. Effect of stocking rate and superphosphate level on an oversown fire climax grassland of mission grass (Pennisetum polystachyon) in Fiji. I. Botanical composition of pasture. Tropical Grasslands, 20(4):166-173; 12 ref.
Penafiel SR, 1988. Effects of three pasture plant extracts on germination of Benguet pine (Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon). Malaysian Forester 49(1-2):181-184.
Robertson AD, Humphreys LR, 1976. Effects of frequency of heavy grazing and of phosphorus supply on an Arundinaria ciliata association oversown with Stylosanthes humilis. Thai Journal of Agricultural Science, 9(3):181-188.
Seavoy RE, 1975. The origin of tropical grasslands in Kalimantan, Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Geography, 40:48-52.
Space JC, Flynn T, 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu, 51.
Space JC, Waterhouse BM, Miles JE, Tiobech J, Rengulbai K, 2003. Report to the Republic of Palau on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, USA: USDA Forest Service.
Stanfield DP, 1970. The Flora of Nigeria Grasses. Ibadan, Nigeria: Ibadan University Press.
Swarbrick JT, 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper No. 209. Noumea, New Caledonia: South Pacific Commission.
Sykes WR, 1970. Contributions to the flora of Niue. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin 200. p. 238.
USDA-ARS, 2003. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
Welsh SL, 1998. Flora Societensis: A summary revision of the flowering plants of the Society Islands. Orem, Utah, USA: E.P.S. Inc.
Whistler WA, 1988. Checklist of the weed flora of Western Polynesia. An annotated list of the weed species of Samoa, Tonga, Niue, and Wallis and Futuna, along with the earliest dates of collection and the local names. Technical Paper, South Pacific Commission, No. 194:69 pp.
Wycherley PR, Ahmad Azli bin Mohd Y, 1974. Grasses in Malayan Plantations. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia.
Yuncker TG, 1959. Plants of Tonga. B.P. Bishop Museum Bull., 220:165.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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