Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Cacao swollen shoot virus
(cacao swollen shoot)

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Datasheet

Cacao swollen shoot virus (cacao swollen shoot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Cacao swollen shoot virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cacao swollen shoot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "DNA and RNA reverse transcribing viruses"
  •     Family: Caulimoviridae
  •       Genus: Badnavirus
  •         Species: Cacao swollen shoot virus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Damage symptoms to leaves and stem. Stem swellings may develop at the nodes, internodes or shoot tips. Leaf symptoms include: yellow clearing along main veins; tiny pin-point flecks to larger spots; diffused flecking; blotches or streaks; and chlorotic vein flecking or banding.
TitleSymptoms on cocoa
CaptionDamage symptoms to leaves and stem. Stem swellings may develop at the nodes, internodes or shoot tips. Leaf symptoms include: yellow clearing along main veins; tiny pin-point flecks to larger spots; diffused flecking; blotches or streaks; and chlorotic vein flecking or banding.
Copyright©Nicola Spence/Horticulture Research International
Damage symptoms to leaves and stem. Stem swellings may develop at the nodes, internodes or shoot tips. Leaf symptoms include: yellow clearing along main veins; tiny pin-point flecks to larger spots; diffused flecking; blotches or streaks; and chlorotic vein flecking or banding.
Symptoms on cocoaDamage symptoms to leaves and stem. Stem swellings may develop at the nodes, internodes or shoot tips. Leaf symptoms include: yellow clearing along main veins; tiny pin-point flecks to larger spots; diffused flecking; blotches or streaks; and chlorotic vein flecking or banding.©Nicola Spence/Horticulture Research International
Cocoa swollen shoot badnavirus particles.

Reproduced with permission from Rothamsted Experimental Station.
http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
TitleVirus particles
CaptionCocoa swollen shoot badnavirus particles. Reproduced with permission from Rothamsted Experimental Station. http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
CopyrightIACR-Rothamsted
Cocoa swollen shoot badnavirus particles.

Reproduced with permission from Rothamsted Experimental Station.
http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/
Virus particlesCocoa swollen shoot badnavirus particles. Reproduced with permission from Rothamsted Experimental Station. http://www.res.bbsrc.ac.uk/cdm/plantpath/ IACR-Rothamsted

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Cacao swollen shoot virus

Preferred Common Name

  • cacao swollen shoot

Other Scientific Names

  • cacao swollen shoot badnavirus
  • cacao virus I
  • cocoa swollen shoot badnavirus
  • Theobroma virus I

International Common Names

  • English: swollen shoot of cacao
  • Spanish: retono hinchado del cacaotero
  • French: renflement des branches du cacaoyer

English acronym

  • CSSV

EPPO code

  • CSSV00 (Cacao swollen shoot badnavirus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "DNA and RNA reverse transcribing viruses"
  •         Family: Caulimoviridae
  •             Genus: Badnavirus
  •                 Species: Cacao swollen shoot virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Côte d'IvoirePresent, Widespread
GhanaPresent, Widespread
NigeriaPresent, Widespread
Sierra LeonePresent, Widespread
TogoPresent, Widespread

Asia

IndonesiaPresent, Localized
-SumatraPresent
Sri LankaPresent, Widespread

North America

Trinidad and TobagoAbsent, Formerly presentEarly record of mealybug-transmitted virus in Trinidad causing leaf symptoms similar to those of CSSV. Not reported recently.

South America

ColombiaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
VenezuelaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)

Growth Stages

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Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal patterns
Fruit / abnormal shape
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Roots / swollen roots
Stems / dieback
Stems / distortion

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Adomako D, Lesemann D-E, Paul HL, Owusu GK, 1983. Improved methods for the purification and detection of cocoa swollen shoot virus. Annals of Applied Biology, 103(1):109-116

Adu-Ampomah Y, Adamako B, Owusu GK, Ollenni LAA, 1999. Breeding for cocoa swollen shoot vitrus in Ghana. In: Bekele F, End M, Eskes A, eds. Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Contribution of Disease Resistance to Cocoa Variety Improvement. Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, 24-26 November, 1996, 173-179.

Adu-Ampomah Y, Owusu GK, Sackey S, Padi B, Abdul-Karimu A, 1996. Use of gamma rays to induce mutants resistant to cocoa swollen shoot disease in Theobroma cacao L. Plant Breeding, 115(1):74-76; 16 ref.

Alibert H, 1946. Note preliminaire sur une nouvelle maladie du Cacaoyer le "swollen shoot". Agronomie Tropicale, 1:34-43.

Attafuah A, 1957. Virus research; resistance and tolerance. Quarterly Report of the West African Cocoa Research Institute, 47:5-6.

Attafuah A, Blencowe JW, Brunt AA, 1963. Swollen shoot disease of cocoa in the Sierra Leone. Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad, 40:229-232.

Badaru K, Esan EB, Williams JA, 1999. A review of breeding work on disease resistance of cocoa in Nigeria. In: Bekele F, End M, Eskes A, eds. Proceedings of the International Workshop on the Contribution of Disease resistance to Cocoa Variety Improvement. Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, 24-26 November, 1996, 167-171.

Bigger M, 1972. Recent work on the mealybug vectors of cocoa swollen shoot disease in Ghana. Pest Articles and News Summary, 18:61-70.

Blencowe JW, Brunt AA, Kenten RH, Lovi NK, 1963. A new virus disease of cocoa in Sierra Leone. Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad, 40:233-236.

Brunt AA, 1970. Cacao swollen shoot virus. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No 10. Wellesbourne, UK: Association of Applied Biologists, 4 pp.

Brunt AA, 1975. The effects of cocoa swollen-shoot virus on the growth and yield of Amelonado and Amazon cocoa (Theobroma cacao) in Ghana. Annals of Applied Biology, 80(2):169-180

Brunt AA, Kenten RH, 1962. Mechanical transmission of cocoa mottle leaf virus and three distinct isolates of the cocoa swollen shoot virus. Virology, 16:199-201.

Brunt AA, Kenten RH, Nixon HL, 1964. Some properties of cocoa swollen-shoot virus. Journal of General Microbiology, 36:303-309.

CABI/EPPO, 2000. Cacao swollen shoot badnavirus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 799. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Carter W, 1956. Notes on some mealybugs (Coccidae) of economic importance in Ceylon. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 4:49-52.

Cilas, C., Muller, E., Mississo, E., 2005. Occurrence of Cacao swollen shoot virus in Litimé, the main cocoa-producing area of Togo. Plant Disease, 89(8), 913. doi: 10.1094/PD-89-0913B

Cornwell PB, 1958. Movement of vectors of virus diseases of cacao in Ghana: I. Canopy movement in and between trees. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 49:613-630.

Cornwell PB, 1960. Movements of the vectors of virus diseases of cacao in Ghana. II. Wind movements and aerial dispersal. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 51:175-201.

Cotterell GS, 1943. Entomology. Report of the Central Cocoa Research Station, Tafo, Gold Coast, 1938-1942, 46-55.

Dale WT, 1957. Studies on resistance and tolerance to cacao viruses. Proceedings of the Cacao Breeding Conference, West African Cocoa Research Institute, 1956, 3.

Dale WT, 1962. Diseases and pests of cocoa. Virus diseases. In: Wills JB, ed. Agriculture and Land Use in Ghana. London, UK: Oxford Univesity Press, 286-316.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Hagen LS, Jacquemond M, Lepingle A, Lot H, Tepfer M, 1993. Nucleotide sequence and genomic organization of cacao swollen shoot virus. Virology (New York), 196(2):619-628

Hale SL, 1953. World production and consumption - 1951 to 1953. Report and Proceedings of the 1953 London Cocoa Conference. London, UK: Cocoa, Chocolate and Confectionary Alliance, 3-11.

Hoffmann K, Sackey ST, Maiss E, Adomako D, Vetten HJ, 1997. Immunocapture polymerase chain reaction for the detection and characterization of cacao swollen shoot virus 1 A isolates. Journal of Phytopathology, 145(5/6):205-212; 38 ref.

Hoffmann K, Uhde C, Lesemann DE, Sackey ST, Adomako D, Vetten HJ, 1999. Production, characterization and application of monoclonal antibodies to the cacao swollen shoot virus isolate 1A. Journal of Phytopathology, 147(11-12):725-735; 42 ref.

Hughes Jd'A, Adomako D, Ollennu LAA, 1995. Evidence from the virobacterial agglutination test for the existence of eight serogroups of cocoa swollen shoot virus. Annals of Applied Biology, 127(2):297-307; 14 ref.

Hughes Jd'A, Ollennu LA, 1993. The virobacterial agglutination test as a rapid means of detecting cocoa swollen shoot virus. Annals of Applied Biology, 122(2):299-310

Hughes Jd'A, Ollennu LAA, 1994. Mild strain protection of cocoa in Ghana against cocoa swollen shoot virus - a review. Plant Pathology, 43(3):442-457

Jacquot E, Hagen LS, Michler P, Rohfritsch O, Stussi-Garaud C, Keller M, Jacquemond M, Yot P, 1999. In situ localization of cacao swollen shoot virus in agroinfected Theobroma cacao. Archives of Virology, 144(2):259-271; 37 ref.

Johns R, Gibberd AV, 1950. An assessment of swollen shoot disease in Nigeria. Proceedings of the Cocoa Conference, London. London, UK: Cocoa, Chocolate and Confectionary Alliance, 14-18.

Kenten RH, Woods RD, 1976. A virus of the cocoa swollen shoot group infecting cocoa in North Sumatra. PANS, 22(4):488-490

Legg JT, 1977. Cocoa swollen shoot disease - know your enemy. Proceedings of the Fifth International Cocoa Research Conference, Ibadan, Nigeria, 1975, 397-402.

Lockhart BEL, 1990. Evidence for a double-stranded circular DNA genome in a second group of plant viruses. Phytopathology, 80(2):127-131

Lockhart BEL, Olszewski NE, Loebenstein G (ed. ), Hammond J (ed.), Gera A (ed.), Derks AFLM (ed.), Zaayen A van, 1996. Schefflera ringspot virus, a widely distributed mealybug-transmitted badnavirus occurring in Schefflera and Aralia. Proceedings of the 9th international symposium on virus diseases of ornamental plants, Herzliya, Israel, 17-22 March 1996. Acta Horticulturae, No. 432:196-202.

Lot H, Djeikpor E, Jaquemond M, 1990. Characterization of the genome of cacao swollen shoot virus. Journal of General Virology, 72:1735-1739.

Muller E, 2008. Cacao swollen shoot virus. In: Characterization, diagnosis & management of plant viruses. Volume 1: industrial crops [ed. by Rao, G. P.\Khurana, S. M. P.\Lenardon, S. L.]. Houston, USA: Studium Press LLC, 423-444.

Muller E, Jacquot E, Yot P, 2001. Early detection of cacao swollen shoot virus using the polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Virological Methods, 93(1/2):15-22; 27 ref.

Muller, E., Ravel, S., Agret, C., Abrokwah, F., Dzahini-Obiatey, H., Galyuon, I., Kouakou, K., Jeyaseelan, E. C., Allainguillaume, J., Wetten, A., 2018. Next generation sequencing elucidates cacao Badnavirus diversity and reveals the existence of more than ten viral species., Virus Research, 244:235-251 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01681702

Murray DF, 1945. First progress report of the Nigeria cocoa survey April 1944 - March 1945. (Mimeographed)

Ollennu LA, 1989. Physical methods for the detection of swollen shoot virus. In: Manu M, Tetteh EK, eds. Proceedings Cocoa Swollen Shoot Workshop 25-26 July 1989. Tafo, Ghana: Coconut Research Institute of Ghana, 22-23.

Ollennu LA, Owusu GK, 1989. Isolation and study of mild strains of cocoa swollen shoot virus for possible cross-protection. Proceedings of the IV International Plant Virus Epidemiology Workshop, Montpellier, France, 1989, 119-122.

Ollennu LAA, Hughes Jd'A, Owusu GK, 1996. Mild strain cross-protection of cocoa against cocoa swollen shoot badnavirus. Tropical Science, 36(2):116-128; 28 ref.

Ollennu LAA, Owusu GK, Thresh JM, 1989. The control of cocoa swollen shoot disease in Ghana. Cocoa Growers' Bulletin, No. 42:25-35

Partiot M, Amefia YK, Djiekpor EK, Bakar KA, 1978. Le 'swollen shoot' du cacaoyer au Togo: inventaire preliminaire at premiFre estimation des pertes causTes par la maladie. Cafe, Cacao, The, 23:217-222.

Peiris JWL, 1953. A virus disease of cacao in Ceylon. Tropical Agriculturist, 109:135-138.

Phillips MP, 1962. Production in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Report and Proceedings of the 1961 London Cocoa Conference. London, UK: Cocoa, Chocolate and Confectionary Alliance, 178-179.

Posnette AF, 1940. Transmission of "swollen shoot" disease of cacao. Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad, 17:98.

POSNETTE AF, 1941. Swollen-shoot Virus Disease of Cacao. (Review of Research Work to November 1940.). Tropical Agriculture, 18(5):87-90 pp.

Posnette AF, 1943. The diagnosis of swollen shoot disease of cacao. Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad, 21:156-158.

Posnette AF, 1947. Virus diseases of cacao in West Africa. I. Cacao viruses 1A, 1B, 1C and 1D. Annals of Applied Biology, 34:388-402.

Posnette AF, 1948. Virus research. Report of the West African Cocoa Research Institute 1947-1948. Tafo, Ghana: West African Cocoa Research Institute, 11.

Posnette AF, 1950. Virus diseases of cacao in West Africa. VII. Virus transmission by different vector species. Annals of Applied Biology, 37:378-384

Posnette AF, 1951. Virus research at the West African Cacao Research Institute, Tafo, Gold Coast. Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad, 28:133-142.

Posnette AF, Strickland AH, 1948. Virus diseases of cacao in West Africa. III. Technique of insect transmission. Annals of Applied Biology, 35:53-63.

POSNETTE AF, TODD JM, 1955. Virus diseases of cacao in West Africa. IX. Strain variation and interference in virus 1A. Annals of Applied Biology, 43:433-53.

Renaud R, 1957. Distribution of virus disease of cocoa in the Ivory Coast. Proceedings of the Cocoa Conference, London. London, UK: Cocoa, Chocolate and Confectionary Alliance, 78-80.

Sagemann W, Paul HL, Adomako D, Owusu GK, 1983. The use of enzyme-linked immunsorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of cocoa swollen shoot virus (CSSV). Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 114:78-89.

Steven WF, 1936. A new disease of cocoa in the Gold Coast. Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad, 14:84.

Strickland AH, 1950. The dispersal of Pseudococcidae (Hemiptera-Homoptera) by air currents in the Gold Coast. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society, London, 25:1-9.

THRESH JM, 1960. Quarantine arrangements for intercepting cocoa material infected with West African viruses. Plant Protection Bulletin, F.A.O, 8:89-92.

Thresh JM, Owusu GK, Boamah A, Lockwood G, 1988. Ghanaian cocoa varieties and swollen shoot virus. Crop Protection, 7:219-231.

Thresh JM, Owusu GLK, Ollennu LAA, 1988. Cocoa swollen shoot: an archetypal crowd disease. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 95(4):428-446.

Turner PD, 1972. Diseases of oil palm and cocoa in North Sumatra. Doc. 17 UNDP/FAO Project INS/72/004.

Wooley RS, Cheng Kao C, 2004. Brome mosaic virus. AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses, No. 405., UK: Association of Applied Biologists. http://www.dpvweb.net/dpv/showdpv.php?dpvno=405

Distribution References

Alibert H, 1946. [English title not available]. (Note preliminaire sur une nouvelle maladie du Cacaoyer le "swollen shoot".). Agronomie Tropicale. 34-43.

ATTAFUAH A , BLENCOWE J W , BRUNT A A, 1963. Swollen-shoot disease of cocoa in Sierra Leone. Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad and Tobago. 40 (3), 229-232 pp.

BLENCOWE J W , BRUNT A A , KENTEN R H , LOVI N K, 1963. A new virus disease of Cocoa in Sierra Leone. Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad and Tobago. 40 (3), 233-236 pp.

CABI, EPPO, 2000. Cacao swollen shoot badnavirus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 799. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20066500799

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Carter Walter, 1956. Notes on some Mealybugs (Coccidae) of economic Importance in Ceylon. Plant Protection Bulletin, F.A.O. 4 (4), 49-52 pp.

Cilas C, Muller E, Mississo E, 2005. Occurrence of Cacao swollen shoot virus in Litimé, the main cocoa-producing area of Togo. Plant Disease. 89 (8), 913. DOI:10.1094/PD-89-0913B

Dale WT, 1962. Diseases and pests of cocoa. Virus diseases. In: Agriculture and Land Use in Ghana, [ed. by Wills JB]. London, UK: Oxford Univesity Press. 286-316.

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Johns R, Gibberd A V, 1950. An assessment of swollen shoot disease in Nigeria. In: Proceedings of the Cocoa Conference. [Proceedings of the Cocoa Conference.], London, UK: Cocoa, Chocolate and Confectionary Alliance. 14-18.

Kenten R H, Woods R D, 1976. A virus of the cocoa swollen shoot group infecting cocoa in North Sumatra. PANS. 22 (4), 488-490.

Partiot M, Amefia YK, Djiekpor EK, Bakar KA, 1978. (Le 'swollen shoot' du cacaoyer au Togo: inventaire preliminaire at premiFre estimation des pertes causTes par la maladie). In: Cafe, Cacao, The, 23 217-222.

PEIRIS J W L, 1953. A virus disease of Cacao in Ceylon. Tropical Agriculturist. 109 (2), 135-138 pp.

POSNETTE A F, 1947. Virus Diseases of Cacao in West Africa. I. Cacao Viruses 1A, 1B, 1C and 1D. Annals of Applied Biology. 34 (3), 388-402 pp. DOI:10.1111/j.1744-7348.1947.tb06372.x

Renaud R, 1957. Distribution of virus disease of cocoa in the Ivory Coast. [Proceedings of the Cocoa Conference], London, UK: Cocoa, Chocolate and Confectionary Alliance. 78-80.

Steven W F, 1936. A new disease of cocoa in the Gold Coast. Tropical Agriculture, Trinidad. 84.

Turner PD, 1972. Diseases of oil palm and cocoa in North Sumatra. Doc. 17 UNDP/FAO Project INS/72/004.,

Distribution Maps

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