Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Ceratitis rosa
(Natal fruit fly)

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Datasheet

Ceratitis rosa (Natal fruit fly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ceratitis rosa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Natal fruit fly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. rosa is a polyphagous African species. Its known distribution is mainly southern and eastern Africa. It is considered to be a major pest of a number of commercial fruits, including fruits that are grown in subtropical or more temperate...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleAdult
Caption
Copyright©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin
Adult©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ceratitis rosa Karsch

Preferred Common Name

  • Natal fruit fly

Other Scientific Names

  • Pterandrus rosa (Karsch)

International Common Names

  • Spanish: mosca de la fruta de Natal
  • French: mouche des fruits de Natal

EPPO code

  • CERTRO (Ceratitis rosa)

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. rosa is a polyphagous African species. Its known distribution is mainly southern and eastern Africa. It is considered to be a major pest of a number of commercial fruits, including fruits that are grown in subtropical or more temperate environments (but see remark under host plants). It has similar environmental requirements to Ceratitis capitata except that it can withstand less dry conditions. It should be considered as a potential invasive species in other parts of Africa, outside its current range, and in other parts of the world (Tanga et al., 2018). The most likely pathway of dispersal and introduction is as larvae in infested fruits with commercial shipments or in the luggage of travellers. C. rosa is of quarantine significance for EPPO, JUNAC and OIRSA.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Tephritidae
  •                             Genus: Ceratitis
  •                                 Species: Ceratitis rosa

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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C. rosa belongs to subgenus Pterandrus and may alternatively be cited as Ceratitis (Pterandrus) rosa Karsch. Earlier this species comprised fasciventris, but De Meyer (2001) considered both taxa as separate species.

C. rosa belongs to a species complex (Barr et al., 2006), referred to as the FAR complex and comprising Ceratitis fasciventris, Ceratitis anonae and C. rosa. Male specimens can be readily differentiated by sexual secondary characters of the legs (De Meyer and Freidberg, 2006), but females are difficult to differentiate. Molecular separation based on DNA barcodes remains difficult or impossible (Barr et al., 2006). Recent research using microsatellite polymorphism indicated the existence of five entities (Virgilio et al., 2013). An integrative approach provided evidence that the two entities, formerly under C. rosa, actually consist of two different biological species (De Meyer et al., 2015). The second entity was formerly described as C.quilicii (see De Meyer et al., 2016). Most information regarding C. rosa in the literature prior to 2016 can, therefore, refer to either or both of these two species.

Description

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C. rosa, like other Ceratitis spp., has banded wings, and a swollen scutellum which is marked yellow and black. The pattern of grey flecks in the basal wing cells distinguishes Ceratitis spp. from most other genera of tephritids.

Larvae

The larvae of C. rosa have been illustrated by Orian and Moutia (1960). The third-instar larvae have been described in detail and illustrated by Carroll (1998)Steck and Ekesi (2015) review the consistency of larval characters used to differentiate C. rosa from other species within the FAR complex and from C. capitata

Adults (after De Meyer and Freidberg, 2006 and De Meyer et al., 2016)

Male head: antenna yellow. First flagellomere two to three times as long as pedicel. Arista with short to moderately long rays; ventral rays shorter and sparser than dorsal rays, especially basally. Frons yellow; with short scattered setulae distinctly darker than frons. Frontal setae well-developed. Face yellowish-white. Genal seta and setulae dark, well-developed.

Thorax: postpronotal lobe yellowish-white, without spot, although sometimes darker yellow around postpronotal seta. Scutal pattern: ground colour greyish-brown with orange tinge; with streaks and darker markings but without distinct spots except prescutellar white markings separate, usually with paler area in between. Scapular setae dark. Scutellum yellowish-white, basally usually with two separate dark spots, sometimes less distinct; apically with three separate black spots, extending to basal 0.33. Anepisternum on ventral half darker yellowish-brown; setulae pale.

Legs: yellow except where otherwise noted; setation mainly pale. Foreleg: femur without bushy feathering posteriorly, only dispersed rows of long black setulae posterodorsally, posteroventrally shorter and pale; ventral setae black. Midleg: femur with few dispersed pale setulae ventrally; tibia moderately broadened; anteriorly black with conspicuous silvery shine when viewed from certain angle on distal 0.66 to 0.75 (black colour sometimes inconspicuous in teneral specimens but silvery shine is always present) and reaching ventral and dorsal margins of tibia throughout the full length; with black feathering dorsally along distal 0.75 and ventrally along distal 0.66, occasionally to distal 0.75. Hindleg: femur at apical 0.25 with longer setulae dorsally and ventrally.

Wing: bands yellowish-brown. Interruption between marginal and discal bands near vein R1 clear and complete; cubital band free; medial band absent; crossvein R-M opposite middle of discal cell. Apex of vein R1 distal to level of crossvein R-M. Crossvein DM-Cu oblique anterobasally.

Abdomen: mostly yellow. Tergites 2 and 4 with pale-grey band on posterior half, anterior margin sometimes with narrowly brownish colour, especially laterally. Tergite 3 with posterior half patchily brownish colour, anterior half yellowish-brown, both parts not clearly demarcated; sometimes more complete brown. Tergite 5 with basal half brownish, sometimes divided medially into two spots.

Female: as the male except as follows: first flagellomere yellowish-orange. Crossvein DM-Cu oblique posterobasally. Anepisternum on ventral part rarely with darker setulae. Legs without feathering; forefemur posteroventrally with pale pilosity, at least in basal part, distally sometimes dark setulae. Oviscape shorter than preabdomen. Aculeus at most six times longer than wide; tip with distinct apical indentation and lateral margin slightly sinuous.

Body length: 4.96 (4.25-5.30) mm; wing length: 5.34 (4.50-5.75) mm

Distribution

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C. rosa s.s. is restricted to eastern and southern Africa. Records of C. rosa from central, western or southwestern Africa, refer to Ceratitis fasciventris. Both species have a largely allopatric distribution (De Meyer and Freidberg, 2006). The northernmost limit observed so far is in the coastal areas of Kenya. The records from Ethiopia, therefore, seem unreliable because all specimens studied by the author from Ethiopia belong to C. fasciventris. However, because the actual specimens on which these records are based could not be observed, and the proximity of Ethiopia to Kenya, these are currently considered as unreliable records that need confirmation. Records of C. rosa from southernmost part of South Africa and from the Mascarene Islands Mauritius and Réunion, refer to C. quilicii. For further discussion of the distribution of C. rosa, refer to De Meyer et al. (2015). See also UK CAB International (1985) and Smith et al. (1997b).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Probably confusion with Ceratitis fasciventris
CameroonAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
Congo, Democratic Republic of theAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Probably confusion with Ceratitis fasciventris
EswatiniAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
EthiopiaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
GhanaPresent
GuineaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Probably confusion with Ceratitis fasciventris
KenyaPresent, LocalizedNativeOriginally restricted to coastal region. Central Highlands records probably due to confusion with Ceratitis quilicii.
LesothoPresentNativeNot confirmed; possible confusion with Ceratitis quilicii; Original citation: De and Meyer Freidberg (2006)
MalawiPresent, WidespreadNative
MaliAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Probably confusion with Ceratitis fasciventris
MauritiusAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Probably confusion with Ceratitis quilicii.
MozambiquePresent, WidespreadNative
NigeriaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Probably confusion with Ceratitis fasciventris
RéunionAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Probably confusion with Ceratitis quilicii.
RwandaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Probably confusion with Ceratitis fasciventris
SeychellesAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
South AfricaPresent, LocalizedNativeSee De Meyer et al. (2015) for distribution map in South Africa.
TanzaniaPresentNative
-Zanzibar IslandPresentNative
UgandaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)Probably confusion with Ceratitis fasciventris
ZambiaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
ZimbabweAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)So far, there are no records of C. rosa from Zimbabwe, only C. quilicii.

Asia

SyriaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)

Europe

BelgiumAbsent
NetherlandsAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
SloveniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey

Oceania

New ZealandAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey

History of Introduction and Spread

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C. rosa is a species restricted to the African mainland.

Historical records of introduction to the Mascarene Islands in the Indian Ocean (White et al., 2000), Mauritius and La Réunion, and to the Central Highlands of Kenya (Copeland and Wharton, 2006), actually refer to C. quilicii (see De Meyer et al., 2015).

Risk of Introduction

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C. rosa is of quarantine significance for EPPO, JUNAC and OIRSA. This has to be reviewed in view of the confusion with C. quilicii. Based on risk prediction by Tanga et al. (2018)C. rosa has the potential to become established in different tropical and subtropical areas of Africa, Latin America and Asia.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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C. rosa is a polyphagous species. The list of known host plants for C. rosa as given by De Meyer et al. (2002) and at http://projects.bebif.be/fruitfly/index.html is based on records of C. rosa s.l. and thus can refer to either C. rosa, C. quilicii, or both. Detailed analysis, based on rearing experiments, is required to establish the exact host range of C. rosa. Transport of any of the host fruits could result in dispersal and distribution, if infested with fruit fly larvae.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Acca sellowianaMyrtaceaeUnknown
Allophylus pervilleiSapindaceaeUnknown
    Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
    Angylocalyx brauniiFabaceaeUnknown
      Annona cherimola (cherimoya)AnnonaceaeUnknown
      • Copeland et al. (2006);
      • Mwatawala et al. (2009);
      • Mwatawala et al. (2009)
      Annona muricata (soursop)AnnonaceaeUnknown
      Annona reticulata (bullock's heart)AnnonaceaeOther
      Annona senegalensis (wild custard apple)AnnonaceaeUnknown
      Annona squamosa (sugar apple)AnnonaceaeUnknown
      Asimina triloba (Pawpaw-apple)AnnonaceaeUnknown
      Averrhoa bilimbi (bilimbi)OxalidaceaeUnknown
      • Copeland et al. (2006)
      Averrhoa carambola (carambola)OxalidaceaeOther
      • Copeland et al. (2006)
      Calophyllum tacamahacaClusiaceaeUnknown
      Calycosiphonia spathicalyxRubiaceaeUnknown
        Cananga odorata (ylang-ylang)AnnonaceaeUnknown
        • Copeland et al. (2006)
        Capsicum frutescens (chilli)SolanaceaeOther
        • Copeland et al. (2006)
        Carica caulifloraCaricaceaeUnknown
          Carica papaya (pawpaw)CaricaceaeOther
          Carissa carandas (caranda (plum))ApocynaceaeUnknown
          • Copeland et al. (2006)
          Carissa macrocarpa (Natal plum)ApocynaceaeOther
          Cereus peruvianusCactaceaeUnknown
            Chrysophyllum albidumSapotaceaeUnknown
            Chrysophyllum cainito (caimito)SapotaceaeUnknown
            Chrysophyllum carpussumSapotaceaeUnknown
              Chrysophyllum natalenseSapotaceaeUnknown
                CitrusRutaceaeMain
                Citrus aurantium (sour orange)RutaceaeOther
                • Copeland et al. (2006)
                Citrus nobilis (tangor)RutaceaeUnknown
                  Citrus reticulata (mandarin)RutaceaeOther
                  Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeOther
                  Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit)RutaceaeUnknown
                  Coccoloba uvifera (sea grape)PolygonaceaeUnknown
                  • Copeland et al. (2006)
                  Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeMain
                    Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeOther
                    Coffea canephora (robusta coffee)RubiaceaeUnknown
                    Cola natalensisSterculiaceaeUnknown
                      Cucurbita (pumpkin)CucurbitaceaeUnknown
                      Cydonia oblonga (quince)RosaceaeOther
                      • Copeland et al. (2006)
                      Dictyophleba lucidaApocynaceaeUnknown
                        Dimocarpus longan (longan tree)SapindaceaeUnknown
                        • Copeland et al. (2006)
                        Diospyros kabuyeanaEbenaceaeUnknown
                          Diospyros kaki (persimmon)EbenaceaeUnknown
                          Dovyalis caffra (kei apple)FlacourtiaceaeUnknown
                          Dovyalis hebecarpa (ketembilla)FlacourtiaceaeUnknown
                          Dovyalis longispinaUnknown
                          Dovyalis zeyheriUnknown
                          Drypetes battiscombeiEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                            Drypetes natalensisEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                            Drypetes natalensis var. leiogynaEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                              Ehretia cymosaBoraginaceaeUnknown
                                Ekebergia capensisMeliaceaeUnknown
                                Englerophytum magalismontanumSapotaceaeUnknown
                                Englerophytum natalenseSapotaceaeUnknown
                                  Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)RosaceaeOther
                                  Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)MyrtaceaeOther
                                  Feijoa sellowiana (Horn of plenty)MyrtaceaeUnknown
                                    FicusMoraceaeUnknown
                                    Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeOther
                                    Ficus racemosa (cluster tree)MoraceaeUnknown
                                    Flacourtia indica (governor's plum)FlacourtiaceaeUnknown
                                    • Copeland et al. (2006);
                                    • Mwatawala et al. (2009)
                                    Fortunella japonica (round kumquat)RutaceaeUnknown
                                    • Mwatawala et al. (2009)
                                    Garcinia livingstonei (african mangosteen)ClusiaceaeUnknown
                                    Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen)ClusiaceaeOther
                                    • Copeland et al. (2006)
                                    Harpephyllum caffrumAnacardiaceaeUnknown
                                    Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit)CactaceaeUnknown
                                      Icacina senegalensisIcacinaceaeUnknown
                                      Inga laurina (Spanish oak)FabaceaeUnknown
                                      Lettowianthus stellatusAnnonaceaeUnknown
                                        Litchi chinensis (lichi)SapindaceaeOther
                                        • Copeland et al. (2006)
                                        Ludia mauritianaSalicaceaeUnknown
                                          Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeOther
                                          Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeOther
                                          Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)SapotaceaeOther
                                          Mimusops elengi (spanish cherry)SapotaceaeUnknown
                                          • Copeland et al. (2006)
                                          Monanthotaxis fornicataAnnonaceaeOther
                                            Monodora grandidieriAnnonaceaeUnknown
                                              Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine)RutaceaeUnknown
                                              • Copeland et al. (2006)
                                              Musa acuminata (wild banana)MusaceaeUnknown
                                              • Copeland et al. (2006)
                                              Myrianthus arboreusCecropiaceaeUnknown
                                                Nauclea latifolia (pin cushion tree)RubiaceaeUnknown
                                                Opilia amentaceaUnknown
                                                  Opuntia ficus-indica (prickly pear)CactaceaeUnknown
                                                  • Copeland et al. (2006)
                                                  Pachystela excelsaSapotaceaeUnknown
                                                    Parinari curatellifoliaChrysobalanaceaeUnknown
                                                    Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima (banana passionfruit)PassifloraceaeUnknown
                                                    Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeOther
                                                    Phyllanthus acidus (star gooseberry)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                                                    • Copeland et al. (2006)
                                                    Pithecellobium dulce (Manila tamarind)FabaceaeUnknown
                                                    Pouteria campechiana (canistel)SapotaceaeUnknown
                                                      Pouteria usambarensisSapotaceaeUnknown
                                                        Prunus (stone fruit)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                        Prunus armeniaca (apricot)RosaceaeOther
                                                        • Copeland et al. (2006)
                                                        Prunus domestica (plum)RosaceaeOther
                                                        Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeOther
                                                        Prunus persica var. nucipersica (nectarine)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                        Prunus persica var. persicaUnknown
                                                        Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)RosaceaeOther
                                                          Psidium (guava)MyrtaceaeUnknown
                                                          • Clausen et al. (1965)
                                                          Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava)MyrtaceaeUnknown
                                                          Psidium friedrichsthalianum (wild guava)MyrtaceaeUnknown
                                                          Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeOther
                                                          Psidium guineense (Guinea guava)MyrtaceaeUnknown
                                                          Psidium japonicumMyrtaceaeUnknown
                                                            Pyrus (pears)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                            Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeOther
                                                            Rawsonia lucidaFlacourtiaceaeUnknown
                                                              Salacia elegansSalaciaUnknown
                                                                Solanum giganteumSolanaceaeUnknown
                                                                  Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                  Solanum mauritianum (tobacco tree)SolanaceaeUnknown
                                                                  Sphaerocoryne gracilisAnnonaceaeUnknown
                                                                    StrombosiopsisUnknown
                                                                      Strychnos henningsiiLoganiaceaeUnknown
                                                                        Strychnos spinosaLoganiaceaeUnknown
                                                                          Synsepalum brevipesSapotaceaeUnknown
                                                                            Synsepalum dulcificumSapotaceaeUnknown
                                                                            • Copeland et al. (2006)
                                                                            Synsepalum subvertillatumSapotaceaeUnknown
                                                                              Syzygium aqueum (watery rose-apple)MyrtaceaeOther
                                                                              • Orian and Moutia (1960)
                                                                              Syzygium cordatumMyrtaceaeUnknown
                                                                              Syzygium cumini (black plum)MyrtaceaeOther
                                                                              • Copeland et al. (2006);
                                                                              • Mwatawala et al. (2009);
                                                                              • Mwatawala et al. (2009)
                                                                              Syzygium guineense (woodland waterberry)MyrtaceaeUnknown
                                                                              Syzygium jambos (rose apple)MyrtaceaeOther
                                                                              Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple)MyrtaceaeOther
                                                                              Syzygium samarangense (water apple)MyrtaceaeUnknown
                                                                              Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)CombretaceaeOther
                                                                              Theobroma cacao (cocoa)MalvaceaeOther
                                                                              Toddalia asiaticaRutaceaeUnknown
                                                                                Tricalysia pallensRubiaceaeUnknown
                                                                                  Uvaria acuminataAnnonaceaeUnknown
                                                                                    Uvaria lucidaAnnonaceaeUnknown
                                                                                      Vangueria infausta (African medlar)RubiaceaeUnknown
                                                                                      Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeOther
                                                                                      Xylotheca kraussianaFlacourtiaceaeUnknown
                                                                                      Ziziphus jujuba (common jujube)RhamnaceaeOther
                                                                                      • Copeland et al. (2006);
                                                                                      • Orian and Moutia (1960)
                                                                                      Ziziphus mauritiana (jujube)RhamnaceaeUnknown
                                                                                      Ziziphus mucronataRhamnaceaeUnknown

                                                                                      Growth Stages

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                                                                                      Fruiting stage, Post-harvest

                                                                                      Symptoms

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                                                                                      Attacked fruit usually shows signs of oviposition punctures and very sweet fruits may produce a sugary exudate.

                                                                                      List of Symptoms/Signs

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                                                                                      SignLife StagesType
                                                                                      Fruit / internal feeding
                                                                                      Fruit / obvious exit hole

                                                                                      Biology and Ecology

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                                                                                      Detailed biological data on C. rosa are given by Tanga et al. (2015). Predictive ecological niche models by De Meyer et al. (2008)are based on data from both C. rosa and C. quilicii and are therefore unreliable. Tanga et al. (2018) provide a comparative ILCYM (Insect Life Cycle Modelling) model prediction for C. rosa, compared to C. quilicii. Tanga et al. (2015) provided evidence that immature stages of C. rosa are less adapted to lower temperatures than C. quilicii. 

                                                                                      Environmental Requirements

                                                                                      Tanga et al. (2018) proved an ILCYM model prediction for establishment risk of C. rosa, showing the potential risk of establishment in many tropical and subtropical areas in Africa, Latin America, and Asia. 

                                                                                      Climate

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                                                                                      ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
                                                                                      Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
                                                                                      Cfa - Humid subtropical climate Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year, warmest month average temp. > 22°C
                                                                                      Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

                                                                                      Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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                                                                                      Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
                                                                                      34

                                                                                      Rainfall Regime

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                                                                                      Bimodal
                                                                                      Summer
                                                                                      Uniform

                                                                                      Natural enemies

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                                                                                      Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                                                                      Dirhinus giffardii Parasite
                                                                                      Opius perproximus Parasite Larvae
                                                                                      Opius tephritivorus Parasite Larvae
                                                                                      Tetrastichus Parasite Larvae/Pupae

                                                                                      Notes on Natural Enemies

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                                                                                      Very little information is available on the natural enemies of C. rosa. Clausen et al. (1965) reared parasitoids from samples taken in Kenya, but all in low numbers. The braconid, Fopius ceratitivorus was described from a.o. C. rosa, from Kenya (Wharton, 1999). Recently, several hymenopteran parasitoids (Psyttalia concolor, Psyttalia cosyrae, Tetrastichus giffardii) were tested in Kenya for their effectiveness in population control of C. rosa, but in most cases usually encapsulation of the eggs was observed (Mohamed et al., 2003, 2006, 2007). Limited survival rate was observed for Fopius arisanus in Réunion (Rousse et al., 2006). These data need to be reviewed in view of the confusion with C. quilicii.

                                                                                      Means of Movement and Dispersal

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                                                                                      Natural Dispersal

                                                                                      Adults tend to remain in the area of emergence, flight is rarely more than a few hundred metres.

                                                                                      Accidental introduction

                                                                                      C. rosa is a fruit-infesting species. Eggs are laid within fruits and the larvae develop inside the fruit. When mature, larvae leave the fruits and pupate in the soil. Introduction is usually accidental through transport and import of infested fruits. This can be through commercial shipments or in luggage of individual passengers. Introduction through soil that includes puparia could theoretically be possible, but there are no records or such introductions for this or similar fruit fly species.

                                                                                      Pathway Causes

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                                                                                      CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                                                      Crop productionPossible introduction through infested agricultural produce Yes Yes White and Elson-Harris (1994)
                                                                                      FoodPossible introduction through infested fruits Yes Yes White and Elson-Harris (1994)

                                                                                      Pathway Vectors

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                                                                                      VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
                                                                                      ConsumablesPossible if consumable include infested fruits.Probably high frequency for accidental introductions Yes Yes White and Elson-Harris (1994)
                                                                                      LuggagePossible if luggage contains fruits.Probably high frequency for accidental introductions Yes Yes White and Elson-Harris (1994)
                                                                                      Soil, sand and gravelNot reported but possible if soil contains puparia Yes Yes White and Elson-Harris (1994)

                                                                                      Plant Trade

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                                                                                      Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
                                                                                      Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                                      Growing medium accompanying plants pupae Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
                                                                                      Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
                                                                                      Bark
                                                                                      Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
                                                                                      Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
                                                                                      Leaves
                                                                                      Roots
                                                                                      Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
                                                                                      Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
                                                                                      True seeds (inc. grain)
                                                                                      Wood

                                                                                      Impact Summary

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                                                                                      CategoryImpact
                                                                                      Economic/livelihood Negative
                                                                                      Environment (generally) Negative
                                                                                      Human health Negative

                                                                                      Economic Impact

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                                                                                      C. rosa is a polyphagous species attacking a wide variety of unrelated fruits, including several commercial fruits. It can cause severe damage to commercial fruit crops, resulting in heavy losses. This indicates that it can be a serious pest species with high economic impact.

                                                                                      Threatened Species

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                                                                                      Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
                                                                                      Ceratitis catoiriiNo detailsMauritius; RéunionCompetition - monopolizing resourcesDuyck et al. (2004)

                                                                                      Social Impact

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                                                                                      Although the impact of C. rosa is mainly economic, it has some social consequences in Africa. A large part of the fruit cultivation in Africa is by small-holder farms (Lux, 1999). Because of the high infestation rate and the consequent loss of production, this has an impact on the income of these farmer communities. It is also anticipated that the loss of fruit crops might have an impact on fruit consumption, hence the health of the local population.

                                                                                      Risk and Impact Factors

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                                                                                      Invasiveness
                                                                                      • Has a broad native range
                                                                                      • Abundant in its native range
                                                                                      • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
                                                                                      • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
                                                                                      • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
                                                                                      • Has high reproductive potential
                                                                                      Impact outcomes
                                                                                      • Conflict
                                                                                      • Host damage
                                                                                      • Negatively impacts agriculture
                                                                                      • Negatively impacts human health
                                                                                      • Negatively impacts livelihoods
                                                                                      • Reduced native biodiversity
                                                                                      • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
                                                                                      • Threat to/ loss of native species
                                                                                      Impact mechanisms
                                                                                      • Causes allergic responses
                                                                                      • Interaction with other invasive species
                                                                                      Likelihood of entry/control
                                                                                      • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
                                                                                      • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
                                                                                      • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
                                                                                      • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
                                                                                      • Difficult/costly to control

                                                                                      Detection and Inspection

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                                                                                      C. rosa can be monitored by traps baited with male lures. Like Ceratitis capitata, and members of subgenera Ceratitis and Pterandrus in general, it is attracted to trimedlure and terpinyl acetate, but not methyl eugenol or cue lure. It is also very sensitive to enriched ginger oil (EGO) lure (Mwatawala et al., 2015; Manrakhan et al., 2017). The responses to baits of 16 Ceratitis species were tabulated by Hancock (1987).

                                                                                      Trimedlure (t-butyl 4(or 5) chloro-2-methyl cyclohexane carboxylate) is the most widely used lure for C. capitata and the following information could also be relevant for C. rosa. The history of trimedlure development and the problems of isolating the best of the eight possible isomers was discussed by Cunningham (1989). The lure is usually placed on a cottonwool wick suspended in the middle of a plastic trap that has small openings at both ends. Suitable traps were described by White and Elson-Harris (1994). Lure can either be mixed with an insecticide or a piece of paper dipped in insecticide can be placed in the trap. Traps are usually placed in fruit trees at a height of ca. 2 m above ground and should be emptied regularly as it is possible to catch hundreds of flies in a single trap left for just a few days, although the lure may remain effective for a few weeks.

                                                                                      A detailed study of trap position effects was carried out by Israely et al. (1997). A review of the biological aspects of male lures was presented by Cunningham (1989) and the use of lures was described more fully by Drew (1982). A trapping system used to monitor for possible introductions of C. capitata into New Zealand has been described by Somerfield (1989) and should also be effective for C. rosa. The possibility of the development of pheromone based trapping systems was discussed by Landolt and Heath (1996) and it may be possible to extend that approach to C. rosa. Trapping efficiency of C. capitata is also enhanced by the use of fluorescent colours, particularly light green (Epsky et al., 1996). This may also apply to C. rosa.

                                                                                      Recent comparative research on attraction sensitivity of C. rosa by using different lures, has shown that enriched ginger oil (EGO) lure is an effective attractant for C. rosa (Manrakhan et al., 2017) and can actually be a more sensitive attractant than trimedlure (Mwatawala et al., 2015).

                                                                                      Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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                                                                                      The males of most species of subgenus Pterandrus have rows of stout setae on both the anterior and posterior edges of each mid-tibia, giving a feathered appearance. The males lack the spatulate head appendages of subgenus Ceratitis or the shiny frons and spotted abdomen of subgenus Pardalaspis. They can be differentiated from representatives of other subgenera within the genus Ceratitis by the presence of a dark band on the abdomen. C. rosa can be separated from most other members of this subgenus by having the feathering confined to slightly more than the distal half of the tibia and by lacking stout setae on the underside of the mid-femur. The closely related Ceratitis fasciventris has similar feathering on the mid tibia. It can be separated by the fact that in C. fasciventris the feathering is confined to less than the distal half of the tibia. These features are illustrated in De Meyer and Freidberg (2006) who also provide an identification key for both sexes of representatives of the subgenus Pterandrus. C. rosa is very similar to C. quilicii and male specimens can be differentiated only based on subtle morphological differences in the ornamentation and shape of the mid tibia. Illustrations depicting the main differentiating characters can be consulted in De Meyer et al. (2015) and at http://projects.bebif.be/fruitfly/index.html.

                                                                                      There is no simple method of recognizing females of C. rosa from either C. quilicii or C. fasciventris on morphological grounds. Virgilio et al. (2018) provide an ID decision map combining morphological and molecular identification tools to separate all life stages and sexes of representatives of the FAR complex.

                                                                                      Prevention and Control

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                                                                                      Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                                                      Very little specific information has been written about the control of C. rosa. Most of the information given here is general information applicable to a large number of fruit fly species. When detected, it is important to gather all fallen and infected host fruits and destroy them. Traps containing male lures should be used to monitor population size and spread continuously (Ramsamy, 1989). Insecticidal protection is possible by using a cover spray or a bait spray (Schwartz, 1993). A bait spray consists of a suitable insecticide (for example, malathion) mixed with a protein bait. Both male and female fruit flies are attracted to protein sources emanating ammonia. Insecticides can therefore be applied to just a few spots in an orchard and the flies will be attracted to these spots. The protein most widely used is hydrolysed protein, but some supplies of this are acid hydrolysed and are highly phytotoxic.

                                                                                      Smith and Nannan (1988) have developed a system using autolysed protein; in Malaysia this has been developed into a very effective commercial product derived from brewery waste (developed for Bactrocera spp.).

                                                                                      Phytosanitary Measures

                                                                                      Consignments of potential host fruits from countries where C. rosa occurs should be inspected for symptoms of infestation and those suspected should be cut open in order to look for larvae. It is recommended that such fruits should come from an area where C. rosa does not occur, or from a place of production found free from the pest by regular inspection for 3 months before harvest. By analogy with C. capitata, fruits may also be treated in transit by cold treatment or, for certain types of fruits, by vapour heat.

                                                                                      Plants of host species transported with roots from countries where C. rosa occurs should be free from soil, or the soil should be treated against puparia. The plants should not carry fruits. The importation of such plants may be prohibited.

                                                                                      Biological Control

                                                                                      Parasitoids for biological control of C. rosa and other fruit flies were introduced in Mauritius in 1939 and 1957 (Greathead, 1971) and in Réunion during the 1960s and 1970s (Greathead, 1971; OPIE, 1986), but none became established.

                                                                                      Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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                                                                                      Limited information is available on climatic thresholds, based on rearing experiments. There is some indication that C. rosa can withstand colder temperatures and/or wetter environments than its current distribution would indicate which is important for determining the risk of establishment in new regions.

                                                                                      In order to fully understand the impact of individual polyphagous pest species, a detailed study of interspecific competition and resource partitioning between the different species (both natural and invasive) is needed. Copeland et al. (2006) is an example of such study, which should be repeated in other parts of the geographic range of C. rosa.

                                                                                       

                                                                                      References

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                                                                                      Esayas Mendesil, 2005. Fruit flies infesting Arabica coffee in Tepi, southwestern Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Biological Sciences. 4 (2), 207-213.

                                                                                      Magagula C N, Nzima B A, 2013. Diversity and distribution of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) across agroecological zones in Swaziland: on the lookout for the invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens. Journal of Developments in Sustainable Agriculture. 8 (2), 100-109. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jdsa/8/2/8_100/_pdf

                                                                                      Meyer M de, 2001. On the identity of the Natal fruit fly Ceratitis rosa Karsch (Diptera, Tephritidae). Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Entomologie. 55-62.

                                                                                      Meyer M De, Copeland R S, Lux S A, Mansell M, Quilici S, Wharton R, White I M, Zenz N J, 2002. Annotated check list of host plants for afrotropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of the genus Ceratitis. Documentation Zoologique, Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale. 1-91.

                                                                                      Mwatawala M W, Meyer M de, Makundi R H, Maerere A P, 2009. Host range and distribution of fruit-infesting pestiferous fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) in selected areas of Central Tanzania. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 99 (6), 629-641. DOI:10.1017/S0007485309006695

                                                                                      Schotman C Y L, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. In: RLAC-PROVEG, 80 pp.

                                                                                      Wharton R A, Trostle M K, Messing R H, Copeland R S, Kimani-Njogu S W, Lux S, Overholt W A, Mohamed S, Sivinski J, 2000. Parasitoids of medfly, Ceratitis capitata, and related tephritids in Kenyan coffee: a predominantly koinobiont assemblage. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 90 (6), 517-526. DOI:10.1017/S0007485300000638

                                                                                      White I M, Meyer M de, Stonehouse J, 2000. A review of native and introduced fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) in the Indian Ocean islands of Mauritius, Réunion, Rodrigues and Seychelles. In: Proceedings of the Indian Ocean Commission, Regional Fruit Fly Symposium, Flic en Flac, Mauritius, 5th-9th June, 2000. [ed. by Price N S, Seewooruthun I]. Quatre Bornes, Mauritius: Indian Ocean Commission. 15-21.

                                                                                      Links to Websites

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                                                                                      WebsiteURLComment
                                                                                      Tephritid Workers Databasehttp://www.tephritid.org/twd/srv/en/home
                                                                                      True Fruit Flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Afrotropical Regionhttp://projects.bebif.be/fruitfly/index.html

                                                                                      Organizations

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                                                                                      Kenya: International Centre for Insect Physiology and Ecology, P.O. Box 30772-00100, Nairobi, http://www.icipe.org/

                                                                                      Tanzania: Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3000 Chuo Kikuu, Morogoro, http://www.suanet.ac.tz/

                                                                                      Belgium: Royal Museum for Central Africa, Leuvensesteenweg 13, 3080 Tervuren, http://www.africamuseum.be

                                                                                      Contributors

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                                                                                      22/10/18; 11/12/07 Updated by:

                                                                                      Marc De Meyer, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Invertebrates Section and JEMU, Leuvensesteenweg 13, B3080 Tervuren, Belgium

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