Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ceratitis quinaria
(five-spotted fruit fly)

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Datasheet

Ceratitis quinaria (five-spotted fruit fly)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ceratitis quinaria
  • Preferred Common Name
  • five-spotted fruit fly
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Ceratitis quinaria has a disjunct distribution, being found in West Africa, countries surrounding the Red Sea, eastern and southern Africa. It has an economic impact in countries where it is in high abundance,...

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ceratitis quinaria (Bezzi)

Preferred Common Name

  • five-spotted fruit fly

Other Scientific Names

  • Ceratitis (Ceratalaspis) quinaria (Bezzi)
  • Pardalaspis quinaria Bezzi

International Common Names

  • English: Rhodesian fruit fly; Zimbabwean fruit fly

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Fruchtfliege, Rhodesien-

EPPO code

  • CERTQU (Ceratitis quinaria)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Ceratitis quinaria has a disjunct distribution, being found in West Africa, countries surrounding the Red Sea, eastern and southern Africa. It has an economic impact in countries where it is in high abundance, affecting production, control costs and market access. It is particularly a pest of mangoes, in which high levels of infestation and damage have been recorded. The United States Department of Agriculture recognises C. quinaria as a fruit fly species of concern, and the European Plant Protection Organization lists it as a quarantine pest. It is difficult to determine its invasiveness because its current distribution includes areas with a poor record of fruit fly surveillance.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Tephritidae
  •                             Genus: Ceratitis
  •                                 Species: Ceratitis quinaria

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural

Growth Stages

Top of page Fruiting stage, Post-harvest

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / internal feeding
Fruit / obvious exit hole
Fruit / premature drop

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Fopius caudatus Parasite Eggs/Larvae to genus
Oecophylla longinoda Predator Adults not specific Benin mango
Psyttalia cosyrae Parasite Larvae to genus
Psyttalia perproxima Parasite Larvae to genus

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
FoodTrade of host fruit Yes Yes
People sharing resourcesSharing of host fruit Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AircraftHost fruit carried in passenger luggage. Yes Yes
Bulk freight or cargoConsignments of host fruit. Yes Yes
ConsumablesHost fruit carried or served to travellers. Yes Yes
Soil, sand and gravelRisk of puparia in soil. Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Damages animal/plant products
  • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
Impact mechanisms
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

References

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Annecke DP, Moran VC, 1982. Insects and mites of cultivated plants in South Africa. Durban, South Africa: Butterworths.

Barr NB, Copeland RS, Meyer Mde, Masiga D, Kibogo HG, Billah MK, Osir E, Wharton RA, McPheron BA, 2006. Molecular diagnostics of economically important Ceratitis fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Africa using PCR and RFLP analyses. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 96(5):505-521. http://journals.cambridge.org/download.php?file=%2FBER%2FBER96_05%2FS0007485306000599a.pdf&code=1f82ad898e5389c93a840b894cced959

Bezzi M, 1918, February. Notes on the Ethiopian Fruit-flies of the Family Trypaneidae, other than Dacus (s.l.), with Descriptions of New Genera and Species (Dipt.).-I. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 8(3-4):215-251.

Bot J, 1961. Fruit flies threaten the deciduous fruit industry. Farming in South Africa, 36(10):40-2.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2005. Ceratitis quinaria. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 161. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Collin MND, Arnaud C, Kagy V, Didier C, 2007. Fruit flies: disinfestation, techniques used, possible application to mango. Fruits (Paris), 62(4):223-236. http://www.edpsciences.org/fruits/

Dawit Getahun, Feredu Azerefegne, Yibrha Beyeneh, 2015. Species composition of fruit flies (Dipteral:Tephritidae) and extent of damage on mango fruit in eastern Ethiopia. International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research, 19(1):95-102. http://www.ijisr.issr-journals.org/

De Meyer M, 1998. Revision of the subgenus Ceratitis (Ceratalaspis) Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 88:257-290.

De Meyer M, 2001. Distribution patterns and host-plant relationships within the genus Ceratitis MacLeay (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Africa. Cimbebasia, 17:219-228.

De Meyer M, Copeland RS, Lux SA, Mansell M, Quilici S, Wharton R, White IM, Zenz NJ, 2002. Annotated check list of host plants for afrotropical fruit flies (Diptera : Tephritidae) of the genus Ceratitis. Documentation Zoologique, Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, 27:1-91.

De Meyer M, White IM, 2008. True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of the Afrotropical Region. Belgian Biodiversity Platform. Brussels, Belgium.

De Meyer M, White IM, Goodger KFM, 2013. Notes on the frugivorous fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) fauna of western Africa, with description of a new Dacus species. European Journal of Taxonomy, No.50:1-17. http://www.europeanjournaloftaxonomy.eu/index.php/ejt/article/view/171

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Erbout N, Virgilio M, Lens L, Barr N, Meyer Mde, 2011. Discrepancies between subgeneric classification and molecular phylogeny of Ceratitis (Diptera: Tephritidae), can the evolution of host use provide some clues? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 60(2):259-264. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790311001862

Follett PA, 2009. Generic radiation quarantine treatmetns: the next steps. Journal of Economic Entomology, 102:1399-1406.

Grout TG, Stephen PR, 1999. The distribution of fruit flies attracted to Ceratitislure in citrus production regions of southern Africa. In: Outspan Citrus Centre, Annual Research Report. Nelspruit, South Africa: Outspan Citrus Centre, 86-91.

Grout TG, Stephen PR, 2000. The distribution of fruit flies attracted to Ceratitislure in citrus production regions of southern Africa. In: Citrus Research International, Annual Research Report. Nelspruit, South Africa: Citrus Research International, 71-73.

Hancock DL, 1980. Fruit flies. Zimbabwe Agricultural Journal, 77(6):289-290.

Hancock DL, 1987. Notes on some African Ceratitinp (Diptera: Tephritidae), with special reference to the Zimbabwean fauna. Transactions of the Zimbabwe Scientific Association, 63(6):47-57

Jack RW, 1922, October. Insect Pests of Fruits other than Citrus in Southern Rhodesia. Rhodesia Agricultural Journal, 19(5):569-582 pp.

Liebhold AM, Work TT, McCullough DG, Cavey JF, 2006. Airline baggage as a pathway for alien insect species entering the United States. American Entomologist, 52:48-54.

Mahmoud MEE, Kambal MAO, AbuKashawa SMA, 2012. Potential use of human urine as attractant to tephritid fruit flies in Sudan. Persian Gulf Crop Protection, 1(3):1-6. http://www.cropprotection.ir/files_site/paperlist/Journal1-3-130724101141.pdf

Mahmoud MEE, Kambal MAO, Abukashawa SMA, 2012. Prospects of using protein hydrolastes for trapping and monitoring major fruit flies (Tephritidae: Diptera) in Sudan. Persian Gulf Crop Protection, 1(2):6-14. http://www.cropprotection.ir/files_site/paperlist/Journal1-2-130726164537.pdf

Manrakhan A, Hattingh V, Venter JH, Holtzhausen M, 2011. Eradication of Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Limpopo Province, South Africa. African Entomology, 19(3):650-659. http://journals.sabinet.co.za/essa

Munro HK, 1964. Some fruit flies of economic importance in South Africa. Pretoria, South Africa: Department of Agricultural Technical Services.

Mwatawala M, Virgilio M, Joseph J, Meyer Mde, 2015. Niche partitioning among two Ceratitis rosa morphotypes and other Ceratitis pest species (Diptera, Tephritidae) along an altitudinal transect in Central Tanzania. ZooKeys, No.540:429-442. http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6016

Mwatawala M, Virgilio M, Quilici S, Dominic M, Meyer MDe, 2012. Field evaluation of the relative attractiveness of EGOlure and trimedlure for African Ceratitis species (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of applied Entomology, 137(5):392-397.

Navarro-Llopis V, Alfaro F, Domínguez J, Sanchis J, Primo J, 2008. Evaluation of traps and lures for mass trapping of Mediterranean fruit fly in citrus groves. Journal of Economic Entomology, 101(1):126-131. http://www.bioone.org/doi/abs/10.1603/0022-0493%282008%29101%5B126%3AEOTALF%5D2.0.CO%3B2

Ouédraogo SN, 2015. [English title not available]. (Diversité et dégâts des mouches de fruits du manguier au Burkina Faso.) . Paris, France: Presses Académiques Francophones.

Sawadogo A, Gnankine O, Badolo A, Ouedraogo A, Ouedraogo S, Dabiré R, Sanon A, 2013. First report of the fruits flies, Ceratitis quinaria and Ceratitis silvestri, on yellow plum Ximenia americana in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Open Entomology Journal, 7:9-15. http://benthamopen.com/toentoj/articles/V007/9TOENTOJ.pdf

Sinzogan AAC, Mele Pvan, Vayssieres JF, 2008. Implications of on-farm research for local knowledge related to fruit flies and the weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda in mango production. International Journal of Pest Management, 54(3):241-246.

van Mele P, Vayssieres JF, Adandonon A, Sinzogan A, 2009. Ant cues affect the oviposition behaviour of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Africa. Physiological Entomology, 34(3):256-261. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/pen

van Mele P, Vayssières J-F, Tellingen E Van, Vrolijks J, 2007. Effects of an African weaver ant, Oecophylla longinoda, in controlling mango fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Benin. Journal of Economic Entomology, 100((3)):695-701.

Vayssieres JF, Adandonon A, Sinzogan A, Korie S, 2010. Diversity of fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) associated with citrus crops (Rutaceae) in southern Benin in 2008-2009. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 4(6):unpaginated. http://www.ajol.info/index.php/ijbcs/article/view/64966

Vayssières JF, Goergen G, Lokossou O, Dossa P, Akponon C, 2005. A new Bactrocera species in Benin among mango fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Fruits (Paris), 60(6):371-377.

Vayssières JF, Goergen G, Lokossou O, Dossa P, Akponon C, 2009. A new Bactrocera species in Benin among mango fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the Eighth International Mango Symposium, Sun City, South Africa, 5-10 February 2006.], No.820:581-588. http://www.actahort.org

Vayssières JF, Korie S, Ayegnon D, 2009. Correlation of fruit fly (Diptera Tephritidae) infestation of major mango cultivars in Borgou (Benin) with abiotic and biotic factors and assessment of damage. Crop Protection, 28(6):477-488. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194

Vayssières JF, Sanogo F, Noussourou M, 2004. Inventory of the fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) linked to the mango tree in Mali and tests of integrated control. (Inventaire des espèces de mouches des fruits (Diptera: Tephritidae) inféodées au manguier au Mali et essais de lutte raisonnée.) Fruits (Paris), 59(1):3-16.

Vayssières JF, Sanogo F, Noussourou M, 2007. Inventory of the fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) linked to the mango tree in Mali and tests of integrated control. Fruits (Paris), 62(5):329-341. http://www.edpsciences.org/fruits/

Vayssieres JF, Sinzogan A, Korie S, Ouagoussounon I, Thomas-Odjo A, 2009. Effectiveness of spinosad bait sprays (GF-120) in controlling mango-infesting fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Benin. Journal of Economic Entomology, 102(2):515-521. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/jee/2009/00000102/00000002/art00009

Vayssières JF, Vannière H, Gueye PS, Barry O, Hanne AM, Korie S, Niassy A, Ndiaye M, Delhove G, 2011. Preliminary inventory of fruit fly species (Diptera, Tephritidae) in mango orchards in the Niayes region, Senegal, in 2004. Fruits (Paris), 66(2):91-107. http://www.fruits-journal.org/

Vayssières J-F, Wharton R, Adandonon A, Sinzogan A, 2010. Preliminary inventory of parasitoids associated with fruit flies in mangoes, guavas, cashew pepper and wild fruit crops in Benin. BioControl, 56:35-43.

Vayssières J-F, Wharton R, Delvare G, Sanogo F, 2002. Diversity and pest control potential of hymenopteran parasitoids of Ceratitis spp. on mangoes in Mali. In: 6th International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 6-10 May 2002 [ed. by Barnes, B. N.]. Stellenbosch, South Africa: Isteg Scientific Publications, 461-464.

Venkatraman TV, El Khidir E, 1967. Observations on crop pests in the Sudan in 1966/67. Plant Protection Bulletin, F.A.O, 15(6):115-116 pp.

Virgilio M, White I, Meyer Mde, 2014. A set of multi-entry identification keys to African frugivorous flies (Diptera, Tephritidae). ZooKeys, No.428:97-108. http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/7366/a-set-of-multi-entry-identification-keys-to-african-frugivorous-flies-diptera-tephritidae-

White IM, Elson-Harris MM, 1992. Fruit flies of economic significance: their identification and bionomics. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 601 pp.

White IM, Elson-Harris MM, 1994. Fruit flies of economic significance: their identification and bionomics. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Reprint with addendum.

Distribution References

CABI, EPPO, 2005. Ceratitis quinaria. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution maps of plant pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 161.

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

De Meyer M, White IM, 2008. True fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of the Afrotropical Region. In: Belgian Biodiversity Platform, Brussels, Belgium:

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Getahun D, Azerefegne F, Beyeneh Y, 2015. Species composition of fruit flies (Dipteral:Tephritidae) and extent of damage on mango fruit in eastern Ethiopia., 19 (1) 95-102.

Meyer M De, Copeland R S, Lux S A, Mansell M, Quilici S, Wharton R, White I M, Zenz N J, 2002. Annotated check list of host plants for afrotropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of the genus Ceratitis. Documentation Zoologique, Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale. 1-91.

Mwatawala M, Virgilio M, Quilici S, Dominic M, Meyer MDe, 2012. Field evaluation of the relative attractiveness of EGOlure and trimedlure for African Ceratitis species (Diptera: Tephritidae). In: Journal of applied Entomology, 137 (5) 392-397.

Ouédraogo SN, 2015. [English title not available]. (Diversité et dégâts des mouches de fruits du manguier au Burkina Faso)., Paris, France: Presses Académiques Francophones.

Sawadogo A, Gnankine O, Badolo A, Ouedraogo A, Ouedraogo S, Dabiré R, Sanon A, 2013. First report of the fruits flies, Ceratitis quinaria and Ceratitis silvestri, on yellow plum Ximenia americana in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Open Entomology Journal. 9-15. http://benthamopen.com/toentoj/articles/V007/9TOENTOJ.pdf DOI:10.2174/1874407901307010009

Vayssières J F, Goergen G, Lokossou O, Dossa P, Akponon C, 2005. A new Bactrocera species in Benin among mango fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Fruits (Paris). 60 (6), 371-377. DOI:10.1051/fruits:2005042

Vayssières J F, Vannière H, Gueye P S, Barry O, Hanne A M, Korie S, Niassy A, Ndiaye M, Delhove G, 2011. Preliminary inventory of fruit fly species (Diptera, Tephritidae) in mango orchards in the Niayes region, Senegal, in 2004. Fruits (Paris). 66 (2), 91-107. http://www.fruits-journal.org/ DOI:10.1051/fruits/2011002

White I M, Elson-Harris M M, 1992. Fruit flies of economic significance: their identification and bionomics. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. xii + 601 pp.

Organizations

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Benin: International Institute for Tropical Agriculture, BP 08-0932, Cotonou, http://iita.org

South Africa: Citrus Research International (CRI), PO Box 28, Nelspruit 1200, http://www.citrusres.com/

Belgium: Royal Museum for Central Africa, Leuvensesteenweg 13, 3080 Tervuren, http://www.africamuseum.be

France: Centre de coopération internationale en recherche agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD), Avenue Agropolis, TA 178/04, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, www.cirad.fr/en

Distribution Maps

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