Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ceratitis cosyra
(mango fruit fly)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Ceratitis cosyra (mango fruit fly)

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ceratitis cosyra (mango fruit fly); C. cosyra extending its mouthparts on an upper leaf surface. July 2014.
TitleAdult
CaptionCeratitis cosyra (mango fruit fly); C. cosyra extending its mouthparts on an upper leaf surface. July 2014.
Copyright©Citrus Research International
Ceratitis cosyra (mango fruit fly); C. cosyra extending its mouthparts on an upper leaf surface. July 2014.
AdultCeratitis cosyra (mango fruit fly); C. cosyra extending its mouthparts on an upper leaf surface. July 2014.©Citrus Research International
Ceratitis cosyra (mango fruit fly); C. cosyra female on marula fruit.
TitleAdult
CaptionCeratitis cosyra (mango fruit fly); C. cosyra female on marula fruit.
Copyright©Citrus Research International
Ceratitis cosyra (mango fruit fly); C. cosyra female on marula fruit.
AdultCeratitis cosyra (mango fruit fly); C. cosyra female on marula fruit.©Citrus Research International
Ceratitis cosyra (mango fruit fly); C. cosyra female ovipositing on mango. January 2020.
TitleAdult
CaptionCeratitis cosyra (mango fruit fly); C. cosyra female ovipositing on mango. January 2020.
Copyright©Citrus Research International
Ceratitis cosyra (mango fruit fly); C. cosyra female ovipositing on mango. January 2020.
AdultCeratitis cosyra (mango fruit fly); C. cosyra female ovipositing on mango. January 2020.©Citrus Research International

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ceratitis cosyra (Walker)

Preferred Common Name

  • mango fruit fly

Other Scientific Names

  • Ceratitis giffardi Bezzi
  • Pardalaspis cosyra (Walker)
  • Pardalaspis giffardi (Bezzi)
  • Pardalaspis giffardi var. sarcocephali Bezzi
  • Pardalaspis parinarii Hering
  • Trypeta cosyra Walker

International Common Names

  • English: marula fly; marula fruit fly

EPPO code

  • CERTCO (Ceratitis cosyra)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Diptera
  •                         Family: Tephritidae
  •                             Genus: Ceratitis
  •                                 Species: Ceratitis cosyra

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

Ceratitis cosyra belongs to subgenus Ceratalaspis Hancock and its name may therefore be cited as Ceratitis (Ceratalaspis) cosyra (Walker). De Meyer (1998) discussed the considerable overlap in morphological characters between C. cosyra and two other species previously described as distinct in the same subgenus: C. giffardi Bezzi and C. sarcocephali Bezzi. The latter was known as a variant of C. giffardi (de Meyer, 1998). De Meyer (1998) suggested that C. giffardi and C. sarcocephali can be considered as synonyms of C. cosyra. Since the types of C. giffardi and C. sarcocephali could not be studied, a definite decision on synonymy could not be reached (de Meyer, 1998).

Cryptic speciation within C. cosyra was revealed when the population genetic structure of this species was analysed in Africa (Virgilio et al., 2015). At least two genotypic groups of C. cosyra were found (Virgilio et al., 2015). These groups were largely divided geographically on the continent between West Africa and southern and eastern Africa (Virgilio et al., 2015). Co-occurrence of the two genotypic groups was found in some countries in both geographic regions (Virgilio et al., 2015). Subtle morphological differences are also known to occur between adults of C. cosyra and five closely related Ceratalaspis species (Virgilio et al., 2017). Some of these closely related Ceratalaspis species were previously misidentified as C. cosyra (Virgilio et al., 2017). C. cosyra and its close relatives as well as the two genotypic groups within C. cosyra can however be reliably resolved using DNA barcoding (Virgilio et al., 2017).

Description

Top of page

Adult

The genus Ceratitis belongs to the family Tephritidae. In common with many species of Tephritidae, it has patterned wings and the female has a pointed ovipositor. The family Tephritidae may also be separated from all other Diptera by the shape of the subcostal vein, which bends abruptly through a right-angle and fades to a fold before reaching the wing edge, combined with the presence of setulae on the dorsal side of wing vein R1.

The genus Ceratitis, in common with species of Neoceratitis and Trirhithrum, some of which also attack commercial fruits in Africa, has a wing pattern consisting of a short costal band, a preapical crossband and a discal crossband, together with a pattern of spots and fleck-shaped dark markings in the basal cells. Cells bm and bcu are of similar depth and the extension of cell bcu (=cup) is short and swollen along its anterior edge.

Trapped material is likely to include non-pest species and in that instance identification to species is a specialist task using the key provided by de Meyer (1998) and a freely accessible online (https://fruitflykeys.africamuseum.be) multi entry key (Virgilio et al., 2014). Identification of specimens reared from commercial hosts, in which a limited range of species may be expected, can be carried out using the keys provided. The following diagnosis will separate C. cosyra from most other common species in the genus:

Scutum predominantly yellow and wing patterned with yellow crossbands; scutellum with three large and separate apical dark marks; wing with marginal band continuous; anepisternum with one seta. Males without apically expanded orbital setae or midleg feathering.

Larva

As with larvae in the Tephritidae family, the larva of C. cosyra is between 6.5 and 7.0 mm in length and has a flat rear end (White and Elson-Harris, 1994). The posterior spiracles have three elongate slits which are nearly parallel (White and Elson-Harris, 1994). The mouthhook of the third-instar larva of C. cosyra has a small preapical tooth (White and Elson-Harris, 1994).

Distribution

Top of page

Ceratitis cosyra has a widespread distribution in sub-Saharan Africa (de Meyer, 2001). In South Africa and Namibia, the species is limited to the northern parts of the country (de Meyer, 2001; de Villiers et al., 2013). Outside of the African continent, C. cosyra is known to occur only in Madagascar, Indian Ocean region (de Meyer, 1998).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Sep 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresent
BeninPresent
BotswanaPresent
Burkina FasoPresent
CameroonPresent
Central African RepublicPresent
ComorosAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EswatiniPresent
GhanaPresent
GuineaPresent
KenyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MaliPresent
MozambiquePresent
NamibiaPresent, Localized
NigeriaPresent
Saint HelenaPresent
SenegalPresent
SeychellesAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
Sierra LeonePresent
South AfricaPresent, Localized
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TogoPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Europe

BelgiumAbsent, Intercepted only

Oceania

New ZealandAbsent, Never occurred

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

Ceratitis cosyra poses a phytosanitary risk to other countries with a suitable tropical climate and suitable hosts crops, particularly mango (Mangifera indica).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

The principle host of Ceratitis cosyra is maroola plum (Sclerocarya birrea) but it will also heavily attack mango (Mangifera indica). Tabulated hosts are all taken from confirmed records (only records from reared material where identification of species was confirmed as reliable) provided in de Meyer et al. (2002) and de Meyer and White (2004); other host records should be disregarded pending confirmation.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Adenia lobataPassifloraceaeWild host
Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)AnacardiaceaeWild host
Anisophyllea laurinaAnisophylleaceaeWild host
Annona cherimola (cherimoya)AnnonaceaeWild host
Annona muricata (soursop)AnnonaceaeWild host
Annona reticulata (bullock's heart)AnnonaceaeWild host
Annona senegalensis (wild custard apple)AnnonaceaeWild host
Areca triandraArecaceaeWild host
Carissa carandas (caranda (plum))ApocynaceaeWild host
Carpolobia luteaPolygalaceaeWild host
Chrysobalanus icaco (coco plum)ChrysobalanaceaeWild host
Cordyla africanaFabaceaeWild host
Diospyros mespiliformis (ebony diospiros)EbenaceaeWild host
Dovyalis caffra (kei apple)FlacourtiaceaeWild host
Drypetes gossweileriEuphorbiaceaeWild host
Englerophytum natalenseSapotaceaeWild host
Eugenia uniflora (Surinam cherry)MyrtaceaeWild host
Landolphia heudelotiiApocynaceaeWild host
Landolphia kirkiiApocynaceaeWild host
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeMain
Nauclea latifolia (pin cushion tree)RubiaceaeWild host
Opilia celtidifloraOpiliaceaeWild host
Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeOther
Pouteria campechiana (canistel)SapotaceaeWild host
Psidium guajava (guava)MyrtaceaeOther
Rollinia mucosaAnnonaceaeWild host
Saba comorensisWild host
Saba senegalensisApocynaceaeWild host
Sclerocarya birrea (marula)AnacardiaceaeWild host
Spondias (purple mombin)AnacardiaceaeWild host
Spondias mombin (hog plum)AnacardiaceaeWild host
Strychnos spinosaLoganiaceaeWild host
Syzygium guineense (woodland waterberry)MyrtaceaeWild host
Tabernaemontana pendulifloraApocynaceaeWild host
Terminalia catappa (Singapore almond)CombretaceaeWild host
Uapaca kirkiana (wild loquat)EuphorbiaceaeWild host
Vitellaria paradoxa (shea tree)SapotaceaeWild host
Warburgia salutarisCanellaceaeWild host

Growth Stages

Top of page
Fruiting stage

Symptoms

Top of page
Attacked fruit usually shows signs of oviposition punctures around which necrosis may occur.

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / gummosis
Fruit / internal feeding
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / lesions: scab or pitting
Fruit / obvious exit hole
Fruit / odour
Fruit / ooze

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Mature females of Ceratitis oviposit into fruit, usually at the start of ripening (this may vary with fly or host species); there are three larval instars and depending on temperatures they develop over a period ranging from 6 to 33 days (temperatures ranging from 14 to 30°C) (Grout and Stoltz, 2007); final instar larvae of Ceratitis drop to the ground, find a crack to drop into and then form a puparium (hardened larvae skin) within which pupation takes place; the pupal stage lasts between 10 and 33 days (at temperatures varying between 14 and 30°C) (Grout and Stoltz, 2007); adults are long lived (2-3 months) (Manrakhan and Lux, 2006; Malod et al., 2020) and so several generations must be completed in each year.

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
C - Temperate/Mesothermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
9 26

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 4
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 20 27
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 27 33
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 4 12

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration15number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall7001200mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page
Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Coptera silvestrii Parasite Arthropods|Pupae
Diachasmimorpha fullawayi Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Diachasmimorpha longicaudata Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Fopius arisanus Parasite Eggs
Fopius caudatus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Psyttalia concolor Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Psyttalia cosyrae Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Psyttalia perproxima Parasite Arthropods|Larvae
Spalangia simplex Parasite
Tetrastichus giffardianus Parasite Arthropods|Larvae

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

A number of hymenopteran parasitoid species (Vayssières et al., 2011; Mohamed et al., 2016), entomopathogenic fungi, more specifically Metarhizium anisopliae (Dimbi et al., 2003) and predatory ants, more specifically Oecophylla longinoda (Vayssières et al., 2015) were recorded as natural enemies of C. cosyra in Africa.

Hymenopteran parasitoids of C. cosyra are listed in the table below (Mohamed et al., 2016; Sambo et al., 2020).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page
Adult flight and the transport of infested fruits are the major means of movement and dispersal to previously uninfested areas.

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop production Yes
Horticulture Yes
Research Yes

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
AircraftCarrying cargo Yes
Clothing, footwear and possessionsCases or bags Yes
Containers and packaging - woodOf fruit cargo Yes
Land vehiclesLorries carrying cargo Yes Yes
MailFruit in post Yes
Soil, sand and gravelRisk of puparia in soil Yes Yes
Consumables Yes
Containers and packaging - non-wood Yes
Debris and waste associated with human activities Yes
Floating vegetation and debris Yes
Plants or parts of plants Yes

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods) arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

Top of page
Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Impact

Top of page

Ceratitis cosyra is recorded from a limited range of plants, but it is an important pest of mangoes (Mangifera indica) in Kenya (Malio, 1979), Zambia (Javaid, 1986), Zimbabwe (Rendell et al., 1995) and some areas of South Africa (Labuschagne et al., 1996). Outcompetition of C. cosyra by the introduced Bactrocera dorsalis has been clearly demonstrated in laboratory and field studies (Ekesi et al., 2009). In Cote d'Ivoire, C. cosyra was the major pest of guava (Psidium guajava) (N'Guetta, 1994).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page
Invasiveness
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
Impact mechanisms
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally illegally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses List

Top of page

General

  • Research model

Diagnosis

Top of page

EPPO (2011) have published a diagnostic protocol for Ceratitis cosyra. C. cosyra adults can also be identified using the freely accessible online (https://fruitflykeys.africamuseum.be) multi entry key (Virgilio et al., 2014).

Detection and Inspection

Top of page

Males can be attracted to traps baited with terpinyl acetate (Hancock, 1987) and Enriched Ginger Oil (EGO) lure (Mwatawala et al., 2013; Manrakhan et al., 2017). Both sexes may be monitored using protein bait traps (protein hydrolysate, protein autolysate, three component Biolure consisting of ammonium acetate, trimethylamine and putrescine) (Mwatawala et al., 2006; Grout et al., 2011; Manrakhan et al., 2017) but these traps also collect large numbers of non-target insects; see Drew (1982) for further details.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

Ceratitis cosyra can be confused with C. discussa and C. striatella (Virgilio et al., 2017) when using only morphological features for diagnosis. Reliable separation is a specialist task (see de Meyer (1998) for details). C. cosyra can be distinguished from C. discussa on the basis of the mesonotal supra-alar spots on the thorax usually not divided longitudinally for C. cosyra and partly divided longitudinally for C. discussa (de Meyer, 1998). Basal spots of scutellum are brownish or black for C. cosyra and yellow for C. discussa (de Meyer, 1998). For C. cosyra and C. striatella, the morphological differences are even more subtle (Virgilio et al., 2017). DNA barcoding can reliably distinguish the two species (Virgilio et al., 2017).

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

When detected, it is important to gather all fallen and infected host fruits and destroy them. Baited traps should be used to monitor population size and spread continuously. This species can be controlled using various tactics which include application of attract and kill products such as protein-based baits, orchard sanitation and biological control. Details on these various control tactics can be obtained in Ekesi et al. (2016).

A considerable body of research is now available on the post-harvest control of C. cosyra. Grové et al. (1998) found that C. cosyra larvae were more heat tolerant than those of C. capitata or C. rosa but 98.7% mortality followed 70 min hydro-heating at 46.1-46.7°C. Steyn and Grove (1999) experimented with cold storage and found that 3 weeks storage at 7.5°C or less killed all larvae. For avocados (Persea americana), a cold treatment at 2°C for 20 days was found to be efficacious against C. cosyra (Ware and du Toit, 2017).

References

Top of page

Badii, K. B., Billah, M. K., Afreh-Nuamah, K., Obeng-Ofori, D., 2015. Species composition and host range of fruit-infesting flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northern Ghana. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 35(3), 137-151. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=JTI

Bateman, M. A., 1982. III. Chemical methods for suppression or eradication of fruit fly populations. In: Economic Fruit Flies of the South Pacific Region, [ed. by Drew, R. A. I., Hooper, G. H. S., Bateman, M. A.]. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries. 115-128.

CABI, EPPO, 1999. Ceratitis cosyra. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, June. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 592

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp

Copeland, R. S., Wharton, R. A., Luke, Q., Meyer, M. de, Lux, S., Zenz, N., Machera, P., Okumu, M., 2006. Geographic distribution, host fruit, and parasitoids of African fruit fly pests Ceratitis anonae, Ceratitis cosyra, Ceratitis fasciventris, and Ceratitis rosa (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Kenya. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 99(2), 261-278. doi: 10.1603/0013-8746(2006)099[0261:GDHFAP]2.0.CO;2

de Meyer M, Quilici S, Franck A, Chadhouliati AC, Issimaila MA, Youssoufa MA, Abdoul-Karime AL, Barbet A, Attie M, White IM, 2012. African Invertebrates, 53(1), 69-77.

de Meyer M, 1998. Revision of the subgenus Ceratitis (Ceratalaspis) Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae). In: Bulletin of Entomological Research,88. 257-290.

de Meyer M, 2001. Distribution patterns and host-plant relationships within the genus Ceratitis MacLeay (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Africa. Cimbebasia, 17, 219-228.

de Meyer M, White IM, 2004. (True fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Africa. A queryable website on taxon and specimen information for afrotropical Dacine fruit flies). Tervuren, Belgium: Royal Museum for Central Africa.http://projects.bebif.be/enbi/fruitfly/

Dimbi S, Maniania NK, Lux SA, Ekesi S, Mueke JK, 2003. Pathogenicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorokin and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, to three adult fruit fly species: Ceratitis capitata (Weidemann), C. rosa var. fasciventris Karsch and C. cosyra (Walker) (Diptera :Tephritidae). Mycopathologia, 156, 375-382.

Drew RAI, 1982. Fruit fly collecting. In: Drew RAI, Hooper GHS, Bateman MA, eds. Economic Fruit Flies of the South Pacific Region, 2nd edition. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, 129-139

Ekesi S, Mohamed S, de Meyer M, 2016. Fruit fly research and development in Africa - towards a sustainable maintenance strategy to improve horticulture, Springer Verlag.778 pp.

Ekesi, S., Billah, M. K., Nderitu, P. W., Lux, S. A., Rwomushana, I., 2009. Evidence for competitive displacement of Ceratitis cosyra by the invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens (Diptera: Tephritidae) on mango and mechanisms contributing to the displacement. Journal of Economic Entomology, 102(3), 981-991. doi: 10.1603/029.102.0317

EPPO, 2011. Diagnostics: Ceratitis cosyra. In: Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin,41(3) . 347-351. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2338

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database Paris, France: EPPO.https://gd.eppo.int/

Grout, T. G., Daneel, J. H., Ware, A. B., Beck, R. R., 2011. A comparison of monitoring systems used for Ceratitis species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South Africa. Crop Protection, 30(6), 617-622. doi: 10.1016/j.cropro.2011.01.005

Grout, T. G., Stoltz, K. C., 2007. Developmental rates at constant temperatures of three economically important Ceratitis spp. (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Southern Africa. Environmental Entomology, 36(6), 1310-1317. doi: 10.1603/0046-225X(2007)36[1310:DRACTO]2.0.CO;2

Grové, T., Steyn, W. P., Beer, M. S. de, 1998. Warm water treatment as a quarantine measure for fruitfly-infested mangoes. (Warm water behandeling as 'n kwarantynmaatreël vir vrugtevliegbesmette mango's). Yearbook - South African Mango Growers' Association, 18, 23-25.

Hancock DL, 1987. Notes on some African Ceratitinp (Diptera: Tephritidae), with special reference to the Zimbabwean fauna. Transactions of the Zimbabwe Scientific Association, 63(6):47-57

Isabirye, B. E., Akol, A. M., Mayamba, A., Nankinga, C. K., Rwomushana, I., 2015. Species composition and community structure of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) across major mango-growing regions in Uganda. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, 35(2), 69-79. doi: 10.1017/S1742758415000089

Javaid, I., 1986. Causes of damage to some wild mango fruit trees in Zambia. International Pest Control, 28(4), 98-99.

Labuschagne T, Brink T, Steyn WP, de Beer MS, 1996. Fruit flies attacking mangoes - their importance and post harvest control. Yearbook - South African Mango Growers' Association, 16:17-19; 5 ref

Malio E, 1979. Observations on the mango fruit fly Ceratitis cosyra in the Coast Province, Kenya. Kenya Entomologist's Newsletter, No. 10:7

Malod, K., Archer, C. R., Karsten, M., Cruywagen, R., Howard, A., Nicolson, S. W., Weldon, C. W., 2020. Exploring the role of host specialisation and oxidative stress in interspecific lifespan variation in subtropical tephritid flies. Scientific Reports, 10(3), doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-62538-2

Manrakhan, A., Daneel, J. H., Beck, R., Virgilio, M., Meganck, K., Meyer, M. de, 2017. Efficacy of trapping systems for monitoring of Afrotropical fruit flies. Journal of Applied Entomology, 141(10), 825-840. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0418

Manrakhan, A., Lux, S. A., 2006. Contribution of natural food sources to reproductive behaviour, fecundity and longevity of Ceratitis cosyra, C. fasciventris and C. capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 96(3), 259-268. doi: 10.1079/BER2006421

Meyer, M. De, Copeland, R. S., Lux, S. A., Mansell, M., Quilici, S., Wharton, R., White, I. M., Zenz, N. J., 2002. Annotated check list of host plants for afrotropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of the genus Ceratitis. Documentation Zoologique, Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, 27, 1-91.

Mohamed SA, Ramadan MM, Ekesi S, 2016. In and Out of Africa: Parasitoids used for biological control of fruit flies. In: Fruit fly research and development in Africa- Towards a sustainable management strategy to improve horticulture, [ed. by Ekesi S, Mohamed SA, De Meyer M]. Switzerland: Springer International. 325-367.

Mwatawala, M. W., Meyer, M. de, Makundi, R. H., Maerere, A. P., 2006. Biodiversity of fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) in orchards in different agro-ecological zones of the Morogoro region, Tanzania. Fruits (Paris), 61(5), 321-332. doi: 10.1051/fruits:2006031

Mwatawala, M., Virgilio, M., Quilici, S., Dominic, M., Meyer, M. de, 2013. Field evaluation of the relative attractiveness of enriched ginger root oil (EGO)lure and trimedlure for African Ceratitis species (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 137(5), 392-397. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0418.2012.01744.x

N'Guetta K, 1994. Inventory of insect fruit pests in northern Cote d'Ivoire. Fruits (Paris), 49(5/6):430-431, 502-503

Rendell CH, Mwashayenyi E, Banga DJ, 1995. The mango fruit fly: population and varietal susceptibility studies. Zimbabwe Science News, 29(1):12-14; 2 ref

Roessler Y, 1989. Control; insecticides; insecticidal bait and cover sprays. In: Robinson AS, Hooper G, eds. Fruit Flies. Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. World Crop Pests 3(B). Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 329-336

Sambo, S. M., Togbé, D. R., Sinzogan, A. A. C., Adomou, A., Bokonon-Ganta, H. A., Karlsson, M. F., 2020. Habitat factors associated with Fopius caudatus parasitism and population level of its host, Ceratitis cosyra. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 168(1), 28-40. doi: 10.1111/eea.12858

Sewoosunkur Gopaul, Zenz N, Price N, 2000. Local production of protein bait for fruit fly monitoring and control. In: Proceedings of the Indian Ocean Commission, Regional Fruit Fly Symposium, Flic en Flac, Mauritius, 5th-9th June, 2000 [ed. by Price, N. S.\Seewooruthun, I.]. Quatre Bornes, Mauritius: Indian Ocean Commission, 41-47

Steck GJ, Gilstrap FE, Wharton RA, Hart WG, 1986. Braconid parasitoids of Tephritidae (Diptera) infesting coffee and other fruits in West-Central Africa. Entomophaga, 31(1):59-67

Steyn W, GrovT T, 1999. Cold storage destroys fruit flies. Neltropika Bulletin, No. 303:19-20

Vayssières JF, Kalabane S, 2000. Inventory and fluctuations of the catches of Diptera Tephritidae associated with mangoes in Coastal Guinea. Fruits (Paris), 55(4):259-270

Vayssières JF, Wharton R, Delvare G, Sanogo F, 2004. Diversity and pest control potential of hymenopteran parasitoids of Ceratitis spp. on mangos in Mali. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on fruit flies of economic importance, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 6-10 May 2002 [ed. by Barnes, B. N.]. Irene, South Africa: Isteg Scientific Publications, 461-464

Vayssières, J. F., Ouagoussounon, I., Adandonon, A., Sinzogan, A., Korie, S., Todjihoundé, R., Alassane, S., Wargui, R., Anato, F., Goergen, G., 2015. Seasonal pattern in food gathering of the weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in mango orchards in Benin. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 25(12), 1359-1387. doi: 10.1080/09583157.2015.1048425

Vayssières, J. F., Wharton, R., Adandonon, A., Sinzogan, A., 2011. Preliminary inventory of parasitoids associated with fruit flies in mangoes, guavas, cashew pepper and wild fruit crops in Benin. BioControl, 56(1), 35-43. doi: 10.1007/s10526-010-9313-y

Villiers, M. de, Manrakhan, A., Addison, P., Hattingh, V., 2013. The distribution, relative abundance, and seasonal phenology of Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis rosa, and Ceratitis cosyra (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South Africa. Environmental Entomology, 42(5), 831-840. doi: 10.1603/EN12289

Virgilio, M., Delatte, H., Nzogela, Y. B., Simiand, C., Quilici, S., Meyer, M. de, Mwatawala, M., 2015. Population structure and cryptic genetic variation in the mango fruit fly, Ceratitis cosyra (Diptera, Tephritidae). ZooKeys, (No.540), 525-538. http://zookeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=6221

Virgilio, M., Manrakhan, A., Delatte, H., Daneel, J. H., Mwatawala, M. W., Meganck, K., Barr, N. B., Meyer, M. de, 2017. The complex case of Ceratitis cosyra (Diptera: Tephritidae) and relatives. a DNA barcoding perspective. Journal of Applied Entomology, 141(10), 788-797. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1439-0418

Virgilio, M., White, I., Meyer, M. de, 2014. A set of multi-entry identification keys to African frugivorous flies (Diptera, Tephritidae). ZooKeys, (No.428), 97-108. http://www.pensoft.net/journals/zookeys/article/7366/a-set-of-multi-entry-identification-keys-to-african-frugivorous-flies-diptera-tephritidae-

Ware, A. B., Toit, C. L. N. du, 2017. Cold disinfestation of "Hass" avocado (Persia americana) of three species of fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) - Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis rosa, and Ceratitis cosyra. Journal of Economic Entomology, 110(3), 954-960. doi: 10.1093/jee/tox068

White, I. M., Elson-Harris, M. M., 1994. Fruit flies of Economic Significance: Their Identification and Bionomics, Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Distribution References

Badii K B, Billah M K, Afreh-Nuamah K, Obeng-Ofori D, 2015. Species composition and host range of fruit-infesting flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in northern Ghana. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 35 (3), 137-151. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayJournal?jid=JTI

CABI, EPPO, 1999. Ceratitis cosyra. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 592. DOI:10.1079/DMPP20066600592

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Copeland R S, Wharton R A, Luke Q, Meyer M de, Lux S, Zenz N, Machera P, Okumu M, 2006. Geographic distribution, host fruit, and parasitoids of African fruit fly pests Ceratitis anonae, Ceratitis cosyra, Ceratitis fasciventris, and Ceratitis rosa (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Kenya. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 99 (2), 261-278. http://docserver.esa.catchword.org/deliver/cw/pdf/esa/freepdfs/00138746/v99n2s8.pdf DOI:10.1603/0013-8746(2006)099[0261:GDHFAP]2.0.CO;2

De Meyer M, 1998. Revision of the subgenus Ceratitis (Ceratalaspis) Hancock (Diptera: Tephritidae). In: Bulletin of Entomological Research, 88 257-290.

De Meyer M, 2001. Distribution patterns and host-plant relationships within the genus Ceratitis MacLeay (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Africa. Cimbebasia. 219-228.

de Meyer M, White IM, 2004. True fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) of the Africa. In: A queryable website on taxon and specimen information for afrotropical Dacine fruit flies, Tervuren, Belgium: Royal Museum for Central Africa. http://projects.bebif.be/enbi/fruitfly/

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Fadlelmula A A, Ali E B M, 2014. Fruit fly species, their distribution, host range and seasonal abundance in Blue Nile State, Sudan. Persian Gulf Crop Protection. 3 (3), 17-24. http://www.cropprotection.ir/files_site/paperlist/Journal3-3-140928102059.pdf

Isabirye B E, Akol A M, Mayamba A, Nankinga C K, Rwomushana I, 2015. Species composition and community structure of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) across major mango-growing regions in Uganda. International Journal of Tropical Insect Science. 35 (2), 69-79. DOI:10.1017/S1742758415000089

Javaid I, 1986. Causes of damage to some wild mango fruit trees in Zambia. International Pest Control. 28 (4), 98-99.

Magagula C N, Nzima B A, 2013. Diversity and distribution of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) across agroecological zones in Swaziland: on the lookout for the invasive fruit fly Bactrocera invadens. Journal of Developments in Sustainable Agriculture. 8 (2), 100-109. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jdsa/8/2/8_100/_pdf

Meyer M De, Copeland R S, Lux S A, Mansell M, Quilici S, Wharton R, White I M, Zenz N J, 2002. Annotated check list of host plants for afrotropical fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of the genus Ceratitis. Documentation Zoologique, Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale. 1-91.

Mwatawala M W, Meyer M de, Makundi R H, Maerere A P, 2009. Host range and distribution of fruit-infesting pestiferous fruit flies (Diptera, Tephritidae) in selected areas of Central Tanzania. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 99 (6), 629-641. DOI:10.1017/S0007485309006695

Steck G J, Gilstrap F E, Wharton R A, Hart W G, 1986. Braconid parasitoids of Tephritidae (Diptera) infesting coffee and other fruits in West-Central Africa. Entomophaga. 31 (1), 59-67. DOI:10.1007/BF02390920

Vayssières J F, Goergen G, Lokossou O, Dossa P, Akponon C, 2009. A new Bactrocera species in Benin among mango fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) species. Acta Horticulturae. 581-588. http://www.actahort.org

Vayssières J F, Ouagoussounon I, Adandonon A, Sinzogan A, Korie S, Todjihoundé R, Alassane S, Wargui R, Anato F, Goergen G, 2015. Seasonal pattern in food gathering of the weaver ant Oecophylla longinoda (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in mango orchards in Benin. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 25 (12), 1359-1387. DOI:10.1080/09583157.2015.1048425

Vayssières J F, Wharton R, Delvare G, Sanogo F, 2004. Diversity and pest control potential of hymenopteran parasitoids of Ceratitis spp. on mangos in Mali. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on fruit flies of economic importance, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 6-10 May 2002. [ed. by Barnes B N]. Irene, South Africa: Isteg Scientific Publications. 461-464.

Villiers M de, Manrakhan A, Addison P, Hattingh V, 2013. The distribution, relative abundance, and seasonal phenology of Ceratitis capitata, Ceratitis rosa, and Ceratitis cosyra (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South Africa. Environmental Entomology. 42 (5), 831-840. DOI:10.1603/EN12289

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Virgilion, M. White, I. &and De Meyer M. 2015. A set of multi-entry identification keys to African frugivorous flies (Diptera, Tephritidae). Royal Museum for Central Africa http://fruitflykeys.africamuseum.be

Organizations

Top of page

Belgium: Royal Museum for Central Africa (RMCA), Tervuren, africamuseum.be

Contributors

Top of page

14/12/20 Updated by:

Aruna Manrakhan, Citrus Research International, South Africa

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Extent
Invasive
Origin
Third party data sources: