Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ceroplastes rusci
(fig wax scale)

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Datasheet

Ceroplastes rusci (fig wax scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ceroplastes rusci
  • Preferred Common Name
  • fig wax scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Adults on fig stem.
TitleAdults
CaptionAdults on fig stem.
CopyrightU. Aksoy
Adults on fig stem.
AdultsAdults on fig stem.U. Aksoy
Ficus carica (common fig);' C. rusci located mainly on veins.
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionFicus carica (common fig);' C. rusci located mainly on veins.
Copyright©U. Aksoy
Ficus carica (common fig);' C. rusci located mainly on veins.
Natural enemyFicus carica (common fig);' C. rusci located mainly on veins.©U. Aksoy
Fig wax scales on citrus leaf.
TitleWax scales
CaptionFig wax scales on citrus leaf.
CopyrightNOVARTIS Crop Protection AG, Basel Switzerland
Fig wax scales on citrus leaf.
Wax scalesFig wax scales on citrus leaf.NOVARTIS Crop Protection AG, Basel Switzerland

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus, 1758)

Preferred Common Name

  • fig wax scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Calypticus hydatis (Costa) Signoret, 1869
  • Calypticus radiatus Costa, 1829
  • Calypticus testudineus Costa, 1829
  • Ceroplastes denudatus Cockerell, 1893
  • Ceroplastes nerii Newstead, 1897
  • Ceroplastes tenuitectus Green, 1907
  • Chermes caricae (Barnard) Boisduval, 1867
  • Coccus artemisiae Rossi, 1794
  • Coccus caricae Bernard; Fernald, 1903
  • Coccus caricae Fabricius, 1794
  • Coccus hydatis Costa, 1829
  • Coccus rusci Linnaeus, 1758
  • Columnea caricae (Fabricius) Targioni Tozzetti, 1867
  • Columnea testudinata Targioni Tozzetti; Targioni Tozzetti, 1868
  • Columnea testudiniformis Targioni Tozzetti; Targioni Tozzetti, 1866
  • Lecanium artemisiae (Rossi) Signoret, 1872
  • Lecanium radiatum (Costa) Walker, 1852
  • Lecanium rusci (Linnaeus) Walker, 1852
  • Lecanium testudineum (Costa) Walker, 1852

International Common Names

  • English: fig scale
  • Spanish: cappareta de la higuera; cochinilla de la higuera
  • French: ceroplaste du figuier; cochenille du figuier; kermes du figuier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Feigen-schildlaus; Feigen-wachsschildlaus; Schildlaus, Feigen-; Wachsschildlaus, Feigen-
  • Italy: ceroplaste del fico; cocciniglia del fico

EPPO code

  • CERPRU (Ceroplastes rusci)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Coccidae
  •                                     Genus: Ceroplastes
  •                                         Species: Ceroplastes rusci

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent
AngolaPresent
Cabo VerdePresent
EgyptPresent
EritreaPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
LibyaPresent
MaliPresent
MoroccoPresent
São Tomé and PríncipePresent
SenegalPresent
SeychellesPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TunisiaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
ChinaPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-SichuanPresent
IndiaPresent, Localized
-BiharPresent
-JharkhandPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
IndonesiaPresent, Localized
-Irian JayaPresent
-JavaPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent, Widespread
JapanAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
JordanPresent
LebanonPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
SyriaPresent
TurkeyPresent
United Arab EmiratesPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

AlbaniaPresent
CroatiaPresent
CyprusPresent, Widespread
FrancePresent, Localized
-CorsicaPresent
GibraltarPresent
GreecePresent
-CretePresent
HungaryPresent
ItalyPresent
-SardiniaPresent
-SicilyPresent
MaltaPresent
MontenegroPresent
PolandPresentOriginal citation: abanowski (2009)
PortugalPresent
-AzoresPresent
-MadeiraPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SpainPresent
-Balearic IslandsPresent
-Canary IslandsPresent

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
GuadeloupePresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresent
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BrazilPresent, Localized
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
Ecuador
-Galapagos IslandsPresent
French GuianaPresent
GuyanaPresent
UruguayPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
Growing point / discoloration
Growing point / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anagyrus kamali Parasite Diab et al. (2014)
Aprostocetus ceroplastae Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Cheletogenes ornatus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coccophagus ceroplastae Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coccophagus lycimnia Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Eublemma scitula Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Italy mandarins
Lewia infectoria Pathogen Adults; Eggs; Arthropods|Nymphs
Metaphycus helvolus Parasite Diab et al. (2014)
Pachyneuron muscarum Parasite Diab et al. (2014)
Paraceraptrocerus italicus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Scutellista caerulea Predator Eggs Italy mandarins

References

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abanowski G, 2009. Pests of ornamental plants introduced to Polish glasshouses. (Szkodniki roslin ozdobnych zawlekane do Polskich szklarni.) Progress in Plant Protection, 49(4):1714-1723. http://www.progress.plantprotection.pl/pliki/2009/49-4-35.pdf

Anonymous, 1980. List of pests, plant diseases and weeds for the control of which quarantine measures exist. Zashchita Rastenii, 11:20-21.

Balachowsky AS, 1933. Sur la biologie de 'Ceroplastes floridensis' Comst. et sur la repartition géographique des Ceroplastes dans la region palearctique (Hem. Coccidae). Proceedings 5e Congres International d'Entomologie (Paris 1932), 5:79-87.

Basheer, A. M., Asslan, L., Saleh, A., Diab, N., Mohamed, E., 2016. Scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in Syria. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin, 46(2), 305-307. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2338

Bénassy C, Franco E, 1974. On the ecology of Ceroplastes rusci L. (Homoptera, Lecanoidae) in the Alpes-Maritimes. Annales de Zoologie, Ecologie Animale, 6(1):11-39

Ben-Dov Y, 1970. The wax scales of the genus Ceroplastes Gray (Homoptera: Coccidae) and their parasites in Israel. Israel Journal of Entomology, 5:83-92.

Ben-Dov Y, 1988. The scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of citrus in Israel: diversity and pest status. Proceedings of the Sixth International Citrus Congress. Tel Aviv, Israel, March 6-11, 1988: 1075-1082.

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc., 536 pp.

Benfatto D, 1982. Studies on the chemical control of pests of citrus: Ceroplastes rusci L. (Hemiptera, Coccidae). Annali dell'Istituto Sperimentale per l'Agrumicoltura, 15/16:121-126

Bodenheimer FS, 1951. Citrus Entomology in the Middle East. The Hague, Netherlands: Dr WJ Junk & S Gravenhage.

Boratynski KL, Williams DJ, 1964. Coccoidea. In: Kloet GS, Hinks WD, eds. Checklist of British Insects. 2nd ed. Handbook for the Identification of British Insects, 11:87-94.

Borchsenius NS, 1957. Subtribe mealybugs and scales (Coccoidea). Soft scale insects Coccidae. Vol. IX. (In Russian). Fauna SSSR. Zoologicheskii Institut Academii Nauk SSSR NS, 66:1-493.

Diab N, Asslan L, Basheer AM, 2014. Parasitoids of the soft scale insects (Homoptera: Coccidae) in fruit orchards at al Qunaetera, Syria. Egyptian Journal of Biological Pest Control, 24(2):341-346. http://www.esbcp.org/index.asp

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Ezzat YM, Hussein NA, 1969. Redescription and classification of the family Coccidae in UAR. (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 51:359-426.

Ezzat, Y. M., Hussein, N. A., 1967. Redescription and classification of the family Coccidae in U.A.R. (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 51, 359-426.

Fazeli MJ, Farzneh A, 1993. Biology of Ceroplastes rusci L. on figs in Fars province. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 60(1&2):ar 13-17, 3-4

Green EE, 1917. Observations on British Coccidae: With descriptions of new species. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 53:201-210, 260-269.

Hamon AB, Mason GJ, 1997. Fig wax scale, Ceroplastes rusci (L.), in Florida (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Entomology Circular (Gainesville), No. 380:2 pp.; 6 ref.

Hoddle, M. S., Crespo Ramírez, C., Hoddle, C. D., Loayza, J., Lincango, M. P., Driesche, R. G. van, Causton, C. E., 2013. Post release evaluation of Rodolia cardinalis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) for control of Icerya purchasi (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae) in the Galápagos Islands. Biological Control, 67(2), 262-274. doi: 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2013.08.010

Hodgson CJ, 1994. The scale insect family Coccidae: an identification manual to genera. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 639 pp.

IIE, 1993. Distribution Maps of Pests, Series A No. 373 (1st revision). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Kfir R, Rosen D, 1980. Parasites of soft scales (Homoptera: Coccidae) in Israel: an annotated list. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 43(1):113-128

Khasawinah, A. M. A. , Talhouk, A. S. , 1964. The fig wax scale, Ceroplastes rusci (Linn.). Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 53(pt. 2), 113-131 pp.

Kumar, A., 2013. Fig wax scale, Ceroplastes rusci an emerging pest of Dalbergia sissoo and its parasitisation in India. International Journal of Current Science, (No.8), 106-114. http://www.currentsciencejournal.info/issuespdf/Dr%20Arvind16.pdf

Li HaiBin, Wu SanAn, 2013. Introduction to a new invasive pest, Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Chinese Journal of Applied Entomology, 50(5), 1295-1300. http://www.ent-bull.com.cn/

Mahfoudi, N., Digiaro, M., Dhouibi, M. H., 2009. Transmission of Grapevine Leafroll Viruses by Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and Ceroplastes rusci (Hemiptera: Coccidae). Plant Disease, 93, 999-1002. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-93-10-0999

Matile-Ferrero, D., Étienne, J., 2006. Scale insects from the French Antilles and some other Caribbean islands [Hemiptera, Coccoidea]. (Cochenilles des antilles françaises et de quelques autres îles des caraïbes [Hemiptera, Coccoidea]). Revue Française d'Entomologie, 28(4), 161-190.

Mifsud, D., Falzon, A., Malumphy, C., De Lillo, E., Vovlas, N., Porcelli, F., 2012. On some arthropods associated with Ficus species (Moraceae) in the Maltese Islands. In: Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Malta,5. 5-34. https://www.um.edu.mt/library/oar/handle/123456789/550

Milek, T. M., Šimala, M., Bjeliš, M., Pintar, M., Markotic, V., 2017. Updated check list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on olive trees in Croatia with special regard on Black araucaria scale - Lindingaspis rossi (Maskell 1891)., IOBC/WPRS Bulletin, 121:91-97 https://www.iobc-wprs.org/members/shop_en.cfm?mod_Shop_detail_produkte=173

Milek, T. M., Šimala, M., Markotić, V., 2014. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Pistacia spp. in Croatia. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, 6, 63-64. http://www.acta-zoologica-bulgarica.eu/downloads/acta-zoologica-bulgarica/2014/supplement-6-63-64.pdf

Moghaddam, M., Tavakoli, M., 2010. Scale insects of the central Zagros region in Iran (Hemiptera: Coccoidea). Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 77(2), 27-45. http://www.sid.ir/en/JournalList.asp?ID=306&Name=APPLIED+ENTOMOLOGY+AND+PHYTOPATHOLOGY

Muniappan R, Watson GW, Vaughan L, Gilbertson R, Noussourou M, 2012. New records of mealybugs, scale insects, and whiteflies (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) from Mali and Senegal. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology, 28(1):1-7. http://scentsoc.org/Volumes/JAUE/28/28001.pdf

Nga Thi Vu, Eastwood R, Chat Thi Nguyen, Lam Van Pham, 2006. The fig wax scale Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus) (Homoptera: Coccidae) in south-east Vietnam: pest status, life history and biocontrol trials with Eublemma amabilis Moore (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Entomological Research, 36(4):196-201. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/enr

Onder EP, Soydanbay M, 1984. Investigations on methods of the chemical control of the wax scale (Ceroplastes rusci L.) damaging fig trees in the pgean Region. Bitki Koruma Bulteni, 24(4):200-212

Onder EP, Ulu O, Zumreoglu A, Saltabas N, 1985. Investigations on methods of chemical control of the fig wax scale (Ceroplastes rusci L.) causing damage on citrus trees in the pgean region. Turkiye Bitki Koruma Dergisi, 9(4):247-253

Pellizzari G, Camporese P, 1994. The Ceroplastes species (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the Mediterranean Basin with emphasis on C. japonicus Green. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 30(2):175-192

Pellizzari, G., Porcelli, F., Seljak, G., Kozár, F., 2011. Some additions to the scale insect fauna (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Crete with a check list of the species known from the island. Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research, 43(3), 291-300. http://users.unimi.it/˜agra/entomo/Bulletin.htm

Ragab ME, 1995. Efficiency of Scutellista cyanea Motsch. (Hym., Pteromalidae) and Tetrastichus ceroplastae (Gir.) (Hym., Eulophidae) in population suppression of Ceroplastes rusci L. (Hom., Coccidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 119(9):627-630; 19 ref.

Scaltriti GPellizzari, Antonucci A, 1982. Notes on some insects injurious to Actinidia crops. (Note su alcuni insetti dannosi a colture di Actinidia.) Informatore Fitopatologico, 32(3):47-48.

Schotman CYL, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. RLAC-PROVEG, No. 21:80 pp.

Shabana YM, Ragab ME, 1997. Alternaria infectoria, a promising biological control agent for the fig wax scale, Ceroplastes rusci (Homoptera: Coccidae), in Egypt. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 7(4):553-564; 27 ref.

Sisman S, Ülgentürk S, 2010. Scale insects species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Turkish Journal of Zoology, 34(2):219-224. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/zoology/

Williams DJ, Watson GW, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 267 pp.

Distribution References

Akșİt T, Özsemercİ F, Çakmak İ, 2003. Studies on determination of harmful fauna in the fig orchards in Aydin province (Turkey). (Aydın ilinde incir ağaçlarında saptanan zararlı türler.). Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi. 27 (3), 181-189.

Basheer A M, Asslan L, Saleh A, Diab N, Mohamed E, 2016. Scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in Syria. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 46 (2), 305-307. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2338

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc. xxviii + 536 pp.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Causton C E, Piedad Lincango M, Poulsom T G A, 2004. Feeding range studies of Rodolia cardinalis (Mulsant), a candidate biological control agent of Icerya purchasi Maskell in the Galápagos islands. Biological Control. 29 (3), 315-325. DOI:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2003.07.002

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Ezzat Y M, Hussein N A, 1967. Redescription and classification of the family Coccidae in U.A.R. (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte. 359-426.

Hamon A B, Mason G J, 1997. Fig wax scale, Ceroplastes rusci (L.), in Florida (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). In: Entomology Circular (Gainesville), Gainesville, USA: Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services' Division of Plant Industry. 2 pp.

Hoddle M S, Crespo Ramírez C, Hoddle C D, Loayza J, Lincango M P, Driesche R G van, Causton C E, 2013. Post release evaluation of Rodolia cardinalis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) for control of Icerya purchasi (Hemiptera: Monophlebidae) in the Galápagos Islands. Biological Control. 67 (2), 262-274. DOI:10.1016/j.biocontrol.2013.08.010

Șİșman S, Ülgentürk S, 2010. Scale insects species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Turkish Journal of Zoology. 34 (2), 219-224. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/zoology/

Khasawinah A M A , Talhouk A S, 1964. The fig wax scale, Ceroplastes rusci (Linn.). Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie. 53 (pt. 2), 113-131 pp.

Kumar A, 2013. Fig wax scale, Ceroplastes rusci an emerging pest of Dalbergia sissoo and its parasitisation in India. International Journal of Current Science. 106-114. http://www.currentsciencejournal.info/issuespdf/Dr%20Arvind16.pdf

Li HaiBin, Wu SanAn, 2013. Introduction to a new invasive pest, Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Chinese Journal of Applied Entomology. 50 (5), 1295-1300. http://www.ent-bull.com.cn/

Mahfoudi N, Digiaro M, Dhouibi M H, 2009. Transmission of Grapevine Leafroll Viruses by Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and Ceroplastes rusci (Hemiptera: Coccidae). Plant Disease. 999-1002. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-10-0999

Masten-Milek T, Seljak G, Šimala M, 2007. Ceroplastes japonicus (Green) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) as new pest in Croatia and its distribution. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov, 8. Slovenskega postvetovanja o varstvu Rastlin, Radenci, Slovenija, 6-7 Marec, 2007 [Zbornik predavanj in referatov, 8. Slovenskega postvetovanja o varstvu Rastlin, Radenci, Slovenija, 6-7 Marec, 2007.], [ed. by Maček J]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Plant Protection Society of Slovenia. 330-334.

Masten-Milek T, Šimala M, Korić B, Bjeliš M, 2007a. Status of scale insects (Coccoidea), family Coccidae, on grapes in 2006. In Croatia with emphasis on rarity of second generation of Parthenolecanium corni (Bouche) and Parthenolecanium persicae (Fabricius). In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov, 8. Slovenskega postvetovanja o varstvu Rastlin, Radenci, Slovenija, 6-7 Marec, 2007 [Zbornik predavanj in referatov, 8. Slovenskega postvetovanja o varstvu Rastlin, Radenci, Slovenija, 6-7 Marec, 2007a.], [ed. by Maček J]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Plant Protection Society of Slovenia. 326-329.

Matile-Ferrero D, Étienne J, 2006. Scale insects from the French Antilles and some other Caribbean islands [Hemiptera, Coccoidea]. (Cochenilles des antilles françaises et de quelques autres îles des caraïbes [Hemiptera, Coccoidea].). Revue Française d'Entomologie. 28 (4), 161-190.

Mifsud D, Falzon A, Malumphy C, De Lillo E, Vovlas N, Porcelli F, 2012. On some arthropods associated with Ficus species (Moraceae) in the Maltese Islands. In: Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Malta. 5 5-34. https://www.um.edu.mt/library/oar/handle/123456789/550

Milek T M, Šimala M, Bjeliš M, Pintar M, Markotić V, 2017. Updated check list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on olive trees in Croatia with special regard on Black araucaria scale - Lindingaspis rossi (Maskell 1891). IOBC/WPRS Bulletin. 91-97. https://www.iobc-wprs.org/members/shop_en.cfm?mod_Shop_detail_produkte=173

Milek T M, Šimala M, Markotić V, 2014. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Pistacia spp. in Croatia. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica. 63-64. http://www.acta-zoologica-bulgarica.eu/downloads/acta-zoologica-bulgarica/2014/supplement-6-63-64.pdf

Moghaddam M, Tavakoli M, 2010. Scale insects of the central Zagros region in Iran (Hemiptera: Coccoidea). Applied Entomology and Phytopathology. 77 (2), 27-45. http://www.sid.ir/en/JournalList.asp?ID=306&Name=APPLIED+ENTOMOLOGY+AND+PHYTOPATHOLOGY

Muniappan R, Watson G W, Vaughan L, Gilbertson R, Noussourou M, 2012. New records of mealybugs, scale insects, and whiteflies (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) from Mali and Senegal. Journal of Agricultural and Urban Entomology. 28 (1), 1-7. http://scentsoc.org/Volumes/JAUE/28/28001.pdf DOI:10.3954/1523-5475-28.1.1

Nga Thi Vu, Eastwood R, Chat Thi Nguyen, Lam Van Pham, 2006. The fig wax scale Ceroplastes rusci (Linnaeus) (Homoptera: Coccidae) in south-east Vietnam: pest status, life history and biocontrol trials with Eublemma amabilis Moore (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Entomological Research. 36 (4), 196-201. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/enr DOI:10.1111/j.1748-5967.2006.00034.x

NHM, 1979. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

Oueed A N, Ali A A, Hamarassh A M, 2007. Seasonal presence of wax scale Ceroplastes rusci (L.) (Homoptera: Coccidae) on fig trees in north of Iraq. Arab Journal of Plant Protection. 25 (2), 142-148. http://www.asplantprotection.org/ASPP_Journal_Table.htm

Pellizzari G, Camporese P, 1994. The Ceroplastes species (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the Mediterranean Basin with emphasis on C. japonicus Green. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. 30 (2), 175-192.

Pellizzari G, Porcelli F, Seljak G, Kozár F, 2011. Some additions to the scale insect fauna (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Crete with a check list of the species known from the island. Journal of Entomological and Acarological Research. 43 (3), 291-300. http://users.unimi.it/˜agra/entomo/Bulletin.htm

Ragab M E, 1995. Efficiency of Scutellista cyanea Motsch. (Hym., Pteromalidae) and Tetrastichus ceroplastae (Gir.) (Hym., Eulophidae) in population suppression of Ceroplastes rusci L. (Hom., Coccidae). Journal of Applied Entomology. 119 (9), 627-630. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0418.1995.tb01348.x

Schotman C Y L, 1989. Plant pests of quarantine importance to the Caribbean. In: RLAC-PROVEG, 80 pp.

Shabana Y M, Ragab M E, 1997. Alternaria infectoria, a promising biological control agent for the fig wax scale, Ceroplastes rusci (Homoptera: Coccidae), in Egypt. Biocontrol Science and Technology. 7 (4), 553-564. DOI:10.1080/09583159730613

UK, CAB International, 1993. Ceroplastes rusci. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 373 (1st Revisio. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20036600373

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