Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Ceroplastes rubens
(red wax scale)



Ceroplastes rubens (red wax scale)


  • Last modified
  • 11 October 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ceroplastes rubens
  • Preferred Common Name
  • red wax scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    CAB International
    OX10 8DE
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report


Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ceroplastes rubens Maskell, 1893

Preferred Common Name

  • red wax scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Ceroplastes myricae Green, 1900
  • Ceroplastes rubens var. minor Maskell, 1897

International Common Names

  • English: pink wax scale; ruby wax scale; wax scale, pink; wax scale, red; wax scale, ruby
  • Spanish: cochinilla cerosa roja
  • French: ceroplaste rubi; cochenille cireuse rouge

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Rote Wachsschildlaus; Schildlaus, Rote Wachs-
  • Japan: rubi-romusi

EPPO code

  • CERPRB (Ceroplastes rubens)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Coccidae
  •                                     Genus: Ceroplastes
  •                                         Species: Ceroplastes rubens

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


ChinaRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-FujianPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
-Hong KongPresentCABI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
-JiangsuPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
-ShanghaiPresentXia et al., 2005
-TibetPresentBen-Dov, 1993
-YunnanPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
Cocos IslandsPresentBellis et al., 2004
IndiaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
-AssamPresentCABI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
-BiharPresentCABI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
-KarnatakaPresentCABI, 1990
-KeralaPresentCABI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
-MaharashtraPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
-OdishaPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
-West BengalPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
IndonesiaPresentWaterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-JavaPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
-SumatraPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentEPPO, 2014
-HonshuPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
-KyushuPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
-ShikokuPresentCIE, 1960
Korea, DPRPresentCABI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentCABI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
MalaysiaPresentWaterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCIE, 1960
PhilippinesPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
Sri LankaPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
ThailandPresentWaterhouse, 1993
VietnamPresentWaterhouse, 1993


EthiopiaPresentCABI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
KenyaPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
SeychellesPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
South AfricaPresentDaneel et al., 1994
SudanPresentCABI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
TanzaniaPresentCABI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
-ZanzibarPresentCIE, 1960

North America

USARestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-FloridaPresentHamon and Williams, 1984; EPPO, 2014
-HawaiiPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

GuadeloupePresentEPPO, 2014
JamaicaPresentCABI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
MartiniquePresentEPPO, 2014
Puerto RicoPresentMedina and Gaud Garcia Tuduri, 1977; CABI, 1990; EPPO, 2014
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCABI, 1990; EPPO, 2014

South America

ColombiaPresentKondo, 2008; Kondo and Muñoz, 2016


GermanyPresentSchönfeld, 2015Brandenburg


AustraliaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentQin and Gullan, 1994; EPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
-South AustraliaPresentQin and Gullan, 1994
-VictoriaPresentQin and Gullan, 1994
-Western AustraliaPresentQin and Gullan, 1994
Cook IslandsPresentCIE, 1960; Williams and Watson, 1990; EPPO, 2014
FijiPresentCIE, 1960; Williams and Watson, 1990; EPPO, 2014
French PolynesiaRestricted distributionCIE, 1960; Williams and Watson, 1990; EPPO, 2014
GuamPresentCIE, 1960; Williams and Watson, 1990
KiribatiPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; EPPO, 2014
New CaledoniaPresentCIE, 1960; Williams and Watson, 1990; EPPO, 2014
New ZealandAbsent, invalid recordCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
NiuePresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; EPPO, 2014
Norfolk IslandPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; EPPO, 2014
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
PalauPresentCIE, 1960; EPPO, 2014
Papua New GuineaPresentMerrifield and Howcroft, 1975; EPPO, 2014
SamoaPresentCIE, 1960; Williams and Watson, 1990; EPPO, 2014
Solomon IslandsRestricted distributionCIE, 1960; Williams and Watson, 1990; EPPO, 2014
VanuatuPresentWilliams and Watson, 1990; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anicetus beneficus Parasite Adults/Nymphs Australia; Queensland; Korea Republic Citrus; mandarins; oranges
Anysis saissetiae Parasite Hawaii
Chilocorus kuwanae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccidoctonus dubius Parasite Australia; Queensland Citrus; mandarins; oranges
Coccophagus ceroplastae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus japonicus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus yoshidae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Comperiella unifasciata Parasite
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Predator
Encarsia citrina Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Eublemma scitula Predator Adults/Nymphs
Fusarium oxysporum Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Fusarium pallidoroseum Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Gibberella baccata Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Gibberella fujikuroi var. intermedium Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Gibberella sacchari Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Mataeomera dubia Predator Adults/Nymphs
Metaphycus varius Parasite Australia; Queensland Citrus; mandarins; oranges
Microterys kotinskyi Parasite Japan Citrus
Microterys nietneri Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Moranila californica Predator Eggs Japan Citrus
Rhyzobius ventralis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Scutellista caerulea Predator Eggs Japan Citrus


Top of page

Ali SM, 1971. A catalogue of the Oriental Coccoidea (Part V) (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea). Indian Museum Bulletin, 6:7-82.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Bellis GA; Donaldson JF; Carver M; Hancock DL; Fletcher MJ, 2004. Records of insect pests on Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Indian Ocean. Australian Entomologist, 31(3):93-102.

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc., 536 pp.

CABI, 1990. Institute of Entomology. Distribution Maps of Pests. Series A (Agricultural). Map No. 118. First revision, December 1990. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Chen DM; Chen WM; Li XB; Chen LX; Zhang CZ; Jing LF, 1992. Systematic screening of selective pesticides and analysis of the benefits of various pesticide combinations against major citrus pests. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 19(4):351-357; 6 ref.

CIE, 1960. Commonwealth Institute of Entomology. Distribution Maps of Pests. Series A (Agricultural). Map No. 118. December 1960. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Daneel M; Merwe Svan der; Jager Kde, 1994. Sporadic scales affecting mango. Yearbook - South African Mango Growers' Association, 14:72-74; 7 ref.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Gausman HW; Hart WG, 1974. Reflectance of sooty mold fungus on citrus leaves over the 2.5 to 40-micrometer wavelength interval. Journal of Economic Entomology, 67(4):479-480

Gimpel WF; Miller DR; Davidson JA, 1974. A systematic revision of the wax scales, genus Ceroplastes, in the United States (Homoptera; Coccoidea; Coccidae). Maryland, USA: University of Maryland, Agricultural Experiment Station, Miscellaneous Publication 841, 1-85.

Green EE, 1909. The Coccidae of Ceylon. London: Dulauc Company.

Hamon AB; Williams ML, 1984. The soft scale insects of Florida (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas, 11:1-94.

Hodgson CJ, 1994. The scale insect family Coccidae: an identification manual to genera. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 639 pp.

Itioka T; Inoue T, 1991. Settling-site selection and survival of two scale insects, Ceroplastes rubens and C. ceriferus, on citrus trees. Researches on Population Ecology, 33(1):69-85

Itioka T; Inoue T, 1996. The consequences of ant-attendance to the biological control of the red wax scale insect Ceroplastes rubens by Anicetus beneficus. Journal of Applied Ecology, 33(3):609-618; 32 ref.

Jiang H; Gu HG, 1983. An investigation on parasitoids of red wax scale, Ceroplastes rubens Maskell. Natural Enemies of Insects, 5(4):249-250

Kim HongSun; Moon DuckYoung; Kwon HyeogMo, 1994. Studies on integrated control of citrus pests. 3. Suppressive effects of the red wax scale (Ceroplastes rubens) density by a parasitic natural enemy, Anicetus beneficus (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae). RDA Journal of Agricultural Science, Crop Protection, 36(2):373-377

Kondo T, 2008. Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Hemiptera: Coccidae), a new coccid record for Colombia. Boletín del Museo de Entomología de la Universidad del Valle (BHEUV), 9(1):66-68.

Kondo T; Muñoz JA, 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) associated with avocado crop, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) in Valle del Cauca and neighboring departments of Colombia. Insecta Mundi, No.0465:1-24.

Kuwana SI, 1923. Studies on the genus Leucaspis in Japan. Journal of the Zoological Society of Japan, 35:321-324.

Loch AD, 1997. Natural enemies of pink wax scale, Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Hemiptera: Coccidae), on umbrella trees in southeastern Queensland. Australian Journal of Entomology, 36(3):303-306; 30 ref.

Loch AD; Zalucki MP, 1997. Variation in length, fecundity and survival of pink wax scale, Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Hemiptera: Coccidae), on umbrella trees. Australian Journal of Zoology, 45(4):399-407; 30 ref.

Medina Gaud S; Garcia Tuduri J, 1977. New arthropod records for Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 61(3):409-412

Merrifield LE; Howcroft NS, 1975. Ceroplastes rubens Maskell damage of Pinus caribpa Morelet with notes on the scale's preference of certain clones as host material (Hemiptera : Coccidae). Silvp Genetica, 24(4):110-113

Nakaha S, 1981. List of Hawaiian Coccoidea (Homoptera: Sternorrhyncha). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 23:387-424.

Noda T; Kitamura C; Takahashi S; Takagi K; Kashio T; Tanaka M, 1982. Host selection behaviour of Anicetus beneficus Ishii et Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) I. Ovipositional behavior for the natural host Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Hemiptera: Coccidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 17(3):350-357

Parida BB; Moharana S, 1982. Studies on the chromosome constitution of 42 species of scale insect (Coccoidea: Homoptera) from India. Chromosome Information Service, Tokyo, 32:18-20.

Qin TK; Gullan PJ, 1994. Taxonomy of the wax scales (Hemiptera: Coccidae: Ceroplastinae) in Australia. Invertebrate Taxonomy, 8(4):923-959

Sabine BNE, 1969. Insecticidal control of citrus pests in coastal central Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agriculture and Animal Science, 26:83-88.

Sands DPA, 1984. Dissolving wax from scale insects: a method for assessing parasitism and determining instars of Ceroplastes spp. and Gascardia destructor (Newstead) (Homoptera: Coccidae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 23(4):295-296

Schönfeld U, 2015. Coccoidea species in Brandenburg. (Cocciden-arten in Brandenburg.) Journal für Kulturpflanzen, 67(10):337-341.

Smith D, 1976. The seasonal history and control of Ceroplastes rubens Maskell on citrus in south-east Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences, 33(1):23-30

Smith D, 1986. Biological control of Ceroplastes rubens Maskell, by the introduced parasitoid Anicetus beneficus Ishii and Yasumatsu. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences, 43(2):101-105

Takahashi R; Tachikawa T, 1956. Scale insects of Shikoku (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Transactions of the Shikoku Entomological Society, 5:1-17.

Tao CC; Wong C; Chang Y, 1983. Monograph of Coccidae of Taiwan, Republic of China (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Journal of Taiwan Museum, 36(1):57-107

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Williams DJ; Watson GW, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 267 pp.

Xia CaiYun; Zhang Wei; Sun XingQuan; Li HuiPing; Dai GuangHui, 2005. Observations on biological habits of Ceroplastes rubens Maskell in Shanghai. Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University - Agricultural Science, 23(4):439-442.

Zheng SP; Wang GC; Chen HK, 1990. Studies on the pathogenicity of Fusarium species occurring on the red wax scale Ceroplastes rubens Maskll and the tortoise wax scale Ceroplastes japonicus Grenn. Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Zhejiangensis, 1(Suppl. 2):4-9; 9 ref.

Zimmerman EC, 1948. Insects of Hawaii. Vol 4. Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map