Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ceroplastes rubens
(red wax scale)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Ceroplastes rubens (red wax scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ceroplastes rubens
  • Preferred Common Name
  • red wax scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ceroplastes rubens Maskell, 1893

Preferred Common Name

  • red wax scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Ceroplastes myricae Green, 1900
  • Ceroplastes rubens var. minor Maskell, 1897

International Common Names

  • English: pink wax scale; ruby wax scale; wax scale, pink; wax scale, red; wax scale, ruby
  • Spanish: cochinilla cerosa roja
  • French: ceroplaste rubi; cochenille cireuse rouge

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Rote Wachsschildlaus; Schildlaus, Rote Wachs-
  • Japan: rubi-romusi

EPPO code

  • CERPRB (Ceroplastes rubens)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Coccidae
  •                                     Genus: Ceroplastes
  •                                         Species: Ceroplastes rubens

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EthiopiaPresent
KenyaPresent
RéunionPresent
SeychellesPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
-Zanzibar IslandPresent

Asia

ChinaPresent, Localized
-AnhuiPresent
-BeijingPresent
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HainanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-ShanghaiPresent
-TibetPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
Cocos IslandsPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-OdishaPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
-SumatraPresent
JapanPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
-ShikokuPresent
LaosPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
MaldivesPresent
North KoreaPresent
PhilippinesPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

GermanyPresentBrandenburg
HungaryPresent

North America

CubaPresent
GuadeloupePresent
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
United States
-FloridaPresent
-HawaiiPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced1901
-Australian Capital TerritoryPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
Christmas IslandPresent
Cook IslandsPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
FijiPresent
French PolynesiaPresent, Localized
GuamPresent
KiribatiPresent
Marshall IslandsPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
NiuePresent
Norfolk IslandPresent
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent
PalauPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
SamoaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent, Localized
VanuatuPresent

South America

Brazil
-Espirito SantoPresent
ColombiaPresent

Growth Stages

Top of page
Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anicetus beneficus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Australia; Queensland; Korea Republic Citrus; mandarins; oranges
Anysis saissetiae Parasite Hawaii
Chilocorus kuwanae Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coccidoctonus dubius Parasite Australia; Queensland Citrus; mandarins; oranges
Coccophagus ceroplastae Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coccophagus japonicus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coccophagus yoshidae Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Comperiella unifasciata Parasite
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Predator
Encarsia citrina Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Eublemma scitula Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Fusarium oxysporum Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Fusarium pallidoroseum Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Gibberella baccata Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Gibberella fujikuroi var. intermedium Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Gibberella sacchari Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Mataeomera dubia Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Metaphycus varius Parasite Australia; Queensland Citrus; mandarins; oranges
Microterys kotinskyi Parasite Japan Citrus
Microterys nietneri Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Moranila californica Predator Eggs Japan Citrus
Rhyzobius ventralis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Scutellista caerulea Predator Eggs Japan Citrus

References

Top of page

Ali SM, 1971. A catalogue of the Oriental Coccoidea (Part V) (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea). Indian Museum Bulletin, 6:7-82.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).

Australia, Northern Territory Department of Business, Industry and Resource Development, 2003. Technical Bulletin - Department of Business, Industry and Resource Development, Northern Territory Government, Darwin, Australia: Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Northern Territory of Australia (No.313), 291 pp.

Bellis GA; Donaldson JF; Carver M; Hancock DL; Fletcher MJ, 2004. Records of insect pests on Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Indian Ocean. Australian Entomologist, 31(3):93-102.

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc., 536 pp.

Bianchi, F.A., Fullaway, D.T., Gahan, A.B., Krombein, K.V., McBride, O.C., Sabrosky, C.W., Schwabe, C.W., Strohecker, H.F., Swezey, O.H., Tanada, Y., Usinger, R.L., Van Zwaluwenburg, R.H., Zimmerman, E.C., , , , 1949. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society: For the Year 1948. 13(3) . https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/16184/1/PHES13_319-341_Notes_Exhib_1948.pdf

CABI, 1990. Institute of Entomology. Distribution Maps of Pests. Series A (Agricultural). Map No. 118. First revision, December 1990. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Catling, H. D., Lee, S. C., Moon, D. K., Kim, H. S., 1977. Towards the integrated control of Korean citrus pests. Entomophaga, 22(4), 335-343. doi: 10.1007/BF02373257

Chen DM; Chen WM; Li XB; Chen LX; Zhang CZ; Jing LF, 1992. Systematic screening of selective pesticides and analysis of the benefits of various pesticide combinations against major citrus pests. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 19(4):351-357; 6 ref.

CIE, 1960. Commonwealth Institute of Entomology. Distribution Maps of Pests. Series A (Agricultural). Map No. 118. December 1960. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Daneel M; Merwe Svan der; Jager Kde, 1994. Sporadic scales affecting mango. Yearbook - South African Mango Growers' Association, 14:72-74; 7 ref.

Deng Jun, Yu Fang, Zhang TongXin, Hu HaoYuan, Zhu ChaoDong, Wu SanAn, Zhang YanZhou, 2012. DNA barcoding of six Ceroplastes species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) from China. Molecular Ecology Resources, 12(5), 791-796. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2012.03152.x

Doane, R. W. , Ferris, G. F. , 1916. Notes on Samoan Coccidae with Descriptions of three New Species. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 6(4), 399-402. doi: 10.1017/S0007485300043698

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fetykó, K., Kozár, F., 2012. Records of Ceroplastes Gray 1828 in Europe, with an identification key to species in the Palaearctic Region. Bulletin of Insectology, 65(2), 291-295. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/

Gausman HW; Hart WG, 1974. Reflectance of sooty mold fungus on citrus leaves over the 2.5 to 40-micrometer wavelength interval. Journal of Economic Entomology, 67(4):479-480

Gimpel WF; Miller DR; Davidson JA, 1974. A systematic revision of the wax scales, genus Ceroplastes, in the United States (Homoptera; Coccoidea; Coccidae). Maryland, USA: University of Maryland, Agricultural Experiment Station, Miscellaneous Publication 841, 1-85.

Green EE, 1909. The Coccidae of Ceylon. London: Dulauc Company.

Haines, I. H., Haines, J. B., 1978. Pest status of the crazy ant, Anoplolepis longipes (Jerdon) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in the Seychelles. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 68(4), 627-638. doi: 10.1017/S0007485300009603

Hamon AB; Williams ML, 1984. The soft scale insects of Florida (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas, 11:1-94.

Hodgson CJ, 1994. The scale insect family Coccidae: an identification manual to genera. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 639 pp.

Hodgson, C. J., Peronti, A. L. B. G., 2012. A revision of the wax scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Ceroplastinae) of the Afrotropical Region. Zootaxa, 3372, 1-265. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2012/f/z03372p265f.pdf

Hopkins, G. H. , 1927. Pests of Economic Plants in Samoa and other Island Groups. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 18(pt. 1), 23-32 pp. doi: 10.1017/S0007485300019647

Huang, Y., Xu, Z., Yang, C., Yuekai, W., 2007. Biological Characteristic of Ceroplastes rubens Maskell and Its Control Test in Guiyang. Guizhou Agricultural Sciences, 35(5), 63-64. https://oversea.cnki.net/kcms/detail/detail.aspx?dbCode=cjfd&QueryID=14&CurRec=21&filename=GATE200705022&dbname=CJFD2007&uid=WEEvREcwSlJHSldRa1Fhb09jMjQxY3lmcndOWmhZdzk1cEpqNldERU1Ncz0=$9A4hF_YAuvQ5obgVAqNKPCYcEjKensW4ggI8Fm4gTkoUKaID8j8gFw

Itioka T; Inoue T, 1991. Settling-site selection and survival of two scale insects, Ceroplastes rubens and C. ceriferus, on citrus trees. Researches on Population Ecology, 33(1):69-85

Itioka T; Inoue T, 1996. The consequences of ant-attendance to the biological control of the red wax scale insect Ceroplastes rubens by Anicetus beneficus. Journal of Applied Ecology, 33(3):609-618; 32 ref.

Jiang H; Gu HG, 1983. An investigation on parasitoids of red wax scale, Ceroplastes rubens Maskell. Natural Enemies of Insects, 5(4):249-250

Kim HongSun; Moon DuckYoung; Kwon HyeogMo, 1994. Studies on integrated control of citrus pests. 3. Suppressive effects of the red wax scale (Ceroplastes rubens) density by a parasitic natural enemy, Anicetus beneficus (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae). RDA Journal of Agricultural Science, Crop Protection, 36(2):373-377

Kondo T, 2008. Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Hemiptera: Coccidae), a new coccid record for Colombia. Boletín del Museo de Entomología de la Universidad del Valle (BHEUV), 9(1):66-68. http://entomologia.univalle.edu.co/boletin/boletin.htm

Kondo T; Muñoz JA, 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) associated with avocado crop, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) in Valle del Cauca and neighboring departments of Colombia. Insecta Mundi, No.0465:1-24. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2016

Kuwana SI, 1923. Studies on the genus Leucaspis in Japan. Journal of the Zoological Society of Japan, 35:321-324.

Li ShaoJian, Guo Lei, Ren ShunXiang, Barro, P. J. de, Qiu BaoLi, 2014. Hosting major international events leads to pest redistributions. Biodiversity and Conservation, 23(5), 1229-1247. doi: 10.1007/s10531-014-0663-0

Loch AD, 1997. Natural enemies of pink wax scale, Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Hemiptera: Coccidae), on umbrella trees in southeastern Queensland. Australian Journal of Entomology, 36(3):303-306; 30 ref.

Loch AD; Zalucki MP, 1997. Variation in length, fecundity and survival of pink wax scale, Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Hemiptera: Coccidae), on umbrella trees. Australian Journal of Zoology, 45(4):399-407; 30 ref.

Matile-Ferrero, D., Étienne, J., 2006. Scale insects from the French Antilles and some other Caribbean islands [Hemiptera, Coccoidea]. (Cochenilles des antilles françaises et de quelques autres îles des caraïbes [Hemiptera, Coccoidea]). Revue Française d'Entomologie, 28(4), 161-190.

Medina Gaud S; Garcia Tuduri J, 1977. New arthropod records for Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 61(3):409-412

Merrifield LE; Howcroft NS, 1975. Ceroplastes rubens Maskell damage of Pinus caribpa Morelet with notes on the scale's preference of certain clones as host material (Hemiptera : Coccidae). Silvp Genetica, 24(4):110-113

Nakaha S, 1981. List of Hawaiian Coccoidea (Homoptera: Sternorrhyncha). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society, 23:387-424.

Noda T; Kitamura C; Takahashi S; Takagi K; Kashio T; Tanaka M, 1982. Host selection behaviour of Anicetus beneficus Ishii et Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) I. Ovipositional behavior for the natural host Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Hemiptera: Coccidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology, 17(3):350-357

Pan, X. L., Geest, L. P. S. van der, 1990. Insect pests of cashew in Hainan, China, and their control. Journal of Applied Entomology, 110(4), 370-377.

Parida BB; Moharana S, 1982. Studies on the chromosome constitution of 42 species of scale insect (Coccoidea: Homoptera) from India. Chromosome Information Service, Tokyo, 32:18-20.

Qin TK; Gullan PJ, 1994. Taxonomy of the wax scales (Hemiptera: Coccidae: Ceroplastinae) in Australia. Invertebrate Taxonomy, 8(4):923-959

Sabine BNE, 1969. Insecticidal control of citrus pests in coastal central Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agriculture and Animal Science, 26:83-88.

Sands DPA, 1984. Dissolving wax from scale insects: a method for assessing parasitism and determining instars of Ceroplastes spp. and Gascardia destructor (Newstead) (Homoptera: Coccidae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 23(4):295-296

Schönfeld U, 2015. Coccoidea species in Brandenburg. (Cocciden-arten in Brandenburg.) Journal für Kulturpflanzen, 67(10):337-341. http://www.journal-kulturpflanzen.de

Smith D, 1976. The seasonal history and control of Ceroplastes rubens Maskell on citrus in south-east Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences, 33(1):23-30

Smith D, 1986. Biological control of Ceroplastes rubens Maskell, by the introduced parasitoid Anicetus beneficus Ishii and Yasumatsu. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences, 43(2):101-105

Suh SooJung, Bombay, K., 2015. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) found on dracaena and ficus plants (Asparagales: Asparagaceae, Rosales: Moraceae) from southeastern Asia. Insecta Mundi, (No.0448), 1-10. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2015

Takahashi R; Tachikawa T, 1956. Scale insects of Shikoku (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Transactions of the Shikoku Entomological Society, 5:1-17.

Tao CC; Wong C; Chang Y, 1983. Monograph of Coccidae of Taiwan, Republic of China (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Journal of Taiwan Museum, 36(1):57-107

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

Watson, G. W., Ooi, P. A. C., Girling, D. J., 1995. Insects on plants in the Maldives and their management, Ascot, UK: International Institute of Biological Control (IIBC).124 pp.

Wen HungChich, Lu FengMing, Hao HsiouHwa, Liou TsungDao, 2002. Insects pests and their injuries and control on longan in Southern Taiwan. Journal of Agricultural Research of China, 51(3), 56-64.

Williams DJ; Watson GW, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 267 pp.

Williams, D. J., Butcher, C. F., 1987. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Vanuatu. New Zealand Entomologist, 9, 88-99.

Williams, D. J., Miller, D. R., 2010. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) of the Krakatau Islands including species from adjacent Java. Zootaxa, 2451, 43-52. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/

Xia CaiYun; Zhang Wei; Sun XingQuan; Li HuiPing; Dai GuangHui, 2005. Observations on biological habits of Ceroplastes rubens Maskell in Shanghai. Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University - Agricultural Science, 23(4):439-442.

Xu ZhiHong, Chen HanLin, 2000. Six new species of the genus Microterys of China (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Entomologia Sinica, 7(2), 97-106.

Zheng SP; Wang GC; Chen HK, 1990. Studies on the pathogenicity of Fusarium species occurring on the red wax scale Ceroplastes rubens Maskll and the tortoise wax scale Ceroplastes japonicus Grenn. Acta Agriculturae Universitatis Zhejiangensis, 1(Suppl. 2):4-9; 9 ref.

Zimmerman EC, 1948. Insects of Hawaii. Vol 4. Homoptera: Auchenorrhyncha. Honolulu, Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press.

Distribution References

Australia, Northern Territory Department of Business, Industry and Resource Development, 2003. Technical Bulletin - Department of Business, Industry and Resource Development, Northern Territory Government, Darwin, Australia: Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Northern Territory of Australia. 291 pp.

Bellis G A, Donaldson J F, Carver M, Hancock D L, Fletcher M J, 2004. Records of insect pests on Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Indian Ocean. Australian Entomologist. 31 (3), 93-102.

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc. xxviii + 536 pp.

Bianchi FA, Fullaway DT, Gahan AB, Krombein KV, McBride OC, Sabrosky CW, Schwabe CW, Strohecker HF, Swezey OH, Tanada Y, Usinger RL, Van Zwaluwenburg RH, Zimmerman EC, , , , 1949. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society: For the Year 1948., 13 (3) https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/16184/1/PHES13_319-341_Notes_Exhib_1948.pdf

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Catling H D, Lee S C, Moon D K, Kim H S, 1977. Towards the integrated control of Korean citrus pests. Entomophaga. 22 (4), 335-343. DOI:10.1007/BF02373257

Daneel M, Merwe S van der, Jager K de, 1994. Sporadic scales affecting mango. Yearbook - South African Mango Growers' Association. 72-74.

Deng Jun, Yu Fang, Zhang TongXin, Hu HaoYuan, Zhu ChaoDong, Wu SanAn, Zhang YanZhou, 2012. DNA barcoding of six Ceroplastes species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) from China. Molecular Ecology Resources. 12 (5), 791-796. DOI:10.1111/j.1755-0998.2012.03152.x

Doane R W , Ferris G F, 1916. Notes on Samoan Coccidae with Descriptions of three New Species. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 6 (4), 399-402. DOI:10.1017/S0007485300043698

EPPO, 2022. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. 1 pp. https://gd.eppo.int/

Fetykó K, Kozár F, 2012. Records of Ceroplastes Gray 1828 in Europe, with an identification key to species in the Palaearctic Region. Bulletin of Insectology. 65 (2), 291-295. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/

Green E E, 1937. An annotated list of the Coccidae of Ceylon, with emendations and additions to date. Ceylon journal of Science. Section B: Zoology and geology. 277-341. http://scalenet.info/references/Green1937/

Haines I H, Haines J B, 1978. Pest status of the crazy ant, Anoplolepis longipes (Jerdon) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), in the Seychelles. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 68 (4), 627-638. DOI:10.1017/S0007485300009603

Hamon AB, Williams ML, 1984. The soft scale insects of Florida (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). In: Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas, 11 1-94.

Hodgson C J, Peronti A L B G, 2012. A revision of the wax scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Ceroplastinae) of the Afrotropical Region. Zootaxa. 1-265. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2012/f/z03372p265f.pdf

Hopkins G H, 1927. Pests of Economic Plants in Samoa and other Island Groups. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 18 (pt. 1), 23-32 pp. DOI:10.1017/S0007485300019647

Huang Y, Xu Z, Yang C, Yuekai W, 2007. Biological Characteristic of Ceroplastes rubens Maskell and Its Control Test in Guiyang. Guizhou Agricultural Sciences. 35 (5), 63-64. https://oversea.cnki.net/kcms/detail/detail.aspx?dbCode=cjfd&QueryID=14&CurRec=21&filename=GATE200705022&dbname=CJFD2007&uid=WEEvREcwSlJHSldRa1Fhb09jMjQxY3lmcndOWmhZdzk1cEpqNldERU1Ncz0=$9A4hF_YAuvQ5obgVAqNKPCYcEjKensW4ggI8Fm4gTkoUKaID8j8gFw

Itioka T, Inoue T, 1996. Density-dependent ant attendance and its effects on the parasitism of a honeydew-producing scale insect, Ceroplastes rubens. Oecologia. 106 (4), 448-454. DOI:10.1007/BF00329700

Kim HongSun, Moon DuckYoung, Kwon HyeogMo, 1994. Studies on integrated control of citrus pests. 3. Suppressive effects of the red wax scale (Ceroplastes rubens) density by a parasitic natural enemy, Anicetus beneficus (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae). RDA Journal of Agricultural Science, Crop Protection. 36 (2), 373-377.

Kinjo M, Nakasone F, Higa Y, Nagamine M, Kawai S, Kondo T, 1996. Scale Insects on Mango in Okinawa Prefecture. [Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu], 42 Japan: Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu. 125-127. DOI:10.4241/kyubyochu.42.125

Kondo T, 2008. Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Hemiptera: Coccidae), a new coccid record for Colombia. Boletín del Museo de Entomología de la Universidad del Valle. 9 (1), 66-68. http://entomologia.univalle.edu.co/boletin/boletin.htm

Kondo T, Muñoz J A, 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) associated with avocado crop, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) in Valle del Cauca and neighboring departments of Colombia. Insecta Mundi. 1-24. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2016

Krauss N L H, 1945. Notes on some Hawaiian insects. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society. 12 (2), 315.

Li ShaoJian, Guo Lei, Ren ShunXiang, Barro P J de, Qiu BaoLi, 2014. Hosting major international events leads to pest redistributions. Biodiversity and Conservation. 23 (5), 1229-1247. DOI:10.1007/s10531-014-0663-0

Loch A D, 1997. Natural enemies of pink wax scale, Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Hemiptera: Coccidae), on umbrella trees in southeastern Queensland. Australian Journal of Entomology. 36 (3), 303-306.

Matile-Ferrero D, Étienne J, 2006. Scale insects from the French Antilles and some other Caribbean islands [Hemiptera, Coccoidea]. (Cochenilles des antilles françaises et de quelques autres îles des caraïbes [Hemiptera, Coccoidea].). Revue Française d'Entomologie. 28 (4), 161-190.

Medina Gaud S, Garcia Tuduri J, 1977. New arthropod records for Puerto Rico. Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico. 61 (3), 409-412.

Merrifield L E, Howcroft N S, 1975. Ceroplastes rubens Maskell damage of Pinus caribaea Morelet with notes on the scale's preference of certain clones as host material (Hemiptera : Coccidae). Silvae Genetica. 24 (4), 110-113.

Neumann G, O'Dowd D J, Gullan P J, Green P T, 2016. Diversity, endemism and origins of scale insects on a tropical oceanic island: implications for management of an invasive ant. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 19 (1), 159-166. DOI:10.1016/j.aspen.2015.12.015

Pan X L, Geest L P S van der, 1990. Insect pests of cashew in Hainan, China, and their control. Journal of Applied Entomology. 110 (4), 370-377.

Qin T K, Gullan P J, 1994. Taxonomy of the wax scales (Hemiptera: Coccidae: Ceroplastinae) in Australia. Invertebrate Taxonomy. 8 (4), 923-959.

Qin T K, Gullan P J, 1994a. Taxonomy of the wax scales (Hemiptera : Coccidae: Ceroplastinae) in Australia. Invertebrate Taxonomy. 923 - 959. DOI:10.1071/IT9940923

Schönfeld U, 2015. Coccoidea species in Brandenburg. (Cocciden-arten in Brandenburg.). Journal für Kulturpflanzen. 67 (10), 337-341. http://www.journal-kulturpflanzen.de

Schowalter T D, 1994. Invertebrate community structure and herbivory in a tropical rain forest canopy in Puerto Rico following Hurricane Hugo. Biotropica. 26 (3), 312-319. DOI:10.2307/2388853

Schowalter T D, Willig M R, Presley S J, 2014. Canopy arthropod responses to experimental canopy opening and debris deposition in a tropical rainforest subject to hurricanes. Forest Ecology and Management. 93-102. DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2013.12.008

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Sugerman B B, 1972. Insects and other Arthropods from Kwajalein Atoll (Marshall Islands). [Proceedings, Hawaiian Entomological Society], 21 (2) USA: Hawaiian Entomological Society. 271-286. https://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/10125/11013/21_271-286.pdf

Suh SooJung, Bombay K, 2015. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) found on dracaena and ficus plants (Asparagales: Asparagaceae, Rosales: Moraceae) from southeastern Asia. Insecta Mundi. 1-10. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2015

Suresh S, Mohanasundaram M, 1996. Coccoid (Coccoidea: Homoptera) fauna of Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Entomological Research. 20 (3), 233-274.

Tao C C, Yong C-Y, Chang Y C, 2013. Monograph of Coccidae of Taiwan, Republic of China (Homoptera: Coccoidea). 36 (1), 57-107. https://agris.fao.org/agris-search/search.do?recordID=US201301472727

UK, CAB International, 1960. Ceroplastes rubens. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 118. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20056600118

UK, CAB International, 1990. Ceroplastes rubens. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 118. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20046600118

Waterhouse D F, 1993. The major arthropod pests and weeds of agriculture in Southeast Asia. Canberra, Australia: ACIAR. v + 141 pp.

Watson G W, Ooi P A C, Girling D J, 1995. Insects on plants in the Maldives and their management. Ascot, UK: International Institute of Biological Control (IIBC). 124 pp.

Wen HungChich, Lu FengMing, Hao HsiouHwa, Liou TsungDao, 2002. Insects pests and their injuries and control on longan in Southern Taiwan. Journal of Agricultural Research of China. 51 (3), 56-64.

Williams D J, Butcher C F, 1987. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Vanuatu. New Zealand Entomologist. 88-99.

Williams D J, Miller D R, 2010. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) of the Krakatau Islands including species from adjacent Java. Zootaxa. 43-52. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/

Williams D J, Watson G W, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. In: The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 267 pp.

Xia CaiYun, Zhang Wei, Sun XingQuan, Li HuiPing, Dai GuangHui, 2005. Observations on biological habits of Ceroplastes rubens Maskell in Shanghai. Journal of Shanghai Jiaotong University - Agricultural Science. 23 (4), 439-442.

Xiao HuI, Huang DaWei, 2001. A review of Eunotinae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Pteromalidae) from China. Journal of Natural History. 35 (11), 1587-1605. DOI:10.1080/002229301317092342

Xu ZhiHong, Chen HanLin, 2000. Six new species of the genus Microterys of China (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Entomologia Sinica. 7 (2), 97-106.

Yanes L C, Campos M S, 2021. Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Hemiptera: Coccidae), first report in Cuba. (Ceroplastes rubens Maskell (Hemiptera: Coccidae), nuevo reporte para Cuba.). Revista de Protección Vegetal. 36 (1), http://revistas.censa.edu.cu/index.php/RPV/article/view/1121

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Extent
Invasive
Origin
Third party data sources: