Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ceroplastes japonicus
(tortoise wax scale)

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Datasheet

Ceroplastes japonicus (tortoise wax scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ceroplastes japonicus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tortoise wax scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ceroplastes japonicus Green, 1921

Preferred Common Name

  • tortoise wax scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Ceroplastes floridensis japonicus Green, 1921
  • Ceroplastes japonicus (Green) Borchsenius, 1949
  • Cerostegia japonicus (Green) De Lotto, 1969
  • Paracerostegia japonica (Green) Tang, 1991

International Common Names

  • English: Japanese wax scale; wax scale, Japanese; wax scale, tortoise
  • French: ceroplaste japonais

Local Common Names

  • Japan: kamenoko-romusi

EPPO code

  • CERPJA (Ceroplastes japonicus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Coccidae
  •                                     Genus: Ceroplastes
  •                                         Species: Ceroplastes japonicus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

ArmeniaPresent
AzerbaijanPresent
ChinaPresent
-AnhuiPresent
-FujianPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
GeorgiaPresent
JapanPresent
-HonshuPresent, Widespread
-KyushuPresent, Widespread
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent, Widespread
-ShikokuPresent, Widespread
NepalPresent
South KoreaPresent, Widespread
TurkeyPresentOriginal citation: Ülgentürk et al. (2008)

Europe

BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresent
FrancePresent, Localized
GermanyPresentBrandenburg
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
ItalyPresent, Widespread
North MacedoniaPresent
RussiaPresent
-Southern RussiaPresent
SlovakiaPresent, Transient under eradication
SloveniaPresent
United KingdomAbsent, Formerly present

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
Growing point / discoloration
Growing point / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anicetus beneficus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Anicetus ohgushii Parasite
Chilocorus kuwanae Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Chilocorus renipustulatus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coccophagus lycimnia Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coccophagus yoshidae Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Fusarium oxysporum Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Fusarium pallidoroseum Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Gibberella baccata Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Gibberella fujikuroi var. intermedium Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Gibberella sacchari Pathogen Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Mallada boninensis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Microterys clauseni Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Republic of Georgia; USSR mulberries; Salix; trees
Rhyzobius lophanthae Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Scutellista caerulea Parasite Republic of Georgia
Tetrastichus murakamii Parasite

References

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Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc., 536 pp.

Boratynski KL, Williams DJ, 1964. Coccoidea. In: Kloet GS, Hinks WD, eds. Checklist of British Insects. 2nd ed. Handbook for the Identification of British Insects, 11:87-94.

Borchsenius NS, 1949. Identification of the Soft and Armoured Scale Insects of Armenia. Everan, SSR: Akademiya Nauk Armiyanskoy SSR.

Borchsenius NS, 1957. Subtribe mealybugs and scales (Coccoidea). Soft scale insects Coccidae. Vol. IX. (In Russian). Fauna SSSR. Zoologicheskii Institut Academii Nauk SSSR NS, 66:1-493.

CABI/EPPO, 2003. Ceroplastes japonicus. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 645. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Camporese P, Pellizzari G, 1994. Description of the immature stages of Ceroplates japonicus Green (Homoptera Coccoidea). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura, 26(1):49-58; 11 ref.

Cvetkovska-Gjorgievska, A., Dedov, I., Hristovski, S., Langourov, M., Lazarevska, S., Prelik, D., Simov, N., 2019. New records of allochtonous, invasive and pest invertebrate species from the Republic of Macedonia. Ecologica Montenegrina, 20, 56-70. doi: 10.37828/em.2019.20.5

Darvas B, El-Kareim AIA, Camporese P, Farag AI, Matolcsy G, Ujvary I, 1994. Effect of some new proinsecticide type fenoxycarb derivatives and related compounds on some scale insects and their hymenopterous parasitoids. Journal of Applied Entomology, 118(1):51-58

Dekanoidze GI, 1971. The Japanese wax scale on mulberry. Zashchita Rastenii, 16(12):43-44

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Green EE, 1921. Observations on British Coccidae: with descriptions of new species. VII Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 57:257-259.

Jiang H, Gu HG, 1988. The bionomics of Ceroplastes japonicus Green and its parasitoids. Insect Knowledge, 25(3):154

Klupács H, Volent Â, 2012. Occurrence of Ceroplastes japonicus (Coccidae) green in Hungary. (A Ceroplastes japonicus (Coccidea) pajzstetudouble acute~ elodouble acute~fordulása magyarországon.) Növényvédelem, 48(3):121-122.

Kozar, F., Jasnosh, V. A., Konstantinova, G. M., 1982. Comparative evaluation of the distribution of scale-insects (Hom. Coccoidea) and their parasites in Georgia (USSR) and in Turkey. Survey of scale insect (Homoptera Coccoidea) infestations in European orchards, No. VI. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 93(4), 333-338.

Kravchenko MA, 1985. Microterys against the Japanese wax scale. Zashchita Rastenii, Moscow, No. 9:33

Kravchenko MA, 1991. Acclimatization of the encyrtid Microterys clauseni Compere (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) - a new parasitoid of the Japanese wax scale Ceroplastes japonicus Green in the USSR. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 70(2):355-360

Lazarevska, S., Naceski, S., Krsteska, V., 2017. The Japanese wax scale Ceroplastes japonicus Green, 1921 (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccidae), a new species and pest on persimmon in the Republic of Macedonia., (No.Supplementum 9), 293-295. http://www.acta-zoologica-bulgarica.eu/downloads/acta-zoologica-bulgarica/2017/supplement-9-293-295.pdf

Longo S, 1985. Morphological and bio-ethological observations on Ceroplastes japonicus Green (Homoptera: Coccidae) in Italy. Atti XIV Congresso Nazionale Italiano di Entomologia sotto gli auspici dell'Accademia Nazionale Italiana di Entomologia, della Societa Entomologica Italiana e della International Union of Biological Sciences. Palermo - Erice - Bagheria, 28 maggio-1 giugno 1985 Palermo, Italy; Accademia Nazionale Italiana di Entomologia, 185-192

Luo CF, Wu HX, Fang WR, He DB, He HF, Ding JL, 1994. Control of Ceroplastes japonicus by spreading insecticide on twigs and branches of jujube trees. Plant Protection, 20(4):32-33

Ma Jian Le, Bai HaiYan, 2004. The main pests in the pomegranate producing areas of Sichuan province and their integrated control. South China Fruits, 33(5):70-71.

Masten-Milek T, Seljak G, Simala M, 2007. Ceroplastes japonicus (Green) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) as new pest in Croatia and its distribution. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov, 8. Slovenskega postvetovanja o varstvu Rastlin, Radenci, Slovenija, 6-7 Marec, 2007 [ed. by Macek, J.]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Plant Protection Society of Slovenia, 330-334.

Milek TM, ?imala M, 2008. Japanese wax scale Ceroplastes japonicus (Green, 1921) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Cocidae) - a new pest in Croatia. (Japanski medic Ceroplastes japonicus (Green, 1921) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) - novi ?tetnik u Hrvatskoj.) Glasilo Biljne Za?tite, 8(1):11-15.

Milek, T. M., Šimala, M., 2011. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on citrus plants in Croatia [Conference poster]. In: Zbornik Predavanj in Referatov, 10. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin, Podčetrtek, Slovenia, 1.-2. Marec 2011, [ed. by Maček, J., Trdan, S.]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Plant Protection Society of Slovenia. 273-277.

Ohgushi R, Nishino T, 1975. Comparative studies on the population dynamics of wax scales belonging to the genus Ceroplastes. 1. Survivorship curves and life tables. Annual Report, Botanic Garden, Faculty of Science, University of Kanazawa, Japan, 7-8:1-21.

Park JD, Koo HY, Lee WG, 1992. Seasonal fluctuations of each stage, ovipositing and hatching behavior of Cerostegia japonicus Green (Homoptera: Coccidae) on persimmon trees. Research Reports of the Rural Development Administration, Crop Protection, 34(1):48-53

Pellizzari G, Camporese P, 1994. The Ceroplastes species (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the Mediterranean Basin with emphasis on C. japonicus Green. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 30(2):175-192

Pencheva, A., Yovkova, M., 2016. New data on alien insect pests of ornamental plants in Bulgaria. Forestry Ideas, 22(1), 17-33. http://forestry-ideas.info/issues/issues_Index.php?pageNum_rsIssue=1&totalRows_rsIssue=9&journalFilter=55

Prokopenko AI, Mokrousova LA, 1981. Scutellista against the Japanese wax scale. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 12:43

Schönfeld U, 2015. Coccoidea species in Brandenburg. (Cocciden-arten in Brandenburg.) Journal für Kulturpflanzen, 67(10):337-341. http://www.journal-kulturpflanzen.de

Tamaki, Y., Kawai, S., 1967. Fatty Acids, Alcohols and Hydrocarbons in the Body Lipid of Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus Green, Ceroplastes japonicus Green, and Oeroplastes rubens Maskell (Homoptera: Coccidae). 32(3), 63-69. https://repository.kulib.kyoto-u.ac.jp/dspace/bitstream/2433/158518/1/btk03203_063.pdf

Tang FT, 1984. Observation on the scale insects injurious to forestry of North China. I. Shanxi Agricultural University Press, Taigu, Shanxi, China, 2:122-133.

Xie, Y., Liu, W., Xue, J., Peng, G., Han, Z., Zhang, Y., 2010. Integument of soft scale insects and the invasion of the pathogenic fungus Lecanicillium lecanii. Entomologia Hellenica, 19, 66-75. doi: 10.12681/eh.11573

Xu ZhiHong, Chen HanLin, 2000. Six new species of the genus Microterys of China (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Entomologia Sinica, 7(2), 97-106.

Xu, Z., Zhihong, X., 2002. Revision of the genus Microterys Thomson (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) of China. Microterys of China Zool. Med. Leiden, 76, 211-270. https://repository.naturalis.nl/document/45097

Yang CC, Du CJ, Li XL, Zhang XZ, 1996. Studies on the estimation of egg number and ovipositing phase of Ceroplastes japonicus Green. Journal of Tea Science, 16:53-56.

Ülgentürk S, Sahin Ö, Kaydan MB, 2008. Coccoidea (Hemiptera) species on park plants in urban areas of Istanbul province. (Istanbul ili yesil alan bitkilerinde bulunan Coccoidea (Hemiptera) türleri.) Bitki Koruma Bülteni, 48(1):1-18. http://www.ziraimucadele.gov.tr

Distribution References

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc. xxviii + 536 pp.

CABI, EPPO, 2003. Ceroplastes japonicus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 645. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20066600645

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Cvetkovska-Gjorgievska A, Dedov I, Hristovski S, Langourov M, Lazarevska S, Prelik D, Simov N, 2019. New records of allochtonous, invasive and pest invertebrate species from the Republic of Macedonia. Ecologica Montenegrina. 56-70. DOI:10.37828/em.2019.20.5

Dekanoidze G I, 1971. The Japanese wax scale on mulberry. Zashchita Rastenii. 16 (12), 43-44.

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Japoshvili G O, Noyes J S, 2005. Checklist and new data on Encyrtidae of Transcaucasia and Turkey (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). Zoosystematica Rossica. 14 (1), 135-145.

Japoshvili G, Karaca I, 2007. Encyrtid (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea, Encyrtidae) parasitoids of Coccidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in Turkey. Turkish journal of entomology. 31 (3), 175-188. DOI:10.16970/TED.11789

Klupács H, Volent Á, 2012. Occurrence of Ceroplastes japonicus (Coccidae) green in Hungary. (A Ceroplastes japonicus (Coccidea) pajzstetű előfordulása magyarországon.). Növényvédelem. 48 (3), 121-122.

Kozar F, Jasnosh V A, Konstantinova G M, 1982. Comparative evaluation of the distribution of scale-insects (Hom. Coccoidea) and their parasites in Georgia (USSR) and in Turkey. Survey of scale insect (Homoptera Coccoidea) infestations in European orchards, No. VI. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie. 93 (4), 333-338.

Kozár F, Tranfaglia A, Pellizzari G, 1984. New records on the scale insect fauna of Italy (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Bollettino del Laboratorio di Entomologia Agraria 'Filippo Silvestri'. 3-9.

Lazarevska S, Naceski S, Krsteska V, 2017. The Japanese wax scale Ceroplastes japonicus Green, 1921 (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccidae), a new species and pest on persimmon in the Republic of Macedonia. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica. 293-295. http://www.acta-zoologica-bulgarica.eu/downloads/acta-zoologica-bulgarica/2017/supplement-9-293-295.pdf

Liu WeiMin, Xie YingPing, Xue JiaoLiang, Gao Ying, Zhang YanFeng, Zhang XiaoMin, Tan JinShan, 2009. Histopathological changes of Ceroplastes japonicus infected by Lecanicillium lecanii. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology. 101 (2), 96-105. DOI:10.1016/j.jip.2009.03.002

Luo C F, Wu H X, Fang W R, He D B, He H F, Ding J L, 1994. Control of Ceroplastes japonicus by spreading insecticide on twigs and branches of jujube trees. Plant Protection. 20 (4), 32-33.

Ma Jian Le, Bai HaiYan, 2004. The main pests in the pomegranate producing areas of Sichuan province and their integrated control. South China Fruits. 33 (5), 70-71.

Masten-Milek T, Seljak G, Šimala M, 2007. Ceroplastes japonicus (Green) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) as new pest in Croatia and its distribution. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov, 8. Slovenskega postvetovanja o varstvu Rastlin, Radenci, Slovenija, 6-7 Marec, 2007 [Zbornik predavanj in referatov, 8. Slovenskega postvetovanja o varstvu Rastlin, Radenci, Slovenija, 6-7 Marec, 2007.], [ed. by Maček J]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Plant Protection Society of Slovenia. 330-334.

Milek T M, Šimala M, 2011. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on citrus plants in Croatia [Conference poster]. In: Zbornik Predavanj in Referatov, 10. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin, Podčetrtek, Slovenia, 1.-2. Marec 2011. [ed. by Maček J, Trdan S]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Plant Protection Society of Slovenia. 273-277.

Papadopoulou S, Kaydan M, Manganaris A, Loukovitis D, Chrysochoidis C, 2020. First record of Ceroplastes japonicus (Gray) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Greece and a combined approach of morphological identification and DNA barcoding. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin. 50 (2), 299-303. DOI:10.1111/epp.12665

Pellizzari G, Camporese P, 1994. The Ceroplastes species (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the Mediterranean Basin with emphasis on C. japonicus Green. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. 30 (2), 175-192.

Pencheva A, Yovkova M, 2016. New data on alien insect pests of ornamental plants in Bulgaria. Forestry Ideas. 22 (1), 17-33. http://forestry-ideas.info/issues/issues_Index.php?pageNum_rsIssue=1&totalRows_rsIssue=9&journalFilter=55

Rainato A, Pellizzari G, 2008. Redescription of the adult male and description of second-instar male, prepupa and pupa of Ceroplastes japonicus Green (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Zootaxa. 25-38. https://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2008/f/zt01895p038.pdf

Schönfeld U, 2015. Coccoidea species in Brandenburg. (Cocciden-arten in Brandenburg.). Journal für Kulturpflanzen. 67 (10), 337-341. http://www.journal-kulturpflanzen.de

Tang FT, 1984. Observation on the scale insects injurious to forestry of North China., 2 Taigu, Shanxi, China: Shanxi Agricultural University Press. 122-133.

Ülgentürk S, Șahİn Ö, Kaydan M B, 2008. Coccoidea (Hemiptera) species on park plants in urban areas of Istanbul province. (İstanbul ili yeșil alan bitkilerinde bulunan Coccoidea (Hemiptera) türleri.). Bitki Koruma Bülteni. 48 (1), 1-18. http://www.ziraimucadele.gov.tr

Ülgentürk S, Mohammed E M A M, 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera Coccoidea) on mulberry trees in Turkey. Redia. 225-228. http://www.redia.it/images/stories/pdf2016/31%20Ulgenturk%20corr%201__.pdf

Xie Y, Liu W, Xue J, Peng G, Han Z, Zhang Y, 2010. Integument of soft scale insects and the invasion of the pathogenic fungus Lecanicillium lecanii. Entomologia Hellenica. 66-75. DOI:10.12681/eh.11573

Xu Z, Zhihong X, 2002. Revision of the genus Microterys Thomson (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) of China. Microterys of China Zool. Med. Leiden. 211-270. https://repository.naturalis.nl/document/45097

Xu ZhiHong, Chen HanLin, 2000. Six new species of the genus Microterys of China (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). Entomologia Sinica. 7 (2), 97-106.

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