Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Ceroplastes japonicus
(tortoise wax scale)



Ceroplastes japonicus (tortoise wax scale)


  • Last modified
  • 15 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ceroplastes japonicus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tortoise wax scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

    If you can supply pictures for this datasheet please contact:

    CAB International
    OX10 8DE
  • Distribution map More information

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report


Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ceroplastes japonicus Green, 1921

Preferred Common Name

  • tortoise wax scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Ceroplastes floridensis japonicus Green, 1921
  • Ceroplastes japonicus (Green) Borchsenius, 1949
  • Cerostegia japonicus (Green) De Lotto, 1969
  • Paracerostegia japonica (Green) Tang, 1991

International Common Names

  • English: Japanese wax scale; wax scale, Japanese; wax scale, tortoise
  • French: ceroplaste japonais

Local Common Names

  • Japan: kamenoko-romusi

EPPO code

  • CERPJA (Ceroplastes japonicus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Coccidae
  •                                     Genus: Ceroplastes
  •                                         Species: Ceroplastes japonicus

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


ArmeniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
AzerbaijanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
ChinaPresentBen-Dov, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-HebeiPresentTang, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-HenanPresentTang, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-HubeiPresentTang, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-HunanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-JiangsuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-ShaanxiPresentTang, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-ShanxiPresentTang, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-SichuanPresentMa and Bai, 2004
-ZhejiangPresentLuo et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
Georgia (Republic of)PresentDekanoidze, 1971; Ben-Dov, 1993; Pellizzari and Camporese, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentBen-Dov, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-HonshuWidespreadPellizzari and Camporese, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-KyushuWidespreadPellizzari and Camporese, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoWidespreadPellizzari and Camporese, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-ShikokuWidespreadPellizzari and Camporese, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofWidespreadBen-Dov, 1993; Pellizzari and Camporese, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
NepalPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
TurkeyPresentÜlgentürk et al., 2008; EPPO, 2014


CroatiaPresentMasten-Milek et al., 2007; Milek and ?imala, 2008; EPPO, 2014
FranceRestricted distributionPellizzari and Camporese, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
GermanyPresentSchönfeld, 2015Brandenburg
HungaryPresentKlupács and Volent, 2012; EPPO, 2014
ItalyWidespreadBen-Dov, 1993; Pellizzari and Camporese, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
MacedoniaPresentLazarevska et al., 2017
Russian FederationPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Southern RussiaPresentBen-Dov, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
SloveniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
UKAbsent, formerly presentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
Growing point / discoloration
Growing point / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anicetus beneficus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Anicetus ohgushii Parasite
Chilocorus kuwanae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chilocorus renipustulatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus lycimnia Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus yoshidae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Fusarium oxysporum Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Fusarium pallidoroseum Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Gibberella baccata Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Gibberella fujikuroi var. intermedium Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Gibberella sacchari Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Mallada boninensis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Microterys clauseni Parasite Adults/Nymphs Republic of Georgia; USSR mulberries; Salix; trees
Rhyzobius lophanthae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Scutellista caerulea Parasite Republic of Georgia
Tetrastichus murakamii Parasite


Top of page

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc., 536 pp.

Boratynski KL, Williams DJ, 1964. Coccoidea. In: Kloet GS, Hinks WD, eds. Checklist of British Insects. 2nd ed. Handbook for the Identification of British Insects, 11:87-94.

Borchsenius NS, 1949. Identification of the Soft and Armoured Scale Insects of Armenia. Everan, SSR: Akademiya Nauk Armiyanskoy SSR.

Borchsenius NS, 1957. Subtribe mealybugs and scales (Coccoidea). Soft scale insects Coccidae. Vol. IX. (In Russian). Fauna SSSR. Zoologicheskii Institut Academii Nauk SSSR NS, 66:1-493.

CABI/EPPO, 2003. Ceroplastes japonicus. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 645. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Camporese P, Pellizzari G, 1994. Description of the immature stages of Ceroplates japonicus Green (Homoptera Coccoidea). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura, 26(1):49-58; 11 ref.

Darvas B, El-Kareim AIA, Camporese P, Farag AI, Matolcsy G, Ujvary I, 1994. Effect of some new proinsecticide type fenoxycarb derivatives and related compounds on some scale insects and their hymenopterous parasitoids. Journal of Applied Entomology, 118(1):51-58

Dekanoidze GI, 1971. The Japanese wax scale on mulberry. Zashchita Rastenii, 16(12):43-44

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

Green EE, 1921. Observations on British Coccidae: with descriptions of new species. VII Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 57:257-259.

Jiang H, Gu HG, 1988. The bionomics of Ceroplastes japonicus Green and its parasitoids. Insect Knowledge, 25(3):154

Klupács H, Volent Â, 2012. Occurrence of Ceroplastes japonicus (Coccidae) green in Hungary. (A Ceroplastes japonicus (Coccidea) pajzstetudouble acute~ elodouble acute~fordulása magyarországon.) Növényvédelem, 48(3):121-122.

Kravchenko MA, 1985. Microterys against the Japanese wax scale. Zashchita Rastenii, Moscow, No. 9:33

Kravchenko MA, 1991. Acclimatization of the encyrtid Microterys clauseni Compere (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) - a new parasitoid of the Japanese wax scale Ceroplastes japonicus Green in the USSR. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 70(2):355-360

Lazarevska, S., Naceski, S., Krsteska, V., 2017. The Japanese wax scale Ceroplastes japonicus Green, 1921 (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccidae), a new species and pest on persimmon in the Republic of Macedonia., (No.Supplementum 9), 293-295.

Longo S, 1985. Morphological and bio-ethological observations on Ceroplastes japonicus Green (Homoptera: Coccidae) in Italy. Atti XIV Congresso Nazionale Italiano di Entomologia sotto gli auspici dell'Accademia Nazionale Italiana di Entomologia, della Societa Entomologica Italiana e della International Union of Biological Sciences. Palermo - Erice - Bagheria, 28 maggio-1 giugno 1985 Palermo, Italy; Accademia Nazionale Italiana di Entomologia, 185-192

Luo CF, Wu HX, Fang WR, He DB, He HF, Ding JL, 1994. Control of Ceroplastes japonicus by spreading insecticide on twigs and branches of jujube trees. Plant Protection, 20(4):32-33

Ma Jian Le, Bai HaiYan, 2004. The main pests in the pomegranate producing areas of Sichuan province and their integrated control. South China Fruits, 33(5):70-71.

Masten-Milek T, Seljak G, Simala M, 2007. Ceroplastes japonicus (Green) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) as new pest in Croatia and its distribution. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov, 8. Slovenskega postvetovanja o varstvu Rastlin, Radenci, Slovenija, 6-7 Marec, 2007 [ed. by Macek, J.]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Plant Protection Society of Slovenia, 330-334.

Milek TM, ?imala M, 2008. Japanese wax scale Ceroplastes japonicus (Green, 1921) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Cocidae) - a new pest in Croatia. (Japanski medic Ceroplastes japonicus (Green, 1921) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) - novi ?tetnik u Hrvatskoj.) Glasilo Biljne Za?tite, 8(1):11-15.

Ohgushi R, Nishino T, 1975. Comparative studies on the population dynamics of wax scales belonging to the genus Ceroplastes. 1. Survivorship curves and life tables. Annual Report, Botanic Garden, Faculty of Science, University of Kanazawa, Japan, 7-8:1-21.

Park JD, Koo HY, Lee WG, 1992. Seasonal fluctuations of each stage, ovipositing and hatching behavior of Cerostegia japonicus Green (Homoptera: Coccidae) on persimmon trees. Research Reports of the Rural Development Administration, Crop Protection, 34(1):48-53

Pellizzari G, Camporese P, 1994. The Ceroplastes species (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the Mediterranean Basin with emphasis on C. japonicus Green. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 30(2):175-192

Prokopenko AI, Mokrousova LA, 1981. Scutellista against the Japanese wax scale. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 12:43

Schönfeld U, 2015. Coccoidea species in Brandenburg. (Cocciden-arten in Brandenburg.) Journal für Kulturpflanzen, 67(10):337-341.

Tang FT, 1984. Observation on the scale insects injurious to forestry of North China. I. Shanxi Agricultural University Press, Taigu, Shanxi, China, 2:122-133.

Yang CC, Du CJ, Li XL, Zhang XZ, 1996. Studies on the estimation of egg number and ovipositing phase of Ceroplastes japonicus Green. Journal of Tea Science, 16:53-56.

Ülgentürk S, Sahin Ö, Kaydan MB, 2008. Coccoidea (Hemiptera) species on park plants in urban areas of Istanbul province. (Istanbul ili yesil alan bitkilerinde bulunan Coccoidea (Hemiptera) türleri.) Bitki Koruma Bülteni, 48(1):1-18.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map