Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ceroplastes japonicus
(tortoise wax scale)

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Datasheet

Ceroplastes japonicus (tortoise wax scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ceroplastes japonicus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tortoise wax scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ceroplastes japonicus Green, 1921

Preferred Common Name

  • tortoise wax scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Ceroplastes floridensis japonicus Green, 1921
  • Ceroplastes japonicus (Green) Borchsenius, 1949
  • Cerostegia japonicus (Green) De Lotto, 1969
  • Paracerostegia japonica (Green) Tang, 1991

International Common Names

  • English: Japanese wax scale; wax scale, Japanese; wax scale, tortoise
  • French: ceroplaste japonais

Local Common Names

  • Japan: kamenoko-romusi

EPPO code

  • CERPJA (Ceroplastes japonicus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Coccidae
  •                                     Genus: Ceroplastes
  •                                         Species: Ceroplastes japonicus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
AzerbaijanPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
ChinaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
-HebeiPresentTang (1984); CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
-HenanPresentTang (1984); CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
-HubeiPresentTang (1984); CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
-HunanPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
-JiangsuPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
-ShaanxiPresentTang (1984); CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
-ShanxiPresentTang (1984); CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
-SichuanPresentMa Jian Le and Bai HaiYan (2004)
-ZhejiangPresentLuo et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
GeorgiaPresentDekanoidze (1971); Ben-Dov (1993); Pellizzari and Camporese (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
-HonshuPresent, WidespreadPellizzari and Camporese (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
-KyushuPresent, WidespreadPellizzari and Camporese (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent, WidespreadPellizzari and Camporese (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
-ShikokuPresent, WidespreadPellizzari and Camporese (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
NepalPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
South KoreaPresent, WidespreadBen-Dov (1993); Pellizzari and Camporese (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresentCABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Ülgentürk et al. (2008)

Europe

CroatiaPresentEPPO (2020); Masten-Milek et al. (2007); CABI (Undated)
FrancePresent, LocalizedPellizzari and Camporese (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
GermanyPresentSchönfeld (2015)Brandenburg
GreecePresentEPPO (2020)
HungaryPresentKlupács and Volent (2012); EPPO (2020)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadBen-Dov (1993); Pellizzari and Camporese (1994); CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
North MacedoniaPresentLazarevska et al. (2017); EPPO (2020)
RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
-Southern RussiaPresentBen-Dov (1993); CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
SlovakiaPresent, Transient under eradicationEPPO (2020)
SloveniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)
United KingdomAbsent, Formerly presentCABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / external feeding
Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
Growing point / discoloration
Growing point / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anicetus beneficus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Anicetus ohgushii Parasite
Chilocorus kuwanae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chilocorus renipustulatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus lycimnia Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus yoshidae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Fusarium oxysporum Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Fusarium pallidoroseum Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Gibberella baccata Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Gibberella fujikuroi var. intermedium Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Gibberella sacchari Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Mallada boninensis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Microterys clauseni Parasite Adults/Nymphs Republic of Georgia; USSR mulberries; Salix; trees
Rhyzobius lophanthae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Scutellista caerulea Parasite Republic of Georgia
Tetrastichus murakamii Parasite

References

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Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc., 536 pp.

Boratynski KL, Williams DJ, 1964. Coccoidea. In: Kloet GS, Hinks WD, eds. Checklist of British Insects. 2nd ed. Handbook for the Identification of British Insects, 11:87-94.

Borchsenius NS, 1949. Identification of the Soft and Armoured Scale Insects of Armenia. Everan, SSR: Akademiya Nauk Armiyanskoy SSR.

Borchsenius NS, 1957. Subtribe mealybugs and scales (Coccoidea). Soft scale insects Coccidae. Vol. IX. (In Russian). Fauna SSSR. Zoologicheskii Institut Academii Nauk SSSR NS, 66:1-493.

CABI/EPPO, 2003. Ceroplastes japonicus. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No. 645. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Camporese P, Pellizzari G, 1994. Description of the immature stages of Ceroplates japonicus Green (Homoptera Coccoidea). Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura, 26(1):49-58; 11 ref.

Darvas B, El-Kareim AIA, Camporese P, Farag AI, Matolcsy G, Ujvary I, 1994. Effect of some new proinsecticide type fenoxycarb derivatives and related compounds on some scale insects and their hymenopterous parasitoids. Journal of Applied Entomology, 118(1):51-58

Dekanoidze GI, 1971. The Japanese wax scale on mulberry. Zashchita Rastenii, 16(12):43-44

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Green EE, 1921. Observations on British Coccidae: with descriptions of new species. VII Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 57:257-259.

Jiang H, Gu HG, 1988. The bionomics of Ceroplastes japonicus Green and its parasitoids. Insect Knowledge, 25(3):154

Klupács H, Volent Â, 2012. Occurrence of Ceroplastes japonicus (Coccidae) green in Hungary. (A Ceroplastes japonicus (Coccidea) pajzstetudouble acute~ elodouble acute~fordulása magyarországon.) Növényvédelem, 48(3):121-122.

Kravchenko MA, 1985. Microterys against the Japanese wax scale. Zashchita Rastenii, Moscow, No. 9:33

Kravchenko MA, 1991. Acclimatization of the encyrtid Microterys clauseni Compere (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) - a new parasitoid of the Japanese wax scale Ceroplastes japonicus Green in the USSR. Entomologicheskoe Obozrenie, 70(2):355-360

Lazarevska, S., Naceski, S., Krsteska, V., 2017. The Japanese wax scale Ceroplastes japonicus Green, 1921 (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccidae), a new species and pest on persimmon in the Republic of Macedonia., (No.Supplementum 9), 293-295. http://www.acta-zoologica-bulgarica.eu/downloads/acta-zoologica-bulgarica/2017/supplement-9-293-295.pdf

Longo S, 1985. Morphological and bio-ethological observations on Ceroplastes japonicus Green (Homoptera: Coccidae) in Italy. Atti XIV Congresso Nazionale Italiano di Entomologia sotto gli auspici dell'Accademia Nazionale Italiana di Entomologia, della Societa Entomologica Italiana e della International Union of Biological Sciences. Palermo - Erice - Bagheria, 28 maggio-1 giugno 1985 Palermo, Italy; Accademia Nazionale Italiana di Entomologia, 185-192

Luo CF, Wu HX, Fang WR, He DB, He HF, Ding JL, 1994. Control of Ceroplastes japonicus by spreading insecticide on twigs and branches of jujube trees. Plant Protection, 20(4):32-33

Ma Jian Le, Bai HaiYan, 2004. The main pests in the pomegranate producing areas of Sichuan province and their integrated control. South China Fruits, 33(5):70-71.

Masten-Milek T, Seljak G, Simala M, 2007. Ceroplastes japonicus (Green) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) as new pest in Croatia and its distribution. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov, 8. Slovenskega postvetovanja o varstvu Rastlin, Radenci, Slovenija, 6-7 Marec, 2007 [ed. by Macek, J.]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Plant Protection Society of Slovenia, 330-334.

Milek TM, ?imala M, 2008. Japanese wax scale Ceroplastes japonicus (Green, 1921) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Cocidae) - a new pest in Croatia. (Japanski medic Ceroplastes japonicus (Green, 1921) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) - novi ?tetnik u Hrvatskoj.) Glasilo Biljne Za?tite, 8(1):11-15.

Ohgushi R, Nishino T, 1975. Comparative studies on the population dynamics of wax scales belonging to the genus Ceroplastes. 1. Survivorship curves and life tables. Annual Report, Botanic Garden, Faculty of Science, University of Kanazawa, Japan, 7-8:1-21.

Park JD, Koo HY, Lee WG, 1992. Seasonal fluctuations of each stage, ovipositing and hatching behavior of Cerostegia japonicus Green (Homoptera: Coccidae) on persimmon trees. Research Reports of the Rural Development Administration, Crop Protection, 34(1):48-53

Pellizzari G, Camporese P, 1994. The Ceroplastes species (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the Mediterranean Basin with emphasis on C. japonicus Green. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 30(2):175-192

Prokopenko AI, Mokrousova LA, 1981. Scutellista against the Japanese wax scale. Zashchita Rastenii, No. 12:43

Schönfeld U, 2015. Coccoidea species in Brandenburg. (Cocciden-arten in Brandenburg.) Journal für Kulturpflanzen, 67(10):337-341. http://www.journal-kulturpflanzen.de

Tang FT, 1984. Observation on the scale insects injurious to forestry of North China. I. Shanxi Agricultural University Press, Taigu, Shanxi, China, 2:122-133.

Yang CC, Du CJ, Li XL, Zhang XZ, 1996. Studies on the estimation of egg number and ovipositing phase of Ceroplastes japonicus Green. Journal of Tea Science, 16:53-56.

Ülgentürk S, Sahin Ö, Kaydan MB, 2008. Coccoidea (Hemiptera) species on park plants in urban areas of Istanbul province. (Istanbul ili yesil alan bitkilerinde bulunan Coccoidea (Hemiptera) türleri.) Bitki Koruma Bülteni, 48(1):1-18. http://www.ziraimucadele.gov.tr

Distribution References

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc. xxviii + 536 pp.

CABI, EPPO, 2003. Ceroplastes japonicus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 645.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Dekanoidze G I, 1971. The Japanese wax scale on mulberry. Zashchita Rastenii. 16 (12), 43-44.

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Klupács H, Volent Á, 2012. Occurrence of Ceroplastes japonicus (Coccidae) green in Hungary. (A Ceroplastes japonicus (Coccidea) pajzstetű előfordulása magyarországon.). Növényvédelem. 48 (3), 121-122.

Lazarevska S, Naceski S, Krsteska V, 2017. The Japanese wax scale Ceroplastes japonicus Green, 1921 (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccidae), a new species and pest on persimmon in the Republic of Macedonia. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica. 293-295. http://www.acta-zoologica-bulgarica.eu/downloads/acta-zoologica-bulgarica/2017/supplement-9-293-295.pdf

Luo C F, Wu H X, Fang W R, He D B, He H F, Ding J L, 1994. Control of Ceroplastes japonicus by spreading insecticide on twigs and branches of jujube trees. Plant Protection. 20 (4), 32-33.

Ma Jian Le, Bai HaiYan, 2004. The main pests in the pomegranate producing areas of Sichuan province and their integrated control. South China Fruits. 33 (5), 70-71.

Masten-Milek T, Seljak G, Šimala M, 2007. Ceroplastes japonicus (Green) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) as new pest in Croatia and its distribution. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov, 8. Slovenskega postvetovanja o varstvu Rastlin, Radenci, Slovenija, 6-7 Marec, 2007 [Zbornik predavanj in referatov, 8. Slovenskega postvetovanja o varstvu Rastlin, Radenci, Slovenija, 6-7 Marec, 2007.], [ed. by Maček J]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Plant Protection Society of Slovenia. 330-334.

Pellizzari G, Camporese P, 1994. The Ceroplastes species (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the Mediterranean Basin with emphasis on C. japonicus Green. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. 30 (2), 175-192.

Schönfeld U, 2015. Coccoidea species in Brandenburg. (Cocciden-arten in Brandenburg.). Journal für Kulturpflanzen. 67 (10), 337-341. http://www.journal-kulturpflanzen.de

Tang FT, 1984. Observation on the scale insects injurious to forestry of North China., 2 Taigu, Shanxi, China: Shanxi Agricultural University Press. 122-133.

Distribution Maps

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