Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Ceroplastes floridensis
(soft scale)

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Datasheet

Ceroplastes floridensis (soft scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 May 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ceroplastes floridensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • soft scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Florida wax scales on citrus leaf.
TitleWax scales
CaptionFlorida wax scales on citrus leaf.
CopyrightNOVARTIS Crop Protection AG, Basel Switzerland
Florida wax scales on citrus leaf.
Wax scalesFlorida wax scales on citrus leaf.NOVARTIS Crop Protection AG, Basel Switzerland

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, 1881

Preferred Common Name

  • soft scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Cerostegia floridensis (Comstock) De Lotto, 1969
  • Paracerostegia floridensis (Comstock) Tang, 1991

International Common Names

  • English: Florida wax scale; wax scale, Florida
  • Spanish: cochinilla perla pociedrica; escama cerosa de la Florida; escama de cera; guagua de cera de Florida
  • French: ceroplaste de Floride; cochenille de Floride

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Florida schildlaus; Schildlaus, Florida-; Wachsschildlaus, Florida-
  • Israel: knimat hashaava hafloridit
  • Italy: Ceroplaste di Florida
  • Turkey: kanli balsira

EPPO code

  • CERPFL (Ceroplastes floridensis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Coccidae
  •                                     Genus: Ceroplastes
  •                                         Species: Ceroplastes floridensis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

ComorosPresent
EgyptPresent
KenyaPresent
LibyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MauritiusPresent
MozambiquePresent
RéunionPresent
SeychellesPresent
Sierra LeonePresent
South AfricaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
TanzaniaPresent
-Zanzibar IslandPresent
TunisiaPresent
UgandaPresent

Asia

BangladeshPresent
BruneiPresent
ChinaPresent
-FujianPresent
-GuizhouPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HunanPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
GeorgiaPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-OdishaPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-Irian JayaPresent
-JavaPresent
-SulawesiPresent
IranPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
-Bonin IslandsPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
-ShikokuPresent
JordanPresent
LebanonPresent
MacauPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
-SarawakPresent
OmanPresent
PakistanPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
SyriaPresent
TaiwanPresent
TurkeyPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

CyprusPresent
FrancePresent
GreecePresent
-CretePresent
ItalyPresent
MaltaPresent
PortugalPresent
-AzoresPresent
-MadeiraPresent
SpainPresent

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
BahamasPresent
BarbadosPresent
BelizePresent
BermudaPresent
British Virgin IslandsPresent
Cayman IslandsPresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
CuraçaoPresent
DominicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
GrenadaPresent
GuadeloupePresent
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresent
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent
MexicoPresent
MontserratPresent
Netherlands AntillesPresent
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Saint Kitts and NevisPresent
Saint LuciaPresent
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresent
United StatesPresent
-AlabamaPresent
-CaliforniaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New MexicoPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
Federated States of MicronesiaPresent
GuamPresent
New CaledoniaPresent, Few occurrences
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent
PalauPresent

South America

BrazilPresent
-Espirito SantoPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
GuyanaPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
Growing point / external feeding
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / internal feeding
Leaves / wilting
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anicetus beneficus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Israel Citrus
Anicetus ceroplastis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Aprostocetus ceroplastae Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Egypt oranges
Blastobasis lecaniella Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Cephaleta Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Cheiracanthium mildei Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Israel grapefruits
Cheletogenes ornatus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Chilocorus renipustulatus Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coccophagus ceroplastae Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Coccophagus hawaiiensis Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Israel Citrus
Coccophagus lycimnia Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Predator
Cybocephalus micans Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Diversinervus elegans Parasite
Eccopsia bodkini Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Encarsia citrina Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Egypt oranges
Metaphycus eruptor Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Metaphycus flavus Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Egypt oranges
Metaseiulus occidentalis Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Microterys clauseni Parasite Israel Citrus
Microterys flavus Parasite Egypt oranges
Microterys nietneri Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Microterys speciosus Parasite Israel Citrus
Moranila californica Predator Eggs
Scutellista caerulea Predator Eggs Israel Citrus
Vitula toboga Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs

References

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Abbas MST, 1992. Comparative rates of infestation by four scale insects on citrus trees with special reference to rates of parasitism on the purple scale Lepidosaphes beckii. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 70(2):477-486; 7 ref

Argov Y, Schneider B, Rosen D, 1992. Parasitism of Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, on citrus in Israel. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 55(1):21-31

Argyriou LC, Kourmadas AL, 1980. Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock an important pest of citrus trees in pgean islands. Fruits, 35(11):705-708

Balachowsky AS, 1933. Sur la biologie de 'Ceroplastes floridensis' Comst. et sur la repartition géographique des Ceroplastes dans la region palearctique (Hem. Coccidae). Proceedings 5e Congres International d'Entomologie (Paris 1932), 5:79-87

Ben-Dov Y, 1970. The wax scales of the genus Ceroplastes Gray (Homoptera: Coccidae) and their parasites in Israel. Israel Journal of Entomology, 5:83-92

Ben-Dov Y, 1976. Phenology of the Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock (Homoptera: Coccidae), on citrus in Israel. Phytoparasitica, 4(1):3-7

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc., 536 pp

Browning HW, 1994. Classical biological control of citrus scale insects. In Rosen D, Bennett FD, Capinera JL, eds. Pest management in the subtropics: biological control - a Florida perspective. Andover, UK: Intercept Limited, 49-78

CABI/EPPO, 2010. Ceroplastes floridensis. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.December. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 440 (1st revision)

CIE, 1982. Distribution Maps of Pests. No. 440. Wallingford, UK: CAB International

Culik MP, Martins Ddos S, Ventura JA, Peronti ALBG, Gullan PJ, Kondo T, 2007. Coccidae, Pseudococcidae, Ortheziidae, and Monophlebidae(Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Biota Neotropica, 7(3):61-65. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/en/fullpaper?bn00507032007+en

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Giliomee, J. H., 1966. A list of South African scale insects (Homoptera : Coccoidea) in the collection of the British Museum (Natural History) with information on their host plants and distribution. Ann. Univ. Stellenbosch, 41(8), 4+] 414-428 pp.

Gimpel WF, Miller DR, Davidson JA, 1974. A systematic revision of the wax scales, genus Ceroplastes, in the United States (Homoptera; Coccoidea; Coccidae). Maryland, USA: University of Maryland, Agricultural Experiment Station, Miscellaneous Publication 841, 1-85

Hamon AB, Williams ML, 1984. The soft scale insects of Florida (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas, 11:1-94

Helmy EI, Abdel-Megeed MI, El-Immry SM, 1991. Comparative potency of certain insecticides against Ceroplastes floridensis (Comst.). Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 69(1):155-162; 15 ref

Huang J, Huang BK, 1988. Bionomics of Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock (Hom. Coccidae) and its hymenopterous parasites (Hym., Chalcidoidea). Journal of Fujian Agricultural College, 17(1):31-37

Jendoubi H, Suma P, Russo A, 2012. First records of Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock (Hemiptera: Coccidae) and Chrysomphalus pinnulifer (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Tunisia. Entomological News, 122(3):247-249. http://www.bioone.org/loi/entn

Kawai S, 1980. Scale Insects of Japan in Colours. Tokyo, Japan: National Agriculture Education Association, 455 pp

Kosztarab M, 1996. Scale Insects of North Eastern North America: identification, biology, and distribution. Martinsville, USA: Virginia Museum of Natural History, 650 pp

Krombein KV, Hurd PD Jr. , Smith DR, Burks BD, 1979. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution Press

Mansour F, Whitecomb WH, 1986. The spiders of a citrus grove in Israel and their role as biocontrol agents of Ceroplastes floridensis (Homoptera: Coccidae). Entomophaga, 31(3):269-276

Peleg BA, Bar Zakay I, Ascher KRS, Ben-Dov Y, 1995. The pest status of citrus scale insects in Israel (1984-1994). Proceedings of the VII International Symposium of Scale Insect Studies, held in Bet Dagan, Israel, June 12-17 1994. Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:261-264

Pellizzari G, Camporese P, 1994. The Ceroplastes species (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the Mediterranean Basin with emphasis on C. japonicus Green. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 30(2):175-192

Podoler H, Dreishpoun Y, Rosen D, 1981. Population dynamics of the Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis (Homoptera: Coccidae) on citrus in Israel. 1. A partial life-table. Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Applicata, 2(1):81-91

Salem SA, Zaki FN, 1984. Economic threshold level of the citrus wax scale Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock on citrus, Egypt. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, No. 65:333-344

Schneider B, Podoler H, Rosen D, 1987. Population dynamics of the Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis (Homoptera: Coccidae), on citrus in Israel. 2. Spatial distribution. Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Applicata, 8(1):67-78

Sun JZ, Qian ZG, Liu FL, Song HW, Wen TH, Ma PY, Wang YC, Li YL, 1989. Study on the techniques for integrated control of the major diseases and insects of Zizyphus jujuba. Forest Science and Technology, No. 4:1-4

Swailem SM, Ismail II, Ahmed NMAS, 1976. Population studies on the citrus wax scale insect, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, in different regions in Egypt (Homoptera: Coccidae). Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt, No. 60:229-237

Tang FT, 1991. The Coccidae of China. Taiyuan, China: Shanxi United Universities Press

Vidyasagar PSPV, Koya KMA, Devasahayam S, Premkumar T, 1989. Record of wax scale Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock (Homoptera: Coccidae) infesting clove seedlings in Kerala, India. Entomon, 14(3-4):359-360

Williams DJ, Watson GW, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 267 pp

Williams ML, Kosztarab M, 1972. Morphology and systematics of the Coccidae of Virginia with notes on their biology (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Research Division Bulletin of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, 74:1-215

Yardeni A, 1987. Evaluation of wind dispersed soft scale crawlers (Homoptera: Coccidae), in the infestation of a citrus grove in Israel. Israel Journal of Entomology, 21:25-31

Yardeni A, Rosen D, 1990. Wind dispersal and pattern of colonization of Ceroplastes floridensis on citrus in Israel. In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium of Scale Insect Studies, Part II. Cracow, Poland, August 6-12, 1990. Cracow, Poland: Agricultural University Press, 125-128

Yardeni A, Shapira E, Ascher KRS, Ben-Dov Y, 1995. Thinning populations of the Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock (Coccidae), by use of potassium nitrate and spray oil, as an option in IPM of citrus groves in Israel. Proceedings of the VII International Symposium of Scale Insect Studies, held in Bet Dagan, Israel, June 12-17 1994. Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:271-276

Ülgentürk S, Sahin Ö, Ayhan B, Saribasak H, Kaydan MB, 2012. Coccoidea (Hemiptera) species of Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani) in Turkey. (Türkiye'de Toros sedirinin (Cedrus libani) Coccoidea (Hemiptera) türleri.) Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi, 36(1):113-121. http://entomoloji.ege.edu.tr/files/Arsiv/2012_36_1/2012_36_1_113-121.pdf

Distribution References

Almeida L F V, Peronti A L B G, Martinelli N M, Wolff V R S, 2018. A survey of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in citrus orchards in São Paulo, Brazil. Florida Entomologist. 101 (3), 353-363. http://www.bioone.org/loi/flen DOI:10.1653/024.101.0324

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc. xxviii + 536 pp.

CABI, 2021. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, EPPO, 2010. Ceroplastes floridensis. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 440 (1st revisio. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20103313775

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Culik M P, Martins D dos S, Ventura J A, Peronti A L B G, Gullan P J, Kondo T, 2007. Coccidae, Pseudococcidae, Ortheziidae, and Monophlebidae(Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Biota Neotropica. 7 (3), 61-65. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/en/fullpaper?bn00507032007+en DOI:10.1590/S1676-06032007000300006

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Giliomee J H, 1966. A list of South African scale insects (Homoptera : Coccoidea) in the collection of the British Museum (Natural History) with information on their host plants and distribution. Ann. Univ. Stellenbosch. 41 (8), 4+] 414-428 pp.

Șİșman S, Ülgentürk S, 2010. Scale insects species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. Turkish Journal of Zoology. 34 (2), 219-224. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/zoology/

Jendoubi H, Suma P, Russo A, 2012. First records of Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock (Hemiptera: Coccidae) and Chrysomphalus pinnulifer (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Tunisia. Entomological News. 122 (3), 247-249. http://www.bioone.org/loi/entn DOI:10.3157/021.122.0305

Kondo T, Muñoz J A, 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) associated with avocado crop, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) in Valle del Cauca and neighboring departments of Colombia. Insecta Mundi. 1-24. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2016

NHM, 1913. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1929. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1940. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1954. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1970. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1982. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1985. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1987. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1989. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1991. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

Szita É, Fetykó K G, Benedicty Z K, Kozár F, Partsinevelos G, Milonas P, Kaydan M B, 2017. Data on the scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) fauna of Greece, with description of two new species. Zootaxa. 4329 (5), 463-476. http://www.mapress.com/j/zt/article/view/zootaxa.4329.5.4 DOI:10.11646/zootaxa.4329.5.4

UK, CAB International, 1982. Ceroplastes floridensis. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 440. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20056600440

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