Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Ceroplastes floridensis
(soft scale)

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Datasheet

Ceroplastes floridensis (soft scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Animal
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ceroplastes floridensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • soft scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Florida wax scales on citrus leaf.
TitleWax scales
CaptionFlorida wax scales on citrus leaf.
CopyrightNOVARTIS Crop Protection AG, Basel Switzerland
Florida wax scales on citrus leaf.
Wax scalesFlorida wax scales on citrus leaf.NOVARTIS Crop Protection AG, Basel Switzerland

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, 1881

Preferred Common Name

  • soft scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Cerostegia floridensis (Comstock) De Lotto, 1969
  • Paracerostegia floridensis (Comstock) Tang, 1991

International Common Names

  • English: Florida wax scale; wax scale, Florida
  • Spanish: cochinilla perla pociedrica; escama cerosa de la Florida; escama de cera; guagua de cera de Florida
  • French: ceroplaste de Floride; cochenille de Floride

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Florida schildlaus; Schildlaus, Florida-; Wachsschildlaus, Florida-
  • Israel: knimat hashaava hafloridit
  • Italy: Ceroplaste di Florida
  • Turkey: kanli balsira

EPPO code

  • CERPFL (Ceroplastes floridensis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Coccidae
  •                                     Genus: Ceroplastes
  •                                         Species: Ceroplastes floridensis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 24 Jul 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

ComorosPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
EgyptPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
KenyaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); NHM (1929); EPPO (2020)
LibyaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
MadagascarPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
MauritiusPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
MozambiquePresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
RéunionPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
SeychellesPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
Sierra LeonePresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
South AfricaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); NHM (1954); EPPO (2020)
TanzaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-Zanzibar IslandPresentNHM (1913)
TunisiaPresentJendoubi et al. (2012)
UgandaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); UK, CAB International (1982); EPPO (2020)

Asia

BangladeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
BruneiPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
ChinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-FujianPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-GuizhouPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-HebeiPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-HunanPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-JiangsuPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-YunnanPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-ZhejiangPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
GeorgiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
Hong KongPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
IndiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); NHM (1991); EPPO (2020)
-AssamPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-BiharPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-KarnatakaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-KeralaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-MaharashtraPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); NHM (1991); EPPO (2020)
-OdishaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); NHM (1982); EPPO (2020)
-Tamil NaduPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-West BengalPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
IndonesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-Irian JayaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-JavaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); NHM (1940); EPPO (2020)
-SulawesiPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); NHM (1985); EPPO (2020)
IranPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
IsraelPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
JapanPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-Bonin IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2010)
-HonshuPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-KyushuPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-ShikokuPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
JordanPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
LebanonPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
MacauPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-SabahPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-SarawakPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
OmanPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); NHM (1987); EPPO (2020)
PakistanPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
Saudi ArabiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); NHM (1989); EPPO (2020)
South KoreaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
Sri LankaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
SyriaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
VietnamPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)

Europe

CyprusPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
FrancePresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
GreecePresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-CretePresentEPPO (2020)
ItalyPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
MaltaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
PortugalPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-AzoresPresentEPPO (2020)
-MadeiraPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
SpainPresentEPPO (2020); NHM (1991); CABI and EPPO (2010)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
BahamasPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
BarbadosPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
BelizePresentEPPO (2020)
BermudaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
British Virgin IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
Cayman IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); NHM (1970); EPPO (2020)
Costa RicaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
CubaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
CuraçaoPresentBen-Dov (1993)
DominicaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
Dominican RepublicPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
GrenadaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
GuadeloupePresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
GuatemalaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
HaitiPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
HondurasPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
JamaicaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
MartiniquePresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
MexicoPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
MontserratPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
Netherlands AntillesPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
NicaraguaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
PanamaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
Puerto RicoPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
Saint LuciaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
United StatesPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-AlabamaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-CaliforniaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)CABI and EPPO (2010)
-FloridaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-GeorgiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-HawaiiPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-LouisianaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-MarylandPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-MississippiPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-MissouriPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-New JerseyPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-New MexicoPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-New YorkPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-North CarolinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-South CarolinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-TennesseePresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-TexasPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-VirginiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-WashingtonPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-QueenslandPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
GuamPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
New CaledoniaPresent, Few occurrencesEPPO (2020)
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
PalauPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)

South America

BrazilPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-Espirito SantoPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Culik et al. (2007); EPPO (2020)
-Minas GeraisPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-Sao PauloPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
ColombiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
EcuadorPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
GuyanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)
VenezuelaPresentCABI and EPPO (2010); EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
Growing point / external feeding
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / internal feeding
Leaves / wilting
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anicetus beneficus Parasite Adults/Nymphs Israel Citrus
Anicetus ceroplastis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Aprostocetus ceroplastae Parasite Adults/Nymphs Egypt oranges
Blastobasis lecaniella Predator Adults/Nymphs
Cephaleta Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Cheiracanthium mildei Predator Adults/Nymphs Israel grapefruits
Cheletogenes ornatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Chilocorus renipustulatus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus ceroplastae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus hawaiiensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs Israel Citrus
Coccophagus lycimnia Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Predator
Cybocephalus micans Predator Adults/Nymphs
Diversinervus elegans Parasite
Eccopsia bodkini Predator Adults/Nymphs
Encarsia citrina Parasite Adults/Nymphs Egypt oranges
Metaphycus eruptor Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Metaphycus flavus Parasite Adults/Nymphs Egypt oranges
Metaseiulus occidentalis Predator Adults/Nymphs
Microterys clauseni Parasite Israel Citrus
Microterys flavus Parasite Egypt oranges
Microterys nietneri Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Microterys speciosus Parasite Israel Citrus
Moranila californica Predator Eggs
Scutellista caerulea Predator Eggs Israel Citrus
Vitula toboga Predator Adults/Nymphs

References

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Abbas MST, 1992. Comparative rates of infestation by four scale insects on citrus trees with special reference to rates of parasitism on the purple scale Lepidosaphes beckii. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 70(2):477-486; 7 ref.

Argov Y; Schneider B; Rosen D, 1992. Parasitism of Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, on citrus in Israel. Journal of the Entomological Society of Southern Africa, 55(1):21-31

Argyriou LC; Kourmadas AL, 1980. Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock an important pest of citrus trees in pgean islands. Fruits, 35(11):705-708

Balachowsky AS, 1933. Sur la biologie de 'Ceroplastes floridensis' Comst. et sur la repartition géographique des Ceroplastes dans la region palearctique (Hem. Coccidae). Proceedings 5e Congres International d'Entomologie (Paris 1932), 5:79-87.

Ben-Dov Y, 1970. The wax scales of the genus Ceroplastes Gray (Homoptera: Coccidae) and their parasites in Israel. Israel Journal of Entomology, 5:83-92.

Ben-Dov Y, 1976. Phenology of the Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock (Homoptera: Coccidae), on citrus in Israel. Phytoparasitica, 4(1):3-7

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc., 536 pp.

Browning HW, 1994. Classical biological control of citrus scale insects. In Rosen D, Bennett FD, Capinera JL, eds. Pest management in the subtropics: biological control - a Florida perspective. Andover, UK: Intercept Limited, 49-78.

CABI/EPPO, 2010. Ceroplastes floridensis. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, No.December. Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 440 (1st revision).

CIE, 1982. Distribution Maps of Pests. No. 440. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Culik MP; Martins Ddos S; Ventura JA; Peronti ALBG; Gullan PJ; Kondo T, 2007. Coccidae, Pseudococcidae, Ortheziidae, and Monophlebidae(Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Biota Neotropica, 7(3):61-65. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/en/fullpaper?bn00507032007+en

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Gimpel WF; Miller DR; Davidson JA, 1974. A systematic revision of the wax scales, genus Ceroplastes, in the United States (Homoptera; Coccoidea; Coccidae). Maryland, USA: University of Maryland, Agricultural Experiment Station, Miscellaneous Publication 841, 1-85.

Hamon AB; Williams ML, 1984. The soft scale insects of Florida (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas, 11:1-94.

Helmy EI; Abdel-Megeed MI; El-Immry SM, 1991. Comparative potency of certain insecticides against Ceroplastes floridensis (Comst.). Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research, 69(1):155-162; 15 ref.

Huang J; Huang BK, 1988. Bionomics of Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock (Hom. Coccidae) and its hymenopterous parasites (Hym., Chalcidoidea). Journal of Fujian Agricultural College, 17(1):31-37

Jendoubi H; Suma P; Russo A, 2012. First records of Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock (Hemiptera: Coccidae) and Chrysomphalus pinnulifer (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Tunisia. Entomological News, 122(3):247-249. http://www.bioone.org/loi/entn

Kawai S, 1980. Scale Insects of Japan in Colours. Tokyo, Japan: National Agriculture Education Association, 455 pp.

Kosztarab M, 1996. Scale Insects of North Eastern North America: identification, biology, and distribution. Martinsville, USA: Virginia Museum of Natural History, 650 pp.

Krombein KV, Hurd PD Jr. , Smith DR, Burks BD, 1979. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Mansour F; Whitecomb WH, 1986. The spiders of a citrus grove in Israel and their role as biocontrol agents of Ceroplastes floridensis (Homoptera: Coccidae). Entomophaga, 31(3):269-276

Peleg BA; Bar Zakay I; Ascher KRS; Ben-Dov Y, 1995. The pest status of citrus scale insects in Israel (1984-1994). Proceedings of the VII International Symposium of Scale Insect Studies, held in Bet Dagan, Israel, June 12-17 1994. Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:261-264.

Pellizzari G; Camporese P, 1994. The Ceroplastes species (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the Mediterranean Basin with emphasis on C. japonicus Green. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France, 30(2):175-192

Podoler H; Dreishpoun Y; Rosen D, 1981. Population dynamics of the Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis (Homoptera: Coccidae) on citrus in Israel. 1. A partial life-table. Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Applicata, 2(1):81-91

Salem SA; Zaki FN, 1984. Economic threshold level of the citrus wax scale Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock on citrus, Egypt. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, No. 65:333-344

Schneider B; Podoler H; Rosen D, 1987. Population dynamics of the Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis (Homoptera: Coccidae), on citrus in Israel. 2. Spatial distribution. Acta Oecologica, Oecologia Applicata, 8(1):67-78

Sun JZ; Qian ZG; Liu FL; Song HW; Wen TH; Ma PY; Wang YC; Li YL, 1989. Study on the techniques for integrated control of the major diseases and insects of Zizyphus jujuba. Forest Science and Technology, No. 4:1-4

Swailem SM; Ismail II; Ahmed NMAS, 1976. Population studies on the citrus wax scale insect, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, in different regions in Egypt (Homoptera: Coccidae). Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Egypt, No. 60:229-237

Tang FT, 1991. The Coccidae of China. Taiyuan, China: Shanxi United Universities Press.

Vidyasagar PSPV; Koya KMA; Devasahayam S; Premkumar T, 1989. Record of wax scale Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock (Homoptera: Coccidae) infesting clove seedlings in Kerala, India. Entomon, 14(3-4):359-360

Williams DJ; Watson GW, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 267 pp.

Williams ML; Kosztarab M, 1972. Morphology and systematics of the Coccidae of Virginia with notes on their biology (Homoptera: Coccoidea). Research Division Bulletin of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, 74:1-215.

Yardeni A, 1987. Evaluation of wind dispersed soft scale crawlers (Homoptera: Coccidae), in the infestation of a citrus grove in Israel. Israel Journal of Entomology, 21:25-31.

Yardeni A; Rosen D, 1990. Wind dispersal and pattern of colonization of Ceroplastes floridensis on citrus in Israel. In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium of Scale Insect Studies, Part II. Cracow, Poland, August 6-12, 1990. Cracow, Poland: Agricultural University Press, 125-128.

Yardeni A; Shapira E; Ascher KRS; Ben-Dov Y, 1995. Thinning populations of the Florida wax scale, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock (Coccidae), by use of potassium nitrate and spray oil, as an option in IPM of citrus groves in Israel. Proceedings of the VII International Symposium of Scale Insect Studies, held in Bet Dagan, Israel, June 12-17 1994. Israel Journal of Entomology, 29:271-276.

Ülgentürk S; Sahin Ö; Ayhan B; Saribasak H; Kaydan MB, 2012. Coccoidea (Hemiptera) species of Taurus cedar (Cedrus libani) in Turkey. (Türkiye'de Toros sedirinin (Cedrus libani) Coccoidea (Hemiptera) türleri.) Türkiye Entomoloji Dergisi, 36(1):113-121. http://entomoloji.ege.edu.tr/files/Arsiv/2012_36_1/2012_36_1_113-121.pdf

Distribution References

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc. xxviii + 536 pp.

CABI, EPPO, 2010. Ceroplastes floridensis. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 440 (1st revisio.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Culik M P, Martins D dos S, Ventura J A, Peronti A L B G, Gullan P J, Kondo T, 2007. Coccidae, Pseudococcidae, Ortheziidae, and Monophlebidae(Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Biota Neotropica. 7 (3), 61-65. http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v7n3/en/fullpaper?bn00507032007+en DOI:10.1590/S1676-06032007000300006

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Jendoubi H, Suma P, Russo A, 2012. First records of Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock (Hemiptera: Coccidae) and Chrysomphalus pinnulifer (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) in Tunisia. Entomological News. 122 (3), 247-249. http://www.bioone.org/loi/entn DOI:10.3157/021.122.0305

NHM, 1913. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1929. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1940. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1954. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1970. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1982. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1985. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1987. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1989. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1991. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

UK, CAB International, 1982. Ceroplastes floridensis. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 440.

Distribution Maps

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