Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ceroplastes destructor
(white wax scale)

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Datasheet

Ceroplastes destructor (white wax scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ceroplastes destructor
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white wax scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Females are immobile and covered in a white, waxy layer.
TitleScales on coffee
CaptionFemales are immobile and covered in a white, waxy layer.
Copyright©AgrEvo
Females are immobile and covered in a white, waxy layer.
Scales on coffeeFemales are immobile and covered in a white, waxy layer.©AgrEvo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ceroplastes destructor Newstead (1917)

Preferred Common Name

  • white wax scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Gascardia destructor (Newstead, 1917)
  • Gascardia postperlucidus Qin et al. (1994); Qin and Gullan (1995) Nomen nudum

International Common Names

  • English: citrus waxy scale; soft wax scale; wax scale, soft; wax scale, white; white scale; white waxy scale

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Schildlaus, Weisse Wachs-
  • South Africa: wit wasdopluis

EPPO code

  • CERPDE (Ceroplastes destructor)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Coccidae
  •                                     Genus: Ceroplastes
  •                                         Species: Ceroplastes destructor

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Nov 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresent
BotswanaPresent
CameroonPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent, Localized
Congo, Republic of thePresent, Localized
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EritreaPresent
KenyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MozambiquePresent
São Tomé and PríncipePresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

North America

MexicoAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
United StatesAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
-FloridaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Localized
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New CaledoniaPresent, Few occurrences
New ZealandPresent
Norfolk IslandPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent

South America

ColombiaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
Fruit / premature drop
Inflorescence / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Whole plant / dwarfing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Alaeneyrtus ingens Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Anicetus communis Parasite Adults/Nymphs Australia; Australia; New South Wales Citrus
Anicetus nyasicus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Anthemus borealis Parasite
Aprostocetus ceroplastae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Diversinervus elegans Parasite Adults/Nymphs Australia Citrus
Encyrtus aquilus Parasite
Eublemma scitula Predator Adults/Nymphs Australia; South Africa Citrus
Euxanthellus adustus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Euxanthellus philippiae Parasite Adults/Nymphs Australia Citrus
Halmus chalybeus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Metaphycus ferrierei Parasite
Microterys australicus Parasite
Microterys ceroplastae Parasite
Microterys flavus Parasite
Paraceraptrocerus nyasicus Parasite Australia; Australia; Queensland; Australia; Queensland; New South Wales; Papua New Guinea Citrus
Scutellista caerulea Predator Eggs Australia; Australia; New South Wales Citrus
Scymnodes lividigaster Predator Adults/Nymphs
Serangium bicolor Predator Adults/Nymphs
Timberlakia signata Parasite
Trichomasthus ingens Parasite Australia Citrus
Zaomma xhosa Parasite

References

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Almeida DM de, 1969. Contribuicao para o estudo da quermofauna de Angola. Boletim do Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica de Angola, Luanda, 6:3-38.

Almeida DM de, 1973. Coccoidea de Angola. 1- Revisao das especies conhecidas. (In Portuguese). Boletim do Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica de Angola, Luanda, 10:1-23.

Avasthi RK; Shafee SA, 1986. Species of Ceroplastinp (Homoptera: Coccidae) from India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 83(2):327-338

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc., 536 pp.

Ben-Dov Y; Miller DR; Gibson GAP, 2001. ScaleNet. World Wide Web page at http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/scalenet/scalenet.htm (updated 10 January 2001).

Blank RH; Olson MH; Gill GSC; Dow BW, 1997. Timing of insecticide applications for control of soft wax scale (Homoptera: Coccidae) on citrus. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 25(4):311-317; 20 ref.

Brain CK, 1920. The Coccidae of South Africa - V. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 11:1-41.

Brimblecome AR, 1956. Studies in the Coccoidea. 5. The genus Ceroplastes in Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural Science, 13:159-167.

CABI/EPPO, 2000. Ceroplastes destructor. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Map No. 117. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

CIE, 1960. Distribution Maps of Pests, Series A (Agricultural). Map No. 117. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cilliers CJ, 1967. A comparative biological study of three Ceroplastes species (Hem. Coccidae) and their natural enemies. Pretoria, Republic of South Africa: Department of Agricultural Technical Services. Entomology Memoirs, 13:1-59.

De Lotto G, 1965. On some Coccidae (Homoptera), chiefly from Africa. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), 16:175-239.

De Lotto G, 1967. A contribution to the knowledge of the African Coccoidea (Homoptera). Journal of the Entomological Society of southern Africa, 29:109-120.

De Lotto G, 1971. On some genera and species of wax scales (Homoptera: Coccidae). Journal of Natural History, 5(2):133-153

Ebeling W, 1959. Subtropical Fruit Pests. Los Angeles, USA: University of California.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Gimpel WF; Miller DR; Davidson JA, 1974. A systematic revision of the wax scales, genus Ceroplastes, in the United States (Homoptera; Coccoidea; Coccidae). Maryland, USA: University of Maryland, Agricultural Experiment Station, Miscellaneous Publication 841, 1-85.

Hall WJ, 1931. Observations on the Coccidae of southern Rhodesia. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, 79:285-303.

Hodgson CJ, 1969. Notes on Rhodesian Coccidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea): Part II: The genera Ceroplastes and Gascardia. Arnoldia (Rhodesia), 4:1-43.

Hodgson CJ; Henderson RC, 2000. Coccidae (Insecta:Hemiptera:Coccoidea). Fauna of New Zealand, No. 41, 1-259.

Lo PL, 1995. Size and fecundity of soft wax scale (Ceroplastes destructor) and Chinese wax scale (C. sinensis) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) on citrus. New Zealand Entomologist, 18:63-69; 22 ref.

Lo PL; Blank RH; Penman DR, 1996. Phenology and relative abundance of Ceroplastes destructor and C. sinensis (Hemiptera: Coccidae) on citrus in Northland, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 24(4):315-321; 33 ref.

Mamet JR, 1959. Notes on the Coccoidea of Madagascar IV. Memoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar (Ser. E), 11:369-479.

Olson MH; Blank RH; Lo PL, 1993. The phenology of soft wax scale Ceroplastes destructor (Hemiptera: Coccidae) on tangelo in Kerikeri. New Zealand Entomologist, 16:25-29

Qin TingKui; Gullan PJ, 1995. A cladistic analysis of wax scales (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae: Ceroplastinae). Systematic Entomology, 20(4):289-308; 3 pp. of ref.

Qin TK, 1997. The pela wax scale and commercial wax production. In: Ben-Dov Y, Hodgson C, eds. Soft Scale Insects, Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Scientific Publishers BV, 303-321.

Qin TK, 2000. Some doubtful distributional records of Ceroplastes destructor Newstead (Coccidae: Ceroplastinae). The Scale, 24:12-13.

Qin TK; Gullan PJ, 1994. Taxonomy of the wax scales (Hemiptera: Coccidae: Ceroplastinae) in Australia. Invertebrate Taxonomy, 8(4):923-959

Qin TK; Gullan PJ, 1999. A new synonym of Ceroplastes destructor Newstead (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae: Ceroplastinae). African Entomology, 7(2):305-306; 11 ref.

Qin TK; Gullan PJ; Beattie GAC; Trueman JWH; Cranston PS; Fletcher MJ; Sands DPA, 1994. The current distribution and geographical origin of the scale insect pest Ceroplastes sinensis (Hemiptera: Coccidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 84:541-549.

Sands DPA; Lukins RG; Snowball GJ, 1986. Agents introduced into Australia for the biological control of Gascardia destructor (Newstead) (Hemiptera: Coccidae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 25(1):51-59

Smith D; Beattie GAC; Broadley R, 1997. Citrus pests and their natural enemies: integrated pest management in Australia (Series: Information series, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Q197030).

Smith D; Ironside DA, 1974. The seasonal history of Gascardia destructor (Newstead) in Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences, 31(3):195-199

Snowball GJ, 1969. Prospects for biological control of white wax scale (Gascardia destructor) in Australia by South African natural enemies. Journal of the Entomological Society of Australia (NSW), 5:23-33.

Subba Rao BR, 1965. A key to species of Anicetus Howard, 1896 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and descriptions of new species from India. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (B), 34:71-75.

Wakgari WM; Giliomee JH, 1998. Description of the stages of the white wax-scale, Ceroplastes destructor Newstead (Homoptera: Coccidae). African Entomology, 6(2):303-316; 24 ref.

Williams DJ; Watson GW, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 267 pp.

Zeck EH, 1932. Investigations on two white wax scales (Ceroplastes) as pests in Australia. Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales, 43:611-616.

Distribution References

Almeida DM de, 1973. (Coccoidea de Angola. 1- Revisao das especies conhecidas)., 10 Luanda, Angola: 1-23.

Ben-Dov Y, Miller DR, Gibson GAP, 2001. ScaleNet., http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/scalenet/scalenet.htm

Blank R H, Olson M H, Gill G S C, Dow B W, 1997. Timing of insecticide applications for control of soft wax scale (Homoptera: Coccidae) on citrus. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science. 25 (4), 311-317.

Brain C K, 1920. The Coccidae of South Africa - V. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 1-41. DOI:10.1017/S000748530004428X

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

De Lotto G, 1965. On some Coccidae (Homoptera), chiefly from Africa. In: Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), 16 175-239.

De Lotto G, 1967. A contribution to the knowledge of the African Coccoidea (Homoptera). In: Journal of the Entomological Society of southern Africa, 29 109-120.

De Lotto G, 1971. On some genera and species of wax scales (Homoptera: Coccidae). Journal of Natural History. 5 (2), 133-153. DOI:10.1080/00222937100770091

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

HALL W J, 1931. Observations on the Coccidae of Southern Rhodesia, Including 15 new species and varieties and a key to the species of Ceroplastes. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London. 79 (pt. 2), 285-303.

Hely P C, 1960. Dispersal of white wax scale (Ceroplastes destructor Newst.) by wind. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science. 26 (4), 355-356 pp.

Hodgson CJ, 1969. Notes on Rhodesian Coccidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea): Part II: The genera Ceroplastes and Gascardia. In: Arnoldia (Rhodesia), 4 1-43.

Hodgson CJ, Henderson RC, 2000. (Coccidae (Insecta:Hemiptera:Coccoidea)). In: Fauna of New Zealand, 1-259.

Mamet JR, 1959. Notes on the Coccoidea of Madagascar IV. In: Memoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar (Ser. E), 11 369-479.

NHM, 1949. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1953. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1954. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1962. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

Qin T K, Gullan P J, 1994. Taxonomy of the wax scales (Hemiptera: Coccidae: Ceroplastinae) in Australia. Invertebrate Taxonomy. 8 (4), 923-959.

Qin T K, Gullan P J, 1994a. Taxonomy of the wax scales (Hemiptera : Coccidae: Ceroplastinae) in Australia. Invertebrate Taxonomy. 923 - 959. DOI:10.1071/IT9940923

Qin T K, Gullan P J, 1999. A new synonym of Ceroplastes destructor Newstead (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae: Ceroplastinae). African Entomology. 7 (2), 305-306.

Smith D, Beattie GAC, Broadley R, 1997. Citrus pests and their natural enemies: integrated pest management in Australia (Series: Information series, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Q197030).,

UK, CAB International, 1960. Ceroplastes destructor. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 117. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20056600117

Wakgari W M, Giliomee J H, 1998. Description of the stages of the white wax-scale, Ceroplastes destructor Newstead (Homoptera: Coccidae). African Entomology. 6 (2), 303-316.

Williams D J, Watson G W, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. In: The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 267 pp.

Distribution Maps

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