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Datasheet

Ceroplastes destructor
(white wax scale)

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Datasheet

Ceroplastes destructor (white wax scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 July 2022
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ceroplastes destructor
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white wax scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The white wax scale is a conspicuous species which is sedentary except in the first instar when the so-called crawlers actively move around before settling. The second and third instars later move from the leaves to the twigs and in the case of he...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Ceroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Infested branch. Papamoa Beach, Tauranga, New Zealand. March 2021.
TitleInfestation
CaptionCeroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Infested branch. Papamoa Beach, Tauranga, New Zealand. March 2021.
Copyright©Dave_Holland/via iNaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Ceroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Infested branch. Papamoa Beach, Tauranga, New Zealand. March 2021.
InfestationCeroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Infested branch. Papamoa Beach, Tauranga, New Zealand. March 2021.©Dave_Holland/via iNaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Ceroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Individual. Cheringoma, Mozambique. December 2014.
TitleIndividual
CaptionCeroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Individual. Cheringoma, Mozambique. December 2014.
Copyright©i_c_riddell/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Ceroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Individual. Cheringoma, Mozambique. December 2014.
IndividualCeroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Individual. Cheringoma, Mozambique. December 2014.©i_c_riddell/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Ceroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Individual, note 5mm scale. Surville Cliffs, New Zealand. November 2010.
TitleIndividual
CaptionCeroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Individual, note 5mm scale. Surville Cliffs, New Zealand. November 2010.
Copyright©Jeremy_Rolfe/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Ceroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Individual, note 5mm scale. Surville Cliffs, New Zealand. November 2010.
IndividualCeroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Individual, note 5mm scale. Surville Cliffs, New Zealand. November 2010.©Jeremy_Rolfe/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Ceroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Individual on branch. Surville Cliffs, New Zealand. November 2010.
TitleIndividual
CaptionCeroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Individual on branch. Surville Cliffs, New Zealand. November 2010.
Copyright©Jeremy_Rolfe/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Ceroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Individual on branch. Surville Cliffs, New Zealand. November 2010.
IndividualCeroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Individual on branch. Surville Cliffs, New Zealand. November 2010.©Jeremy_Rolfe/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Ceroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Infested branch. Mount Albert, Auckland. June 2020.
TitleInfestation
CaptionCeroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Infested branch. Mount Albert, Auckland. June 2020.
Copyright©Stephen Thorpe/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Ceroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Infested branch. Mount Albert, Auckland. June 2020.
InfestationCeroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Infested branch. Mount Albert, Auckland. June 2020.©Stephen Thorpe/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Ceroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Infestation. Surville Cliffs, New Zealand. November 2010.
TitleInfestation
CaptionCeroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Infestation. Surville Cliffs, New Zealand. November 2010.
Copyright©Jeremy_Rolfe/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Ceroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Infestation. Surville Cliffs, New Zealand. November 2010.
InfestationCeroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Infestation. Surville Cliffs, New Zealand. November 2010.©Jeremy_Rolfe/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Ceroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Infestation. Papamoa Beach, Tauranga, New Zealand. March 2021.
TitleInfestation
CaptionCeroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Infestation. Papamoa Beach, Tauranga, New Zealand. March 2021.
Copyright©Dave_Holland/via iNaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Ceroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Infestation. Papamoa Beach, Tauranga, New Zealand. March 2021.
InfestationCeroplastes destructor (white wax scale); Infestation. Papamoa Beach, Tauranga, New Zealand. March 2021.©Dave_Holland/via iNaturalist - CC BY-NC 4.0
Females are immobile and covered in a white, waxy layer.
TitleScales on coffee
CaptionFemales are immobile and covered in a white, waxy layer.
Copyright©AgrEvo
Females are immobile and covered in a white, waxy layer.
Scales on coffeeFemales are immobile and covered in a white, waxy layer.©AgrEvo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ceroplastes destructor Newstead, 1917

Preferred Common Name

  • white wax scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Gascardia destructor (Newstead, 1917)
  • Gascardia postperlucidus Qin et al. (1994), Qin and Gullan (1995) Nomen nudum

International Common Names

  • English: citrus waxy scale; soft wax scale; wax scale, soft; wax scale, white; white scale; white waxy scale

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Weisse Wachsschildlaus
  • South Africa: wit wasdopluis

EPPO Code

  • CERPDE (Ceroplastes destructor)

Summary of Invasiveness

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The white wax scale is a conspicuous species which is sedentary except in the first instar when the so-called crawlers actively move around before settling. The second and third instars later move from the leaves to the twigs and in the case of heavy infestations to the fruit. The inconspicuous crawlers can easily escape notice, but the later stages should be spotted by phytosanitary inspectors. The associated sooty mould fungus growing on their secretions is another indicator of their presence. Factors supporting their invasiveness are their widespread distribution in Africa and their wide range of host plants, including commercial crops of which the fruit is exported, e.g. citrus from South Africa and Australia.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Coccidae
  •                                     Genus: Ceroplastes
  •                                         Species: Ceroplastes destructor

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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This species was misidentified as Ceroplastes ceriferus (Fabricius) before it was formerly described and named as Ceroplastes destructor by Newstead (1917). The type specimens are from Uganda; but no holotype was designated by the original author. A lectotype was subsequently designated by Williams and Watson (1990). The species was transferred to the genus Gascardia (Lotto, 1965) but Gascardia has been generally regarded as a junior synonym of Ceroplastes (Qin and Gullan, 1995Ben-Dov et al., 2001).

Description

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There are three nymphal instars. Early instars are morphologically difficult to distinguish from those of other species of CeroplastesWakgari and Giliomee (1998) provide a key to separate different stages of C. destructor and detailed descriptions and illustrations of all nymph and adult stages. The following morphology is taken mainly from Wakgari and Giliomee (1998) for the nymph stages and from Qin and Gullan (1994) and Wakgari and Giliomee (1998) for the adult. These descriptions include details visible only in specimens mounted on microscope slides, examined under high magnification.

First-instar nymph

The first-instar nymph is oval, dorsolaterally flat, 0.32-0.50 mm long; eye-spots heavily pigmented, present dorsolaterally on each side of the head region; marginal setae flagellate, 9-12 between anterior spiracular furrows, 2-3 between anterior and posterior spiracular furrows, 7 between posterior spiracular furrow and anal cleft; three spiracular setae present in each spiracular furrow; dorsum without setae or pores; anal plates each with a very long, slender apical seta and three other dorsal setae, one fringe seta and one ventral seta; venter without submarginal setae, one pair of interantennal setae and one pair of prevulvar setae present, a few cruciform pores present in submargin, three quinquilocular pores between spiracle and its corresponding furrow; antennae 6-segmented; legs well developed, without tibiotarsal sclerosis, tarsal digitules equal in size and knobbed, claw denticle absent, claw digitules unequal, one slender and one stout, both apically knobbed.

Second-instar nymph

The second instar is oval, 0.65-0.70 mm long, eye-spots pigmented, present dorsolaterally on each side of the head region; marginal setae flagellate, 8-10 between anterior spiracular furrows, 2 between anterior and posterior spiracular furrows, 6-7 between posterior spiracular furrow and anal cleft; three spiracular setae present in each spiracular furrow; dorsum without setae, with some bilocular pores along submarginal areas; anal plates each with four dorsal setae, two fringe setae and one ventral seta; venter with bristle-shaped submarginal setae, two pair of interantennal setae (one longer one shorter) and one pair of prevulvar setae present, cruciform pores present in submargin, four to seven quinquilocular pores between spiracle and its corresponding furrow; antennae 6-segmented; legs well developed, similar in structure to that of first-instar nymph.

Third-instar nymph

The third instar is oval, 0.85-1.20 mm long, eye-spots black, present dorsolaterally on each side of the head region; marginal setae flagellate, occasionally clavate to capitate, 9-14 between anterior spiracular furrows, 3-5 between anterior and posterior spiracular furrows, 7-11 between posterior spiracular furrow and anal cleft; 6-10 spiracular setae present in each spiracular furrow; dorsum with one anterior and six lateral dorsal clear areas, setae and pores sparsely distributed over dorsum except lacking in dorsal clear areas, pores bilocular, oval trilocular or triangular trilocular and a few monocular in median area; anal plates each with four dorsal setae, three fringe setae and one ventral seta; venter with bristle-shaped submarginal setae and sparsely distributed ventral setae, two pairs of interantennal setae (one longer, one shorter) and one pair of prevulvar setae present, cruciform pores present in submargin around entire body, 12-18 quinquilocular pores between spiracle and its corresponding furrow; antennae 6-segmented; legs well developed, similar in structure to that of first-instar nymph but relatively smaller compared with body size.

Adult female

After Qin and Gullan (1994) and Wakgari and Giliomee (1998). There is some variation in the number of pores and setae recorded by Qin and Gullan (1994) and Wakgari and Giliomee (1998). This is probably due to the fact that Qin and Gullan (1994) used Australian material and their counts included both young and old specimens, while Wakgari and Giliomee (1998) used African material and their counts may only include young specimens.

Adult females are oval, sometimes with some marginal indentation, 2.5-6.40 mm long, with a strongly sclerotized anal process; eye-spots black, relatively small, present dorsolaterally on each side of the head region; marginal setae bristle-like, 8-24 between anterior spiracular furrows, 4-8 between anterior and posterior spiracular furrows, 7-12 between posterior spiracular furrow and anal cleft; 37-77 spiracular setae present in each spiracular furrow; dorsum derm membranous in young specimens but becoming sclerotized in old specimens, with one anterior and six lateral dorsal clear areas, dorsal setae cylindrical, some with apex slightly expended, evenly distributed over dorsum except lacking in dorsal clear areas, dorsal pores oval trilocular or triangular trilocular and occasionally quadrilocular or bilocular, preopercular pores numbering 5-6 in single transverse row immediately anterior to anal plates; anal plates each with four dorsal setae, four fringe setae and one ventral seta; venter with submarginal setae and sparsely distributed ventral setae, two pairs of interantennal setae (one longer, one shorter) and one pair of prevulvar setae present, cruciform pores mostly present in submargin around entire body, sparse in other ventral areas, 65-110 quinquilocular (a few with 6 or 7 loculi) pores between spiracle and its corresponding furrow; multilocular pores distributed around vulva and in a band across preceding segment, mostly with 10 loculi, tubular ducts present on abdomen; antennae 6-segmented; legs well developed, similar in structure to that of first-instar nymph but relatively much smaller compared with body size.

The adult male is unknown.

Distribution

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Ceroplastes destructor is considered to be native to Africa and introduced to Australia, New Zealand and other South Pacific islands. Qin (2000) clarified some doubtful and unreliable distribution records of this species in the literature. It was recorded from Florida, USA, and Mexico (Ebeling, 1959CIE, 1960); however, this was probably a misidentification of Ceroplastes dugesii. A record of the pest in India (Avasthi and Shafee, 1986) is a misinterpretation of an earlier publication by Subba Rao (1965).

The distribution map includes records based on specimens of C. destructor from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK): dates of collection are noted in the List of countries (NHM, various dates).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 12 May 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresent
BotswanaPresent
CameroonPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent, Localized
Congo, Republic of thePresent, Localized
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EritreaPresent
GambiaPresent
GuineaPresent
KenyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MozambiquePresent
São Tomé and PríncipePresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

North America

MexicoAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
United StatesAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
-FloridaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Localized
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
New CaledoniaPresent, Few occurrences
New ZealandPresentIntroduced1936
Norfolk IslandPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent

South America

ColombiaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)

History of Introduction and Spread

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Qin and Gullan (1994) states the following: C. destructor is a native of Africa. It was introduced into Australia probably in the 1860s (Bancroft, 1869; Brimblecombe, 1962; Williams and Watson, 1990). It also has been recorded from New Zealand (Wise, 1977) and the South Pacific (Williams and Watson, 1990).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Australia South Africa 1860s Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes Qin and Gullan (1994)
New Zealand Horticulture (pathway cause) Yes Qin and Gullan (1994)

Risk of Introduction

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Ceroplastes destructor has so far only been reported reliably from the southern hemisphere and Australasia. It can become a pest of citrus if introduced into new geographical areas without natural enemies.

Phytosanitary Measures

The introduction of C. destructor from Africa to Australia in the last century emphasizes the dangers inherent in transporting infested plant material from country to country and from continent to continent. Phytosanitary officials should be on the lookout for this conspicuous, polyphagous species from Africa.

Habitat

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Adults of white wax scale nearly always occur on twigs that are less than 2 years old (Smith et al., 1997). The scales produce honeydew and deposits may be abundant on foliage and fruit by late summer. In Australia, they occur mostly in moist coastal areas; hot and dry conditions in southern inland regions are not favourable to the insects.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Principal habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Ceroplastes destructor is polyphagous and attacks a large number of plants including citrus, coffee, guava, mango, persimmon, pear and quince. The hosts listed are mostly compiled from Lotto (1965)Hodgson (1969), Snowball (1969)Williams and Watson (1990)Ben-Dov (1993) and Qin and Gullan (1994; 1999). More host plants are listed by Zeck (1932) for New South Wales and Brimblecombe (1956) for Queensland, Australia.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Acacia (wattles)FabaceaeOther
Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit)ActinidiaceaeOther
Aidia micranthaRubiaceaeOther
Alyxia ruscifolia (chainfruit)Other
ArgophyllumOther
Azadirachta indica (neem tree)MeliaceaeOther
Bursaria spinosaPittosporaceaeOther
Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeOther
Cassine papillosaSalaciaOther
Cassinia quinquefaria (wild rosemary)Other
CitrusRutaceaeMain
Citrus aurantium (sour orange)RutaceaeMain
Citrus glauca (Australian desert lime)Other
Citrus maxima (pummelo)RutaceaeMain
Citrus reticulata (mandarin)RutaceaeMain
Citrus sinensis (sweet orange)RutaceaeMain
Citrus trifoliata [Poncirus trifoliata]Main
Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeOther
Coffea arabica (arabica coffee)RubiaceaeOther
Coffea canephora (robusta coffee)RubiaceaeOther
ConyzaAsteraceaeOther
CupaniopsisOther
Cussonia spicataAraliaceaeOther
DiclipteraOther
Diospyros kaki (persimmon)EbenaceaeOther
DodonaeaSapindaceaeOther
Dodonaea viscosa (switch sorrel)SapindaceaeOther
Dodonaea viscosa (switch sorrel)SapindaceaeOther
Dysoxylum bijugumMeliaceaeOther
Ekebergia capensisMeliaceaeOther
Elachyptera parvifoliaOther
Eremocitrus glauca (Australian desert lime)RutaceaeOther
Erica exleeanaOther
Hodgson 1969)
Euclea crispaEbenaceaeOther
Ficus congestaUnknown
GardeniaRubiaceaeOther
Gardenia thunbergiaRubiaceaeUnknown
Gymnosporia buxifolia (spike-thorn)Other
Gymnosporia fournieri (spike-thorn)Other
Gymnosporia senegalensis (spike-thorn)Other
Hibiscus (rosemallows)MalvaceaeOther
LoranthusLoranthaceaeOther
MaesaOther
MagnoliaMagnoliaceaeOther
Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeMain
Maytena cymosa (Caribbean mayten)Other
Maytenus heterophyllaOther
Melia azedarach (Chinaberry)MeliaceaeOther
Morinda citrifolia (Indian mulberryOther
Muellerina bidwillii (Cypress-pine mistletoe)Other
Nuxia congestaLoganiaceaeOther
Nuxia oppositifoliaLoganiaceaeOther
Otiophora inyanganaOther
Pavetta revoluta (dune bride’s bush)Other
Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeOther
PhilippiaOther
Pittosporum crassifoliumPittosporaceaeUnknown
Plumeria (frangipani)ApocynaceaeOther
Plumeria rubra (red frangipani)ApocynaceaeUnknown
Poncirus trifoliata (Trifoliate orange)RutaceaeOther
Prunus armeniaca (apricot)RosaceaeOther
Psidium guajava (guava)LithomyrtusOther
Pyrus (pears)RosaceaeOther
Rhus sumacAnacardiaceaeOther
Schefflera (umbrella tree)AraliaceaeOther
Schinus molle (false pepper tree)AnacardiaceaeOther
Solanum (nightshade)SolanaceaeOther
Synoum glandulosumMeliaceaeOther
SyzygiumLithomyrtusOther
Syzygium cordatumLithomyrtusOther
Syzygium malaccense (Malay apple)LithomyrtusOther
Theobroma cacao (cocoa)MalvaceaeOther
Trichilia emetica (Cape mahogany)MeliaceaeOther
UapacaOther
Vicia minutiflora (pygmyflower vetch)Other
Zieria smithii (sandfly zieria)Other

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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Ceroplastes destructor attacks the leaves, branches and stems of host plants, affecting vigour and growth. A large number of young crawlers can be seen on the leaves when the eggs hatch, but these do not persist. They usually settle on the leaf surface along midribs or leaf petioles. Once the crawlers settle down, they start secreting white wax. Gimpel et al. (1974) described in detail the process and shapes of the wax produced by wax scales and C. destructor produces its wax in a similar way. After 3-4 days of settlement, the dorsal wax pad appears as a thin, white marking. The wax rays gradually appear around the body margin. The insects move from their original settlement site to the twigs at the beginning of the third instar. At this stage, the wax builds up like a cone and, when more wax is secreted, the late third instar attains its characteristic oval shape. The adults are completely covered with white wax in irregular shapes. Qin and Gullan (1994) and Wakgari and Giliomee (1998) contain figures showing the wax appearance of the different stages. Sooty mould is usually associated with the scales.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
Fruit / premature drop
Inflorescence / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Whole plant / dwarfing

Biology and Ecology

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Ceroplastes destructor probably reproduces parthenogenetically because males have never been reported. Information on the biology and ecology of this species can be found in Smith and Ironside (1974) and Smith et al. (1997) for Australia, Olson et al. (1993)Lo (1995) and Lo et al. (1996) for New Zealand, and Cilliers (1967)Wakgari and Giliomee (1998) and Wakgari and Giliomee (2001a) for South Africa.

Ceroplastes destructor has one generation per year in most places; however, it has two generations per year in northern New South Wales and Queensland, Australia (Smith and Ironside, 1974Sands et al., 1986).

The body of the mature adult female becomes concave beneath, forming a brood chamber where the eggs are laid. In the Western Cape Province of South Africa, the insects start laying eggs in September and continue until mid-December. Each female lays between 37 and 6355 (av. 1775) eggs. Crawlers emerge from the brood chamber from mid-October to December. They move around actively for a few minutes to several hours before locating a favourable settling site, mainly along the midribs of leaves, on leaf stalks and sometimes on young twigs. The second-instar nymphs emerge from December to January. The third-instar nymphs appear from January to August and move from their original settlement site to the twigs. Once settled on the twigs, the insects do not move again. Adults occur from March to September. The insects overwinter as third-instar nymphs and adults. Dispersal is by first-instar nymphs, mainly on air currents (Wakgari and Giliomee, 1999).

In North Island, New Zealand, adults start laying eggs in early November. Crawlers begin to hatch and emerge from the wax test in early December. First-instar crawlers were found on leaves in early December. These give rise to first- and second-instar ray stages, which are most abundant on leaves during December-January. After 4-5 weeks, the rays move to their final position on the wood and become the third-instar peak stage. Wakgari and Giliomee (1998) believed that it was the third and not the second-instar nymphs that moved. Third-instar nymphs are abundant during March-April before becoming adults. Overwintering occurred as third-instar nymphs and adults.

In Queensland and northern New South Wales, Australia, where there are two generations a year, crawlers of the first generation first appear in mid-October and continue emerging until early February. Crawlers of the second generation first appear in early April, and continue to emerge until September.

The copious honeydew produced by C. destructor often attracts attendant ants.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
D - Continental/Microthermal climate Preferred Continental/Microthermal climate (Average temp. of coldest month < 0°C, mean warmest month > 10°C)

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Alaeneyrtus ingens Parasite Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Anicetus communis Parasite Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Australia; New South Wales Citrus
Anicetus nyasicus Parasite Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs South Africa; Australia; Queensland; New South Wales; Papua New Guinea Citrus; avocado
Anthemus borealis Parasite Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Aprostocetus ceroplastae Parasite Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs South Africa; Australia Citrus
Coccidophaga scitula Predator Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs South Africa Citrus
Coccophagus atratus Parasite Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs South Africa Citrus
Coccophagus catherinae Parasite Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs South Africa Citrus
Cydonia runata Predator Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs South Africa Citrus
Diversinervus elegans Parasite Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Australia Citrus
Encyrtus aquilus Parasite Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Eublemma scitula Predator Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Australia; South Africa Citrus
Euxanthellus adustus Parasite Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Euxanthellus philippiae Parasite Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Australia Citrus
Exochomos flavipes Predator Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs South Africa Citrus
Halmus chalybeus Predator Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Metaphycus albiventris Parasite Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Metaphycus ferrierei Parasite Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Metaphycus helvolus Parasite Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Metaphycus solanus Parasite Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Metaphycus vanderplanki Parasite Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Micraspis frenata Predator Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Microterys australicus Parasite Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Microterys ceroplastae Parasite Arthropods|Eggs; Arthropods|Nymphs
Microterys flavus Parasite Arthropods|Eggs; Arthropods|Nymphs
Paraceraptrocerus nyasicus Parasite Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Australia; Queensland; New South Wales; Papua New Guinea Citrus; avocado
Scutellista caerulea Parasite Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Eggs Australia; New South Wales Citrus
Scymnodes lividigaster Predator Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Serangium bicolor Predator Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Timberlakia signata Parasite Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Trichomasthus ingens Parasite Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Australia Citrus
Zaomma xhosa Parasite Arthropods|Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs

Notes on Natural Enemies

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A large number of natural enemies are associated with C. destructor in its native range (South Africa). Wakgari (2001) identified seven primary and three secondary parasitoids, as well as four predator species. Many natural enemies were introduced from South Africa to Australia in the mid to late 1960s to control C. destructor and several are now established there and play an important role in keeping C. destructor under control (Snowball, 1969Sands et al., 1986). For example, the wasp parasite Paraceraptrocerus nyasicus [Anicetus nyasicus] established in Queensland and New South Wales in the early 1970s and since then, C. destructor has been a very minor pest in Queensland (Smith et al., 1997). Parasitism levels often reach 90%. In central coastal New South Wales, populations of C. destructor have been much less abundant since the early 1970s because they have been controlled by Anicetus communis (which is responsible for up to 85% of endoparasitism), Tetrastichus ceroplastae [Aprostocetus ceroplastae] and Scutellista caerulea.

There are also predators such as the steel-blue ladybird, Halmus chalybeus, and the ladybirds Scymnodes lividigaster, Serangium bicolor and Micraspis frenata. Birds and some lacewings also attack the scales. The fungus Fusarium stilboides [Gibberella stilboides] can destroy entire egg masses in up to 10% of mature scales.

Ants attending C. destructor for its honeydew may deter natural enemies that might otherwise attack the scales. Sometimes control of attendant ants will enhance the effectiveness of biological control agents.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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The main dispersal stage of C. destructor is the crawler. Within an orchard the crawlers walk short distances and are transported by wind, insects, birds and on the clothes of orchard workers. Long distance dispersal of all life stages can occur through transportation of infested ornamental plants, propagation material or produce.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionAccidental, only once Yes Qin and Gullan (1994)
HorticultureAccidental, only once Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Arthropods/Adults; Arthropods/Nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative

Impact

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In Australia, C. destructor used to be a major pest of Citrus in New South Wales, Queensland and western Australia. Many of the leaflets on insect pests produced in these states in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s were devoted to documenting the life history and appearance of this insect, and methods for its control, mostly using oil and insecticidal sprays. However, it is now only a minor pest in Australia (Smith et al., 1997) mainly due to control by natural enemies introduced from Africa. C. destructor has only been a minor pest in its native African countries because a complex of natural enemies have kept it under control for over 3 decades. It has, however, recently become important on Citrus reticulata (Blanco) in the Western Cape Province of South Africa (Wakgari and Giliomee, 1998).

Economic Impact

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In Australia, C. destructor used to be a major pest of Citrus in New South Wales, Queensland and western Australia. Many of the leaflets on insect pests produced in these states in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s were devoted to documenting the life history and appearance of this insect, and methods for its control, mostly using oil and insecticidal sprays. However, it is now only a minor pest in Australia (Smith et al., 1997) mainly due to control by natural enemies introduced from Africa. C. destructor has only been a minor pest in its native African countries because a complex of natural enemies has kept it under control for over three decades. It has, however, become important on Citrus reticulata (Blanco) in the Western Cape Province of South Africa (Wakgari and Giliomee, 1998).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Damages animal/plant products
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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The wax produced by some species of Ceroplastes has been used for centuries in India and Central and South America for a variety of purposes. It is used in medicine, candle production, to waterproof or seal baskets and pottery. Wax produced by another wax scale, Ericerus pela, has been produced commercially for thousands of years in China. The copious wax of C. destructor has not been used but it may have some potential. Qin (1997) reviewed the use of wax produced by wax scale insects, mainly E. pela.

Uses List

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Materials

  • Wax

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Diagnosis

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Diagnostic characters of slide-mounted adult females of C. destructor are the absence of tubular ducts on the venter of the head, possession of different-sized claw digitules, a wide anal process, and large round to oval groups of dorsal spiracular setae. For an authoritative identification, it is necessary to examine slide-mounted specimens under a good-quality compound light microscope. Good slides can be made from young adult females. Hodgson et al. (2009) provides a key to the Ceroplastes species of South Africa and Hodgson and Peronti (2012) a key to the C. destructor group.

All stages of C. destructor are described by Wakgari and Giliomee (1998). It may now be possible to distinguish the nymphal stages of C. destructor from those of other species of wax scales.

Detection and Inspection

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Infestations of C. destructor on Citrus and other hosts are easily detected because the insects are covered by a white wax cover. C. destructor can be detected by examining and inspecting plants, especially shrubs or trees, for white wax covers, or for signs of sooty mould or sticky honeydew on leaves, branches and stems, or for ants running about. To be certain about the correct identity of C. destructor, it is necessary to examine slide-mounted specimens under a microscope.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Ceroplastes destructor was misidentified as Ceroplastes ceriferus in the early literature because of the similarity of the wax test of these two species. However, with microscopic study of slide-mounted specimens, C. destructor can be morphologically distinguished from C. ceriferus by the absence of tubular ducts on the venter of the head in C. destructor. It also differs from other species of Ceroplastes by the possession of different-sized claw digitules (one slender and one broad) and a large and round group of spiracular setae (Lotto, 1965Williams and Watson, 1990Qin and Gullan, 1994).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Biological Control

Sands et al. (1986) reviewed the history of biological control of C. destructor in Australia and provided information on the release and establishment of the parasitoids. In Queensland and New South Wales, populations of C. destructor now rarely reach a significant level because of the presence of several important introduced natural enemies. Heavy ant attendance may reduce the effectiveness of biological control agents, so control of the ants may be desirable. The population dynamics of C. destructor on citrus and implications for biological control are discussed by Wakgari and Giliomee (2001a).

Chemical Control

Blank et al. (1997) evaluated the efficacy of the treatments buprofezin, chlorpyrifos and mineral oil against C. destructor on citrus and concluded that the mineral oil treatment was the preferred choice in an integrated pest management programme. Wakgari and Giliomee (2001b) studied the effects of some conventional insecticides and insect growth regulators on different stages of C. destructor and its parasitoid, Aprostocetus ceroplastae [Aprostocetus ceroplastae]. Wakgari and Giliomee (2001c) also discuss the prospects for integrated pest management of C. destructor in citrus orchards. Bioassays of some of the insecticides commonly used for the control of other citrus pests indicated that most are highly detrimental to one of the major parasitoids of C. destructor, possibly causing an upsurge experienced in wax scale numbers in South Africa.

Field Monitoring/Economic Threshold Levels

Smith et al. (1997) suggested that the pest and its natural enemies should be monitored once or twice from mid-October to early December, and once or twice, if required, in February-March. Monitoring can be achieved by checking for the presence or absence of the pest on five randomly selected green twigs per tree using a 10x hand lens. If 5% or more of green twigs are infested with one or more scales, the application of petroleum spray oil is appropriate. Correct timing of sprays is essential. It is important to wait until all eggs under adult scales have been hatched (egg hatch is complete when young scales are present on leaves) and no coloured liquid exudes when old adult female scales are squashed.

References

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Almeida, D.M. de, 1969. Contribuicao para o estudo da quermofauna de Angola. In: Boletim do Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica de Angola, Luanda, 6. 3-38.

Almeida, D.M. de, 1973. Coccoidea de Angola. 1- Revisao das especies conhecidas. In: Boletim do Instituto de Investigacao Cientifica de Angola, Luanda, 10. 1-23.

Avasthi, R.K., Shafee, S.A., 1986. Species of Ceroplastinae (Homoptera: Coccidae) from India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 83(2):327-338.

Bancroft, J., 1869. Coccus insects. Transactions of Philosophical Society 1869, 1-3.

Ben-Dov, Y., 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc. xxviii + 536 pp.

Ben-Dov, Y., Miller, D.R., Gibson, G.A.P., 2001. ScaleNet. http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/scalenet/scalenet.htm

Blank, R.H., Olson, M.H., Gill, G.S.C., Dow, B.W., 1997. Timing of insecticide applications for control of soft wax scale (Homoptera: Coccidae) on citrus. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 25(4):311-317.

Brain, C.K., 1920. The Coccidae of South Africa - V. In: Bulletin of Entomological Research, 11. 1-41.

Brimblecombe, A.R., 1956. Studies of the Coccoidea. 4. New species of Aspidiotini. 5. The genus Ceroplates in Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural Science, 13(2/3):107-122, 159-167.

Brimblecombe, A.R., 1962. Studies of the Coccoidea. 12. Species occurring on deciduous fruit and nut trees in Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural Science, 19(2):219-229.

CABI/EPPO, 2000. Ceroplastes destructor. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Map No. 117. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

CIE, 1960. Distribution maps of pests, Series A (Agricultural). Map No. 117. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cilliers, C.J., 1967. A comparative biological study of three Ceroplastes species (Hem. Coccoideae) and their natural enemies. Entomology Mem. Dep. agric. tech. Serv., 13:iv + 59 pp.

Ebeling, W., 1959. Subtropical fruit pests, Revd. Edn. Univ. Cal. vi + 436 pp.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Gimpel, W.F., Miller, D.R., Davidson, J.A., 1974. A systematic revision of the wax scales, genus Ceroplastes, in the United States (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). In: Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station. Miscellaneous publication, 841. Maryland, USA: University of Maryland, Agricultural Experiment Station. 1-85.

Grové, T., Beer, M.S. de, 2017. Insect pests affecting the production of mango in South Africa. Acta Horticulturae, 1183:297-304. https://www.actahort.org/books/1183/1183_43.htm

Hall, W.J., 1931. Observations on the Coccidae of Southern Rhodesia, including 15 new species and varieties and a key to the species of Ceroplastes. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 79(pt. 2):285-303.

Hodgson, C., Williams, D.J., Giliomee, J.H., 2009. The identity of the wax scale insect, Ceroplastes myricae (Linnaeus) (Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Coccidae), and a key to the wax scales recorded from South Africa. African Entomology, 17(1):95-105. DOI: 10.4001/003.017.0111

Hodgson, C.J., 1969. Notes on Rhodesian Coccidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea): Part II: The genera Ceroplastes and Gascardia. Arnoldia (Rhodesia), 4:1-43.

Hodgson, C.J., Henderson, R.C., 2000. Coccidae: (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccoidea). Fauna of New Zealand, 41:5-264.

Hodgson, C.J., Peronti, A.L.B.G., 2012. A revision of the wax scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Ceroplastinae) of the Afrotropical Region. Zootaxa, 3372:1-265. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2012/f/z03372p265f.pdf

Lo, P.L., 1995. Size and fecundity of soft wax scale (Ceroplastes destructor) and Chinese wax scale (C. sinensis) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) on citrus. New Zealand Entomologist, 18:63-69.

Lo, P.L., Blank, R.H., Penman, D.R., 1996. Phenology and relative abundance of Ceroplastes destructor and C. sinensis (Hemiptera: Coccidae) on citrus in Northland, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 24(4):315-321.

Lotto, G. de, 1965. On some Coccidae (Homoptera), chiefly from Africa. In: Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), 16. 175-239.

Lotto, G. de, 1967. A contribution to the knowledge of the African Coccoidea (Homoptera). Journal of the Entomological Society of southern Africa, 29:109-120.

Lotto, G. de, 1971. On some genera and species of wax scales (Homoptera: Coccidae). Journal of Natural History, 5(2):133-153. DOI: 10.1080/00222937100770091

Mamet, J.R., 1959. Notes on the Coccoidea of Madagascar IV. Memoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar (Ser. E), 11:369-479.

Mille, C., Henderson, R.C., Cazeres, S., Jourdan, H., 2016. Checklist of the scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha) of New Caledonia. Zoosystema, 38(2):129-176. DOI: 10.5252/z2016n2a1

Newstead, R., 1917. Observations on scale-insects (Coccidae) - IV. In: Bulletin of Entomological Research, 8. 1-34.

Olson, M.H., Blank, R.H., Lo, P.L., 1993. The phenology of soft wax scale Ceroplastes destructor (Hemiptera: Coccidae) on tangelo in Kerikeri. New Zealand Entomologist, 16:25-29.

Qin, T.K., 1997. The pela wax scale and commercial wax production. In: Soft Scale Insects, Their Biology, Natural Enemies and Control [ed. by Ben-Dov, Y., Hodgson, C.]. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Scientific Publishers BV. 303-321.

Qin, T.K., 2000. Some doubtful distributional records of Ceroplastes destructor Newstead (Coccidae: Ceroplastinae). The Scale, 24:12-13.

Qin, T.K., Gullan, P.J., 1994. Taxonomy of the wax scales (Hemiptera: Coccidae: Ceroplastinae) in Australia. Invertebrate Taxonomy, 8(4):923-959.

Qin, T.K., Gullan, P.J., 1995. A cladistic analysis of wax scales (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae: Ceroplastinae). Systematic Entomology, 20(4):289-308. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-3113.1995.tb00098.x

Qin, T.K., Gullan, P.J., 1999. A new synonym of Ceroplastes destructor Newstead (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae: Ceroplastinae). African Entomology, 7(2):305-306.

Qin, T.K., Gullan, P.J., Beattie, G.A.C., Trueman, J.W.H., Cranston, P.S., Fletcher, M.J., Sands, D.P.A., 1994. The current distribution and geographical origin of the scale insect pest Ceroplastes sinensis (Hemiptera: Coccidae). In: Bulletin of Entomological Research, 84. 541-549.

Sands, D.P.A., Lukins, R.G., Snowball, G.J., 1986. Agents introduced into Australia for the biological control of Gascardia destructor (Newstead) (Hemiptera: Coccidae). Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 25(1):51-59.

Smith, D., Beattie, G.A.C., Broadley, R., 1997. Citrus pests and their natural enemies: integrated pest management in Australia. In: Series: Information series, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Q197030.

Smith, D., Ironside, D.A., 1974. The seasonal history of Gascardia destructor (Newstead) in Queensland. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences, 31(3):195-199.

Snowball, G.J., 1969. Prospects for biological control of white wax scale (Gascardia destructor) in Australia by South African natural enemies. Journal of the Entomological Society of Australia (N.S.W.), 5:23-33.

Strickland, A.H., 1947. Coccids attacking cacao (Theobroma cacao, L.), in West Africa, with descriptions of five new species. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 38(pt. 3):497-523. DOI: 10.1017/S0007485300022318

Subba Rao, B.R., 1965. A key to species of Anicetus Howard, 1896 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and descriptions of new species from India [A. yasumatsui sp. n., attacking Ceroplastes sp. on fig and A. brevicaudatus sp. n. attacking Ceroplastes spp. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 34(pt. 5-6):71-75.

Wakgari, W., Giliomee, J., 2001b. Effects of some conventional insecticides and insect growth regulators on different phenological stages of the white wax scale, Ceroplastes destructor Newstead (Hemiptera: Coccidae), and its primary parasitoid, Aprostocetus ceroplastae (Girault) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). International Journal of Pest Management, 47(3):179-184. DOI: 10.1080/09670870010011118

Wakgari, W.M., 2001. The current status of the biocontrol of Ceroplastes destructor Newstead (Hemiptera: Coccidae) on Citrus and Syzygium in South Africa. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 11(3):339-352. DOI: 10.1080/09583150120055745

Wakgari, W.M., Giliomee, J.H., 1998. Description of the stages of the white wax-scale, Ceroplastes destructor Newstead (Homoptera: Coccidae). African Entomology, 6(2):303-316.

Wakgari, W.M., Giliomee, J.H., 1999. Fecundity, size and dispersal of the white wax scale, Ceroplastes destructor Newstead (Hemiptera: Coccidae), in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Entomologica, 33:365-375.

Wakgari, W.M., Giliomee, J.H., 2001a. Population dynamics of the white wax scale, Ceroplastes destructor (Hemiptera: Coccidae), on citrus in South Africa, with implications for biological control. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 91(4):307-315. DOI: 10.1079/BER2001111

Wakgari, W.M., Giliomee, J.H., 2001c. Potentials and prospects of the integrated pest management of Ceroplastes destructor Newstead (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in citrus orchards in South Africa. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura, 33(3):443-453.

Williams, D.J., Watson, G.W., 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 267 pp.

Wise, K.A.J., 1977. A synonymic checklist of the Hexapoda of the New Zealand sub-region. The smaller orders. In: Bulletin of the Auckland Institute and Museum,11. 176 pp.

Zeck, E.H., 1932. Investigations on two white wax scales (Ceroplastes) as pests in Australia. Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales, 43(pt. 8):611-616.

Distribution References

Almeida DM de, 1973. (Coccoidea de Angola. 1- Revisao das especies conhecidas)., 10 Luanda, Angola: 1-23.

Ben-Dov Y, Miller DR, Gibson GAP, 2001. ScaleNet., http://www.sel.barc.usda.gov/scalenet/scalenet.htm

Blank R H, Olson M H, Gill G S C, Dow B W, 1997. Timing of insecticide applications for control of soft wax scale (Homoptera: Coccidae) on citrus. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science. 25 (4), 311-317.

Brain C K, 1920. The Coccidae of South Africa - V. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 1-41. DOI:10.1017/S000748530004428X

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

De Lotto G, 1965. On some Coccidae (Homoptera), chiefly from Africa. In: Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), 16 175-239.

De Lotto G, 1967. A contribution to the knowledge of the African Coccoidea (Homoptera). In: Journal of the Entomological Society of southern Africa, 29 109-120.

De Lotto G, 1971. On some genera and species of wax scales (Homoptera: Coccidae). Journal of Natural History. 5 (2), 133-153. DOI:10.1080/00222937100770091

EPPO, 2022. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. 1 pp. https://gd.eppo.int/

Hall W J, 1931. Observations on the Coccidae of Southern Rhodesia, Including 15 new species and varieties and a key to the species of Ceroplastes. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London. 79 (pt. 2), 285-303.

Hely P C, 1960. Dispersal of white wax scale (Ceroplastes destructor Newst.) by wind. Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science. 26 (4), 355-356 pp.

Hodgson C J, Peronti A L B G, 2012. A revision of the wax scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Ceroplastinae) of the Afrotropical Region. Zootaxa. 1-265. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2012/f/z03372p265f.pdf

Hodgson CJ, 1969. Notes on Rhodesian Coccidae (Homoptera: Coccoidea): Part II: The genera Ceroplastes and Gascardia. In: Arnoldia (Rhodesia), 4 1-43.

Hodgson CJ, Henderson RC, 2000. (Coccidae (Insecta:Hemiptera:Coccoidea)). In: Fauna of New Zealand, 1-259.

Mamet JR, 1959. Notes on the Coccoidea of Madagascar IV. In: Memoires de l'Institut Scientifique de Madagascar (Ser. E), 11 369-479.

Mille C, Henderson RC, Cazères S, Jourdan H, 2016. Checklist of the scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha) of New Caledonia. Zoosystema. 38 (2), 129-176. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.5252/z2016n2a1

NHM, 1949. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1953. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1954. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1962. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

Qin T K, Gullan P J, 1994. Taxonomy of the wax scales (Hemiptera: Coccidae: Ceroplastinae) in Australia. Invertebrate Taxonomy. 8 (4), 923-959.

Qin T K, Gullan P J, 1994a. Taxonomy of the wax scales (Hemiptera : Coccidae: Ceroplastinae) in Australia. Invertebrate Taxonomy. 923 - 959. DOI:10.1071/IT9940923

Qin T K, Gullan P J, 1999. A new synonym of Ceroplastes destructor Newstead (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae: Ceroplastinae). African Entomology. 7 (2), 305-306.

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Smith D, Beattie GAC, Broadley R, 1997. Citrus pests and their natural enemies: integrated pest management in Australia (Series: Information series, Queensland Department of Primary Industries, Q197030).,

UK, CAB International, 1960. Ceroplastes destructor. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 117. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20056600117

Wakgari W M, Giliomee J H, 1998. Description of the stages of the white wax-scale, Ceroplastes destructor Newstead (Homoptera: Coccidae). African Entomology. 6 (2), 303-316.

Williams D J, Watson G W, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. In: The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 267 pp.

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