Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ceroplastes ceriferus
(Indian wax scale)

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Datasheet

Ceroplastes ceriferus (Indian wax scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ceroplastes ceriferus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Indian wax scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ceroplastes ceriferus (Fabricius, 1798)

Preferred Common Name

  • Indian wax scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Ceroplastes australiae Walker, 1852
  • Ceroplastes cerifera (Fabricius) Gill, 1988
  • Ceroplastes ceriferens (Anderson) De Lotto, 1965
  • Ceroplastes ceriferus (Anderson) Signoret, 1869
  • Ceroplastes vayssierei Mahdihassan, 1933
  • Coccus (Ceroplastes) chilensis Gray, 1828
  • Coccus ceriferus Fabricius, 1798
  • Columnea cerifera (Fabricius) Targioni Tozzetti, 1866
  • Columnea chilensis (Gray) Targioni Tozzetti, 1866
  • Gascardia cerifera (Anderson)
  • Lacca alba Signoret; Signoret, 1869

International Common Names

  • English: Indian white wax scale; Japanese wax scale; wax scale, Indian; wax scale, Japanese

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Indische wachs-schildlaus; Schildlaus, Indische Wachs-
  • USA: Chinese wax scale; Mexican wax scale

EPPO code

  • CERPCE (Ceroplastes ceriferus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Coccidae
  •                                     Genus: Ceroplastes
  •                                         Species: Ceroplastes ceriferus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

MalawiPresentNHM (1929); EPPO (2020)
TanzaniaPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
UgandaPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)

Asia

CambodiaPresentNHM (1968); EPPO (2020)
ChinaPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-GuizhouPresentLai (1993)
-ZhejiangPresentXu and Li (1991)
Hong KongPresentNHM (1990); EPPO (2020)
IndiaPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-AssamPresentAli (1971)
-BiharPresentAli (1971)
-Himachal PradeshPresentNHM (1991)
-KarnatakaPresentSivaramakrishnan (1986)
-KeralaPresentNHM (1990)
-Madhya PradeshPresentAli (1971)
-Tamil NaduPresentAvasthi and Shafee (1986); EPPO (2020)
-Uttar PradeshPresentNHM (1976)
-West BengalPresentNHM (1973)
IndonesiaPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-JavaPresentNHM (1940)
JapanPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-HonshuPresentItioka and Inoue (1991)
MalaysiaPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentNHM (1954)
MyanmarPresentNHM (1982); EPPO (2020)
PhilippinesPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
Sri LankaPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
TaiwanPresentAli (1971); EPPO (2020)
ThailandPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
VietnamPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)

Europe

HungaryPresent2016CABI (Undated); EPPO (2020)Original citation: Szita and Érsek
ItalyPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
NetherlandsAbsent, Intercepted onlyEPPO (2020)
SloveniaAbsent, Intercepted onlyEPPO (2020); Seljak (2012)

North America

GuadeloupePresentEPPO (2020)
JamaicaPresentEPPO (2020)
MexicoPresentEPPO (2020)
PanamaPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
Puerto RicoPresentEPPO (2020)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
United StatesPresentEPPO (2020)
-AlabamaPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-ArkansasPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-CaliforniaAbsent, EradicatedEPPO (2020)
-District of ColumbiaPresentNHM (1964); Ben-Dov (1993)
-FloridaPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-GeorgiaPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-IllinoisPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-LouisianaPresentBen-Dov (1993)
-MarylandPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-MississippiPresentBen-Dov (1993)
-New JerseyPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-New YorkPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-North CarolinaPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-OhioPresentKosztarab (1996)
-OklahomaPresentBen-Dov (1993)
-PennsylvaniaPresentKosztarab (1996)
-South CarolinaPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-TennesseePresentBen-Dov (1993)
-TexasPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-VirginiaPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
-WashingtonPresentEPPO (2020)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentEPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentBen-Dov (1993)
-QueenslandPresentBen-Dov (1993)
-Western AustraliaPresentQin and Gullan (1994)
Cook IslandsPresentWilliams and Watson (1990); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
FijiPresentWilliams and Watson (1990); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
GuamPresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
New CaledoniaPresentWilliams and Watson (1990); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresentEPPO (2020)
PalauPresentEPPO (2020)
Papua New GuineaPresentWilliams and Watson (1990); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
TongaPresentWilliams and Watson (1990); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)
VanuatuPresentWilliams and Watson (1990); Ben-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)

South America

BrazilPresentEPPO (2020)
ChilePresentBen-Dov (1993); EPPO (2020)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / honeydew or sooty mould
Growing point / external feeding
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / internal feeding
Leaves / wilting
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / external feeding
Stems / honeydew or sooty mould
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anicetus beneficus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Anicetus ceroplastis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Anicetus rarisetus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Anicetus zhejiangensis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Chilocorus kuwanae Predator Adults/Nymphs
Coccophagus lycimnia Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Eublemma scitula Predator Adults/Nymphs
Microterys australicus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Scutellista caerulea Predator Eggs

References

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Ali SM, 1971. A catalogue of the Oriental Coccoidea (Part V) (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea). Indian Museum Bulletin, 6:7-82.

Avasthi RK, Shafee SA, 1986. Species of Ceroplastinp (Homoptera: Coccidae) from India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 83(2):327-338

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc., 536 pp.

Boratynski KL, Williams DJ, 1964. Coccoidea. In: Kloet GS, Hinks WD, eds. Checklist of British Insects. 2nd ed. Handbook for the Identification of British Insects, 11:87-94.

Carnero Hernandez A, Perez Guerra G, 1986. Coccids (Homoptera: Coccoidea) of the Canary Islands. Comunicaciones I.N.I.A., Proteccion Vegetal, No. 25:85pp.

De Lotto G, 1971. On some genera and species of wax scales (Homoptera: Coccidae). Journal of Natural History, 5(2):133-153

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Gimpel WF, Miller DR, Davidson JA, 1974. A systematic revision of the wax scales, genus Ceroplastes, in the United States (Homoptera; Coccoidea; Coccidae). Maryland, USA: University of Maryland, Agricultural Experiment Station, Miscellaneous Publication 841, 1-85.

Green EE, 1921. Observations on British Coccidae: with descriptions of new species. VII Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 57:257-259.

Hamon AB, Williams ML, 1984. The soft scale insects of Florida (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae). Arthropods of Florida and Neighboring Land Areas, 11:1-94.

Itioka T, Inoue T, 1991. Settling-site selection and survival of two scale insects, Ceroplastes rubens and C. ceriferus, on citrus trees. Researches on Population Ecology, 33(1):69-85

Kawai S, 1980. Scale Insects of Japan in Colours. Tokyo, Japan: National Agriculture Education Association, 455 pp.

Kosztarab M, 1996. Scale Insects of North Eastern North America: identification, biology, and distribution. Martinsville, USA: Virginia Museum of Natural History, 650 pp.

Kuwana SI, 1923. Descriptions and biology of new or little-known coccids from Japan. Department of Agriculture of Commercial Importance. Plant Quarantine Bulletin, 3:1-67.

Lai CB, 1993. Study on the bionomics of Ceroplastes ceriferus Anderson in tea gardens and its control. Entomological Knowledge, 30(6):337-338

Lindinger L, 1911. Afrikanische SchildlSuse. IV. Kanarische Cocciden. Ein Beitrag zur Fauna der Kanarischen Inseln. Jahrbuch der Hamburgischen Wissenschaftlichen Anstalten, 28:1-38.

Nash RF, 1973. Control of the peony scale, Pseudaonidia paeoniae, and a wax scale, Ceroplastes ceriferus, with granular systemic insecticides on Camellia japonica. Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society, 8(2):149-151

Qin TK, Gullan PJ, 1994. Taxonomy of the wax scales (Hemiptera: Coccidae: Ceroplastinae) in Australia. Invertebrate Taxonomy, 8(4):923-959

Seljak G, 2012. Six new alien phytophagous insect species recorded in Slovenia in 2011. Acta Entomologica Slovenica, 20(1):31-44. http://www2.pms-lj.si/biblioteka/acta_entomologica.html

Sivaramakrishnan VR, 1986. Ceroplastes ceriferus Anderson (Homoptera: Coccidae) a new pest of poplars. Indian Journal of Forestry, 9(4):353-354

Smith D, 1973. Insect pests of avocados. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 99(12):645-653

Smith FF, Oba AK, McComb CW, Weidhass JA, 1971. Development and control of a wax-scale, Ceroplastes ceriferus. Journal of Economic Entomology, 64:889-893.

Szita, É., Érsek, L., 2017. Occurrence of the Indian wax scale (Coccomorpha: Coccidae: Ceroplastes ceriferus) outdoors in Hungary., 53(4), 148-151.

Tang FT, 1991. The Coccidae of China. Taiyuan, China: Shanxi United Universities Press.

Williams DJ, Watson GW, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 267 pp.

Xu ZH, Li XL, 1991. A new species of the genus Anicetus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from China. Entomotaxonomia, 13(3):219-221

Distribution References

Ali SM, 1971. A catalogue of the Oriental Coccoidea (Part V) (Insecta: Homoptera: Coccoidea). In: Indian Museum Bulletin, 6 7-82.

Avasthi R K, Shafee S A, 1986. Species of Ceroplastinae (Homoptera: Coccidae) from India. Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 83 (2), 327-338.

Ben-Dov Y, 1993. A systematic catalogue of the soft scale insects of the world (Homoptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) with data on geographical distribution, host plants, biology and economic importance. Gainesville, USA: Sandhill Crane Press, Inc. xxviii + 536 pp.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Itioka T, Inoue T, 1991. Settling-site selection and survival of two scale insects, Ceroplastes rubens and C. ceriferus, on citrus trees. Researches on Population Ecology. 33 (1), 69-85. DOI:10.1007/BF02514575

Kosztarab M, 1996. Scale Insects of North Eastern North America: identification, biology, and distribution., Martinsville, USA: Virginia Museum of Natural History. 650 pp.

Lai C B, 1993. Study on the bionomics of Ceroplastes ceriferus Anderson in tea gardens and its control. Entomological Knowledge. 30 (6), 337-338.

NHM, 1929. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1940. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1954. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1964. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1968. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1973. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1976. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1982. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1990. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1991. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

Qin T K, Gullan P J, 1994. Taxonomy of the wax scales (Hemiptera: Coccidae: Ceroplastinae) in Australia. Invertebrate Taxonomy. 8 (4), 923-959.

Seljak G, 2012. Six new alien phytophagous insect species recorded in Slovenia in 2011. Acta Entomologica Slovenica. 20 (1), 31-44. http://www2.pms-lj.si/biblioteka/acta_entomologica.html

Sivaramakrishnan V R, 1986. Ceroplastes ceriferus Anderson (Homoptera: Coccidae) - a new pest of poplars. Indian Journal of Forestry. 9 (4), 353-354.

Williams D J, Watson G W, 1990. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. In: The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific region. Part 3: the soft scales (Coccidae) and other families. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 267 pp.

Xu Z H, Li X L, 1991. A new species of the genus Anicetus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from China. Entomotaxonomia. 13 (3), 219-221.

Distribution Maps

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