Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Vigna marina
(beach bean)

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Datasheet

Vigna marina (beach bean)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Vigna marina
  • Preferred Common Name
  • beach bean
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • V. marina is a salt tolerant, yellow flowered legume with a scrambling and vining habit. It typically grows on beaches and coastal dunes from East Africa to the Pacific and also along some parts of the Atlantic...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Vigna marina (beach bean); habit and habitat, showing flowers and leaves. Backside Lelekea Bay, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionVigna marina (beach bean); habit and habitat, showing flowers and leaves. Backside Lelekea Bay, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); habit and habitat, showing flowers and leaves. Backside Lelekea Bay, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.
HabitVigna marina (beach bean); habit and habitat, showing flowers and leaves. Backside Lelekea Bay, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); habit. Waihee Coastal Preserve, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2016.
TitleHabit
CaptionVigna marina (beach bean); habit. Waihee Coastal Preserve, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2016.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); habit. Waihee Coastal Preserve, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2016.
HabitVigna marina (beach bean); habit. Waihee Coastal Preserve, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2016.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); habit. Halawa Bay, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May 2005.
TitleHabit
CaptionVigna marina (beach bean); habit. Halawa Bay, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May 2005.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); habit. Halawa Bay, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May 2005.
HabitVigna marina (beach bean); habit. Halawa Bay, Molokai, Hawaii, USA. May 2005.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); habit, on rocky coast. Alau, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2005.
TitleHabit
CaptionVigna marina (beach bean); habit, on rocky coast. Alau, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2005.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); habit, on rocky coast. Alau, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2005.
HabitVigna marina (beach bean); habit, on rocky coast. Alau, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2005.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); habit, showing leaves. Kipahulu Camp, Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionVigna marina (beach bean); habit, showing leaves. Kipahulu Camp, Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); habit, showing leaves. Kipahulu Camp, Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2009.
HabitVigna marina (beach bean); habit, showing leaves. Kipahulu Camp, Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii, USA. February 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); flowers and leaves. Puhilele Point, Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2004.
TitleFlowers and leaves
CaptionVigna marina (beach bean); flowers and leaves. Puhilele Point, Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2004.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); flowers and leaves. Puhilele Point, Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2004.
Flowers and leavesVigna marina (beach bean); flowers and leaves. Puhilele Point, Haleakala National Park, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2004.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); close-up of flower. Alau, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2005.
TitleFlower
CaptionVigna marina (beach bean); close-up of flower. Alau, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2005.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); close-up of flower. Alau, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2005.
FlowerVigna marina (beach bean); close-up of flower. Alau, Maui, Hawaii, USA. April 2005.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); flowers and developing seed pods. Waihee Coastal Preserve, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2016.
TitleFlowers
CaptionVigna marina (beach bean); flowers and developing seed pods. Waihee Coastal Preserve, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2016.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); flowers and developing seed pods. Waihee Coastal Preserve, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2016.
FlowersVigna marina (beach bean); flowers and developing seed pods. Waihee Coastal Preserve, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2016.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); flowers and seed pods. MISC HQ Piiholo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2013.
TitleFlowers and seed pods
CaptionVigna marina (beach bean); flowers and seed pods. MISC HQ Piiholo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2013.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); flowers and seed pods. MISC HQ Piiholo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2013.
Flowers and seed podsVigna marina (beach bean); flowers and seed pods. MISC HQ Piiholo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2013.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); mature seed pods. MISC HQ Piiholo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2013.
TitleSeed pods
CaptionVigna marina (beach bean); mature seed pods. MISC HQ Piiholo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2013.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); mature seed pods. MISC HQ Piiholo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2013.
Seed podsVigna marina (beach bean); mature seed pods. MISC HQ Piiholo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2013.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); mature seed pods and two seeds in hand. MISC HQ Piiholo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2013.
TitleSeed pods
CaptionVigna marina (beach bean); mature seed pods and two seeds in hand. MISC HQ Piiholo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2013.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); mature seed pods and two seeds in hand. MISC HQ Piiholo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2013.
Seed podsVigna marina (beach bean); mature seed pods and two seeds in hand. MISC HQ Piiholo, Maui, Hawaii, USA. December 2013.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); seedling. Kanaha Beach, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2004.
TitleSeedling
CaptionVigna marina (beach bean); seedling. Kanaha Beach, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2004.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Vigna marina (beach bean); seedling. Kanaha Beach, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2004.
SeedlingVigna marina (beach bean); seedling. Kanaha Beach, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2004.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Vigna marina (Burm.) Merr.

Preferred Common Name

  • beach bean

Other Scientific Names

  • Dolichos luteus Sw.
  • Phaseolus marinus Burm.
  • Phaseolus obovatus Gagnep.
  • Scytalis anomala E.Mey.
  • Scytalis retusa E.Mey.
  • Vigna anomala Walp.
  • Vigna lutea (Sw.) A.Gray
  • Vigna repens var. lutea (Sw.) Kuntze
  • Vigna retusa (E.Mey.) Walp.

International Common Names

  • English: dune bean; field bean; notched cowpea; sea bean; shore bean
  • French: haricot du bord de mer; liane ronde
  • Chinese: bin jiang dou
  • Portuguese: batatarana

Local Common Names

  • Cook Islands: po‘ue
  • Fiji: drautolu; tokatolu; wavue
  • French Polynesia: pipi tatahi; tutu faroa
  • Guam: akangkang malolusa; akangkang manulasa
  • Japan: hama-azuki; hama-sasage
  • Micronesia, Federated states of: choochón; golu; holu; lakudalip; makederip; markinenjojo; olu; oolu; tehsiluh; topo; ulu; wénúka; wolu; wonuw; wooluuw
  • Niue: feseka tahi; pine lautolo
  • Seychelles: pois marron
  • Sri Lanka: karal li-me; kodippayaru
  • USA/Hawaii: lemuomakili; mohihihi; nanea; nenea; okolemakili; puhili; puhilihili; pulihilihi; wahine omao

Summary of Invasiveness

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V. marina is a salt tolerant, yellow flowered legume with a scrambling and vining habit. It typically grows on beaches and coastal dunes from East Africa to the Pacific and also along some parts of the Atlantic and Caribbean shores. It is regarded as native throughout its range and there are few instances were records indicated an intentional or accidental human mediated introduction. It is possible for V. marina to form dense stands along shorelines and its sprawling growth may occupy space preventing the establishment of other native plant species. In Tuvalu, it is associated with a number of plantations where it may interfere with the establishment of Cocos nucifera (coconut) and Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit). Reports associated with the invasiveness of this species are infrequent and V. marina is considered only a minor invasive. This species is commonly used as a sand-stabiliser and cover crop.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Fabales
  •                         Family: Fabaceae
  •                             Subfamily: Papilionoideae
  •                                 Genus: Vigna
  •                                     Species: Vigna marina

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The genus Vigna contains more than 100 species distributed in tropical regions around the world (Delin and Thulin, 2010). V. marina belongs to the Fabaceae (pea) family. The name Vigna comes from Dominico Vigna, an Italian botanist. The specific epithet marina comes from the Latin word marinus, meaning of the seaside, in reference to its habitat (Some Magnetic Islands Plants, 2016).

A recent study of the Vigna groups shows that the V. luteola clade (closely related to V. marina) has an African origin (Delgado-Salinas et al., 2011). Earlier studies suggested that V. marina could perhaps be merged with V. luteola because some Pacific specimens of V. luteola shared alleles with V. marina (Pasquet and Vanderborght, 1999). However, the argument can be made that the three closely related species, V. marina, V. oblongifolia and V. luteola are reasonably distinct following the phylogeny presented by Pasquet and Vanderborght (1999). Certainly the names are still in use and they can be distinguished from each other using available keys (e.g., Wu and Thulin, 2010).

The basionym for V. marina (Burm.) Merr. is Phaseolus marinus Burm. No subspecific designations of V. marina have been accepted. For example, V. marina subsp. oblonga sensu Padulosi is a synonym of V. luteola (Jacq.) Benth. (ILDIS, 2014). Although some authors continue to use the varietal name in publications (e.g., Chankaew et al., 2013). V. marina, is morphologically similar and has been called a segregate species of V. luteola (Delgado-Salinas et al., 2011). Although the former article was phylogenetic it did not in fact include DNA data from V. marina. A variety of other synonyms have been applied to this taxon. Some confusion exists over the name applied in the Flora of Panama, with V. luteola being applied despite the authors claiming that V. marina is probably the correct name (Woodson et al., 1980). Later authors use the V. marina name (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012). Their rationale is that the type specimen for the basionym Phaseolus marinus Burmann (which is a drawing) better represents the taxon in Panama. The description given for the Flora of Panama potentially encompasses both V. luteola and V. marina.

Description

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The following description is taken from Wagner et al. (1999).

Habit: somewhat succulent creeping or climbing perennial herbs up to several metres long, becoming woody toward base, sparsely to densely pubescent. Leaves: leaflets rhombic elliptic to broadly rhombic ovate or obovate, 3.5-10.5 cm long, 2.5-8.8 cm wide, sparsely appressed pilose, soon glabrate, apex rounded to emarginate, stipules peltate. Flowers: flowers slightly waxy, in racemes 6.3-14 cm long, peduncles 4.3-10.5 cm long, pedicels 4.5-6 mm long; calyx green, tinged reddish, upper 2 lobes completely connate, forming an entire upper lip 1.8-2 mm long, lateral lobes deltate, ca. 1.5 mm long, lowest tooth deltate, ca. 2 mm long, glabrous; corolla green in bud, bright yellow at anthesis, 12-19 mm long, standard very broadly obcordate, reflexed, keel not beaked, incurved ca. 1/2 turn or less; style bearded below the stigma along the inner edge. Fruit: pods linear oblong, inflated, slightly curved, 35-60 mm long, 8-9 mm wide, glabrous, slightly constricted between the seeds.

Seeds: seeds 2-10, yellowish brown to reddish brown, reniform or broadly ellipsoid, 6-7 mm long, 4.5-6 mm wide, slightly compressed, hilum oblong, rim aril scarcely developed.

Distribution

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V. marina belongs to a clade of plants with an African origin (Delgado-Salinas et al., 2011). This species is salt tolerant and found on numerous tropical beaches around the world (GBIF, 2016) from East Africa to the Pacific and also some parts of the Atlantic and the Caribbean. It rarely poses a problem. It was mentioned as a problem in Kiribati (Space and Imada, 2004) in the central Pacific Ocean and as a native invader in Chuuk an Island in Micronesia (Space et al., 2000).

Some confusion exists over the name applied in the Flora of Panama, with V. luteola being applied despite the authors claiming that V. marina is probably the correct name (Woodson et al., 1980). Later authors use the name V. marina (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012). Their rationale is that the type specimen for the basionym Phaseolus marinus Burmann (which is a drawing) better represents the taxon in Panama. The description given for the Flora of Panama potentially encompasses both V. luteola and V. marina.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeILDIS, 2014
Chagos ArchipelagoWidespreadNative Not invasive Barnett and Emms, 1998Possibly introduced to Diego Garcia Island
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HainanWidespreadNative Not invasive Wu and Thulin, 2010
Cocos IslandsWidespreadNative Not invasive Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013
East TimorPresentNativeILDIS, 2014
IndiaPresentNativeILDIS, 2014
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentNativeILDIS, 2014
-KeralaPresentNativeILDIS, 2014
-OdishaPresentNativeILDIS, 2014
IndonesiaPresentNativeILDIS, 2014
-Irian JayaWidespreadNativeILDIS, 2014
-MoluccasWidespreadNativeILDIS, 2014
-SulawesiWidespreadNativeILDIS, 2014
-SumatraWidespreadNativeILDIS, 2014
JapanPresentNative Not invasive ILDIS, 2014
-KyushuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
MalaysiaPresentNativeILDIS, 2014
-Peninsular MalaysiaILDIS, 2014
-SabahPresentNativeILDIS, 2014
-SarawakPresentNativeILDIS, 2014
MaldivesPresentNative Not invasive Topp, 1988Plants from Ile du Coin, Peros Banhos were introduced to Diego Garcia Island in 1985
PhilippinesPresentNativeGBIF, 2014
SingaporePresent only in captivity/cultivationNative Not invasive Chong et al., 2009
Sri LankaPresentNativeILDIS, 2014
TaiwanPresentNative Not invasive Boufford et al., 2003; Lee, 2005
ThailandPresentNativeILDIS, 2014
VietnamPresentNativeILDIS, 2014

Africa

AldabraPresentNative Not invasive Robertson, 1989
BeninPresentNativeGenesys, 2015
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentNativeGenesys, 2015
Equatorial GuineaPresentNativeGenesys, 2015
GabonPresentNativeGenesys, 2015
GhanaPresentNativeGBIF, 2014
GuineaPresentNativeILDIS, 2014
LiberiaPresentNativeGBIF, 2014
MadagascarPresentNativeILDIS, 2014
MauritiusPresentNativeILDIS, 2014
RéunionPresentNativeILDIS, 2014
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentNativeILDIS, 2014
SeychellesPresentNativeILDIS, 2014
South AfricaPresentNativeILDIS, 2014
TanzaniaPresentNativeILDIS, 2014
-ZanzibarPresentNative Not invasive ILDIS, 2014
TogoPresentNativeGBIF, 2014

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HawaiiWidespreadNative Not invasive Wagner et al., 1999; Imada, 2012

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentNativeGBIF, 2014
CubaPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
GuatemalaPresentNativeGBIF, 2014
JamaicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
PanamaPresentNative Not invasive Woodson and Schery, 1980; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Puerto RicoPresentNative Not invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-BahiaPresentNativeMissouri Botanical Garden, 2013
ColombiaPresentNativeGBIF, 2014

Europe

SpainPresentNativeGBIF, 2014

Oceania

American SamoaWidespreadNative Not invasive Whistler, 1992; Whistler, 1994Common on the littoral strand, occasional inland on roadsides to 300 m
AustraliaPresentNativeCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013; ILDIS, 2014
-Australian Northern TerritoryWidespreadNative Not invasive Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013
-New South WalesWidespreadNative Not invasive Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013
-QueenslandWidespreadNative Not invasive Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013
Cook IslandsWidespreadNative Invasive Bishop Museum, 2013A common and widespread vine. A minor problem in waste and fallow areas, especially when establishing crops
FijiPresentNative Not invasive Smith, 1991; ILDIS, 2014
French PolynesiaPresentNativeILDIS, 2014
GuamWidespreadNative Not invasive Stone, 1971
Johnston IslandWidespreadNativeThomas et al., 1978Present on Akau, Johnston and Sand Original
KiribatiPresentIntroducedWaterhouse, 1997; Space and Imada, 2004Can exhibit aggressive behaviour
Marshall IslandsWidespreadNative Not invasive Wagner et al., 2014; NYBG, 2016
Micronesia, Federated states ofWidespreadNativeSpace et al., 2000; Wagner et al., 2014; NYBG, 2016
NauruWidespreadNative Not invasive Katayama, 1980; Wagner et al., 2014
New CaledoniaPresentNativeGenesys, 2015
NiuePresentNativeSykes, 1970
Norfolk IslandWidespreadNative Not invasive Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2013
PalauWidespreadNative Not invasive NYBG, 2016
Papua New GuineaPresentNativeILDIS, 2014
SamoaPresentNative Not invasive Swezey, 1942
Solomon IslandsPresentNativeILDIS, 2014
TongaPresentNativeYuncker, 1953
TuvaluWidespreadNative Not invasive Aregheore, 2002One of the main grazing sources for goats
VanuatuPresentNative Not invasive Mueller-Dombois and Fosberg, 1998; Genesys, 2015

History of Introduction and Spread

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V. marina has few documented instances of its intentional introduction to new sites, but it has been recorded as introduced into Bikini Atoll, Marshall Islands (Fosberg, 1988; Barnett and Emms, 1998) and Diego Garcia Island (Topp, 1988).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of V. marina being introduced into new areas is low. This species is rarely planted intentionally and usually establishes via ocean assisted seed dispersal, establishing at the high-water mark and spreading from there (Nakanishi, 1988). It is possible that V. marina already is one of the most widespread tropical plants and although viable seeds do reach cooler climes, they cannot establish (Smith, 1991).

Habitat

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V. marina is salt tolerant and occupies sandy seashores, frontal dunes and beach ridges in tropical areas of the world. This species however, is not especially tolerant of dry sites and is generally associated with the wetter windward sites on islands where rainfall is adequate (Forest Starr, Starr Environmental, personal communication, 2014). It is considered a facultative wetland plant in Hawaii but contrary information is given for the Caribbean where it is considered an obligate “upland” plant which implies that it is not usually found in wetlands (USDA-NRCS, 2013). This species is also seen spreading on lava on windward sites in the tropical Pacific. It will also move in estuarine habitats or spread up rivers as far as the influence of the tide can carry its seeds. Where coastal ponds are near the coast plants can establish around them. This species rarely occurs above 120 m above sea level (GBIF, 2016).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Industrial / intensive livestock production systems Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Industrial / intensive livestock production systems Present, no further details Natural
Industrial / intensive livestock production systems Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Principal habitat Natural
Coastal areas Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Coastal dunes Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal dunes Principal habitat Natural
Coastal dunes Principal habitat Productive/non-natural
Freshwater
Irrigation channels Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Irrigation channels Principal habitat Natural
Irrigation channels Principal habitat Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

V. marina has a chromosome number of 2n=22 (Maréchal et al., 1978). It has been reported that it can from fertile hybrids with the closely related species V. luteola.

Reproductive Biology

V. marina reproduces by producing seeds and based on flower colour and shape, this short-lived perennial is likely to be pollinated by bees. However, it is capable of self-pollination (Chankaew et al., 2013). Seeds are produced in non-shattering pods and disperse on ocean currents; the seeds can withstand salt water (Smith, 1991; Chankaew et al., 2013). Germination of seeds is improved by chemical and mechanical scarification (Lilleeng-Rosenberger, 2006).

Physiology and Phenology

The plant is a halophile (salt tolerant) (Chankaew et al., 2013). It can produce flowers and fruit all year round (Useful Tropical Plants, 2016).

Longevity

V. marina is a short lived plant (living less than five years) (Staples et al., 2005).

Associations

V. marina is a legume and as such can fix nitrogen from the air using bacteria present in root nodules. This converts atmospheric nitrogen into a form which is useable by plants (Elanchezhian et al., 2009).

Environmental Requirements

V. marina requires annual rainfall of at last 500 mm and is sensitive to frost (Useful Tropical Plants, 2016). It is salt tolerant and can grow in poorly drained soils. As such, it naturally grows at sea level on sea shores, coastal lagoons and river mouths.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
A - Tropical/Megathermal climate Preferred Average temp. of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Preferred Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Alfalfa mosaic virus Pathogen Deng et al., 2010
Aphelenchoides bicaudatus Herbivore Plant Protection Service, 2014
Aphis craccivora Herbivore Stems not specific APHIS, 1960
Beet western yellows virus Pathogen Deng et al., 2010
Cercospora canescens Pathogen not specific Plant Protection Service, 2014
Colletotrichum capsici Pathogen Leaves not specific Plant Protection Service, 2014
Colletotrichum dematium Pathogen not specific Plant Protection Service, 2014
Colletotrichum truncatum Pathogen not specific Plant Protection Service, 2014
Corynespora cassiicola Pathogen Plant Protection Service, 2014
Cucumber mosaic virus Pathogen Deng et al., 2010
Erysiphe betae Pathogen not specific Plant Protection Service, 2014
Euchrysops cnejus Herbivore Leaves not specific Plant Protection Service, 2014
Helicotylenchus sp. Herbivore not specific Plant Protection Service, 2014
Hemicriconemoides cocophillus Herbivore not specific Plant Protection Service, 2014
Lampides boeticus Herbivore Leaves not specific
Meloidogyne incognita Herbivore Plant Protection Service, 2014
Mycosphaerella cruenta Pathogen Leaves not specific Plant Protection Service, 2014
Oidium Pathogen Plant Protection Service, 2014
Ophiomyia phaseoli Herbivore Stems not specific
Potyvirus bean common mosaic virus Pathogen not specific Deng et al., 2010
Pratylenchus brachyurus Herbivore Plant Protection Service, 2014
Rhizoctonia Pathogen not specific Plant Protection Service, 2014
Rotylenchulus reniformis Herbivore Plant Protection Service, 2014
Septoria Pathogen Plant Protection Service, 2014
Uromyces appendiculatus Pathogen not specific Plant Protection Service, 2014
Uromyces vignae Pathogen Leaves not specific Plant Protection Service, 2014
Xiphinema brevicollum Herbivore Plant Protection Service, 2014

Notes on Natural Enemies

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A number of pests have been recorded on V. marina in the Pacific Islands. These include fungi (Cercospora canescens, Colletotrichum capsici, Colletotrichum dematium, Colletotrichum truncatum, Corynespora cassiicola, Erysiphe betae, Mycosphaerella cruenta, Oidium sp., Rhizoctonia sp. Septoria sp., Uromyces vignae and Uromyces appendiculatus) nematodes (Aphelenchoides bicaudatus, Helicotylenchus sp., Hemicriconemoides cocophillus, Meloidogyne incognita, Pratylenchus brachyurus, Rotylenchulus reniformis and Xiphinema brevicolle [Xiphinema brevicollum]) and a virus (Potyvirus bean common mosaic virus) (Plant Protection Service, 2014). Other viruses of P. marina include alfalfa mosaic virus, beet western yellows virus and cucumber mosaic virus (Deng et al., 2010).

Legume eating caterpillars such as Euchrysops cnejus and Lampides boeticus are also known to eat the leaves of V. marina (Encyclopedia of Life, 2013) and an aphid, Aphis craccivora has also been recorded (APHIS, 1960s). Bean flies, Ophiomyia phaseoli may also be devastating to the seedlings and damaging to mature plants (Culliney and Koebele, 1999).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Seeds of V. marina are dispersed by water which is further assisted by inflated pods that float on water (Smith, 1991; Padulosi and Ng, 1993).

Intentional Introduction

V. marina has been introduced and cultivated on Diego Garcia (where it is established) and Bikini atolls (Fosberg, 1988; Barnett and Emms, 1998). It is likely that it has been introduced into more locations without it being documented.

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Economic Impact

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V. marina is regarded as a nuisance weed in the Pacific (Plant Protection Service, 2014) but often not considered to be a major weed. In Tuvalu, growers of Cocos nucifera (coconut) and Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit) may spend time controlling this plant (Waterhouse, 1997) and it is sometimes a problem in cultivated areas. The economic impact of V. marina is unknown but believed to be low.

Environmental Impact

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V. marina is considered a native species practically everywhere it occurs and therefore is described as weedy only within its native range. It has been reported to form dense stands (Some Magnetic Island Plants, 2016) where it can compete with neighbouring plants and crops by growing over them, or by sprawling to occupy space thereby preventing establishment.

However, as a halophyte, V. marina fixes nitrogen into the soil making it available for other plant species. It also acts as a cover crop and dune stabiliser (Barr and McKenzie, 1977; Deenik, 2003; Finney and Laukon, 1993; Thomson et al., 2006).

Social Impact

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V. marina can be seen encroaching on lawns in coastal properties in Hawaii.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
Impact outcomes
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering

Uses

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Economic Value

V. marina may be used as forage for goats. However, the economic value of this is unknown and likely to be low.

Social Benefit

Various medicinal and ceremonial uses are documented for V. marina (Thaman, 1994; NYBG, 2014). For example, it may be used to treat boils, taboo violation, arthritis, stomach ailments, eye sickness (in chickens) and skin burns as well as for floral garlands (NYBG, 2014).

V. marina could be a potential source of salt tolerance genes which could provide a means to transfer salt tolerance to other closely related bean species (Chankaew et al., 2013). It could also be a source of drought tolerance for cowpeas (USDA-ARS, 2016).

Environmental Services

V. marina may be planted as a sand binder and ground cover species (Barr and McKenzie, 1977; Whistler, 1992b; Finney and Laukon, 1993; Aregheore, 2002; Deenik, 2003; Thomson et al., 2006). It may also be introduced to increase nitrogen levels in the soil (Useful Tropical Plants, 2016).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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V. marina is similar to the closely related V. luteola. It may be distinguished from this species by the rounded or obtuse leaf apexes and the glabrous legumes when ripe, while V. luteola has acute leaf tips and a pubescent legume (Wu and Thulin, 2010). Note V. marina subsp. oblonga sensu Padulosi is a synonym of V. luteola (Jacq.) Benth. (ILDIS, 2014). The two species also differ in the habitat they occupy; V. marina is present along seashores whereas V. luteola is present along freshwater shores (Padulois and Ng, 1992).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Control

Physical/mechanical control

Physical removal of seedlings of V. marina is effective.

Chemical Control

There is no information on the control of V. marina using chemicals. However other species of Vigna have been partially controlled by the herbicide EPTC (Soltani et al., 2005). Halosulfuron-methyl did not have a major impact on V. unguiculata (Brandenberger et al., 2012) whilst dimethazone had an impact on the development of chloroplasts (Duke and Kenyon, 1986). Application of mixtures of metolachlor and terbutryn were seen to reduce vigour in V. unguiculata by reducing canopy spread and lowering seed yield (Ishaya et al., 2008).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Genetic studies of the spread of V. marina could help to reconstruct the path of its spread and connectivity between island populations, in some cases this could lead to conclusions about whether the species was introduced intentionally or by natural means (Estoup and Guillemaud, 2010).

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Contributors

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09/06/2014 Original text by:

Christopher E. Buddenhagen, Department of Biological Sciences, Florida State University, Florida, USA

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