Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Duttaphrynus melanostictus
(Asian common toad)

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Datasheet

Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Asian common toad)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 13 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Threatened Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Duttaphrynus melanostictus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Asian common toad
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Chordata
  •       Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •         Class: Amphibia
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Duttaphrynus melanostictus is a nocturnal, human commensal toad that occupies a wide variety of habitats across tropical Southeast Asia and has been recently introduced to some islands of Indonesia, New Guine
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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Asian common toad); adult. Timor-Leste. September 2009.
TitleAdult
CaptionDuttaphrynus melanostictus (Asian common toad); adult. Timor-Leste. September 2009.
Copyright©Colin R. Trainor-2009 - All Rights Reserved
Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Asian common toad); adult. Timor-Leste. September 2009.
AdultDuttaphrynus melanostictus (Asian common toad); adult. Timor-Leste. September 2009.©Colin R. Trainor-2009 - All Rights Reserved
Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Asian common toad); adult. Hong Kong, Tai Po Kau Special Area. April 2008.
TitleAdult
CaptionDuttaphrynus melanostictus (Asian common toad); adult. Hong Kong, Tai Po Kau Special Area. April 2008.
Copyright©Lokionly-2008/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Asian common toad); adult. Hong Kong, Tai Po Kau Special Area. April 2008.
AdultDuttaphrynus melanostictus (Asian common toad); adult. Hong Kong, Tai Po Kau Special Area. April 2008.©Lokionly-2008/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0
Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Asian common toad); adult. Frontal view of head, showing distinctive and, apparently, unique patterning, which can be used to distinguish individuals.
TitleHead
CaptionDuttaphrynus melanostictus (Asian common toad); adult. Frontal view of head, showing distinctive and, apparently, unique patterning, which can be used to distinguish individuals.
Copyright©L. Shyamal-2006/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.5
Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Asian common toad); adult. Frontal view of head, showing distinctive and, apparently, unique patterning, which can be used to distinguish individuals.
HeadDuttaphrynus melanostictus (Asian common toad); adult. Frontal view of head, showing distinctive and, apparently, unique patterning, which can be used to distinguish individuals.©L. Shyamal-2006/via wikipedia - CC BY 2.5

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Duttaphrynus melanostictus (Schneider, 1799)

Preferred Common Name

  • Asian common toad

Other Scientific Names

  • Ansonia kamblei Ravichandran and Pillai, 1990
  • Bufo melanostictus Schneider, 1799
  • Bufo tienhoensis Bourret, 1937

International Common Names

  • English: Asian toad; black-spectacled toad; black-spined toad; common Sunda toad; Javanese toad

Summary of Invasiveness

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Duttaphrynus melanostictus is a nocturnal, human commensal toad that occupies a wide variety of habitats across tropical Southeast Asia and has been recently introduced to some islands of Indonesia, New Guinea and Madagascar. It is long-lived and breeds rapidly with the potential to extend its range quickly. It secretes a milky toxin that is poisonous to birds, mammals and snakes in its non-native range where it also affects the lower levels of the food chain by competing with native amphibians and feeding on a wide range of invertebrates. A risk assessment has been prepared for the Queensland Government (Csurhes, 2016). This species is listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species as Least Concern.
 
Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses by Wogan et al. (2016) indicate three distinct evolutionary lineages corresponding to the Asian mainland, coastal Myanmar and the Sundaic islands (Indonesia) which suggests that D. melanostictus actually consists of multiple species, each having narrower geographical ranges and ecological niches than is currently recognized.
 
Some reports of the much more extensively studied relative Rhinella marina in South East Asia have been misdentifications of D. melanostictus as confirmed by Trainor (2009) for East Timor.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Chordata
  •             Subphylum: Vertebrata
  •                 Class: Amphibia
  •                     Order: Anura
  •                         Family: Bufonidae
  •                             Genus: Duttaphrynus
  •                                 Species: Duttaphrynus melanostictus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentNativeDijk et al., 2016
CambodiaPresentNativeDijk et al., 2016
ChinaPresentNativeDijk et al., 2016
-Hong KongPresentNativeDijk et al., 2016
-MacauPresentNativeDijk et al., 2016
East TimorPresentIntroduced1999 Invasive Kaiser et al., 2001; Trainor, 2009; O'Shea et al., 2015Detected in 11 mainland districts, spreading eastwards.
IndiaPresentNativeDijk et al., 2016
IndonesiaPresentNativeDijk et al., 2016Including the Anambas Islands and Natuna Islands
-Irian JayaPresentIntroducedDijk et al., 2016Manokwari
-JavaPresentNativeDijk et al., 2016
-KalimantanPresentNativeDijk et al., 2016
-MoluccasPresentIntroducedDijk et al., 2016Ambon
-Nusa TenggaraPresentIntroducedDijk et al., 2016Bali
-SulawesiPresentIntroducedDijk et al., 2016
-SumatraPresentNativeDijk et al., 2016
LaosPresentNativeDijk et al., 2016
MalaysiaPresentNativeDijk et al., 2016
MyanmarPresentNativeDijk et al., 2016
NepalPresentNativeDijk et al., 2016
PakistanPresentNativeDijk et al., 2016
SingaporePresentNativeDijk et al., 2016
Sri LankaPresentNativeDijk et al., 2016
TaiwanPresentNativeDijk et al., 2016
ThailandPresentNativeDijk et al., 2016
VietnamPresentNativeDijk et al., 2016

Africa

MadagascarPresentIntroduced2014 Invasive Moore et al., 2015First reported in March 2014 from the main port Toamasina but possibly introduced prior to 2010

Oceania

Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedDijk et al., 2016

References

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Csurhes S, 2016. Asian spined toad, Bufo melanostictus. Invasive Animal Risk Assessment. Australia: Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, Biosecurity Queensland, 17 pp. https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/56658/IPA-Asian-Toad-Risk-Assessment.pdf

Dijk PP van; Iskandar D; Lau MWN; Huiqing G; Baorong G; Kuangyang L; Wenhao C; Zhigang Y; Chan B; Dutta S; Inger RF; Manamendra-Arachchi K; Khan MS, 2016. Duttaphrynus melanostictus. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T54707A86445591. www.iucnredlist.org/

Kaiser H; Lopes Carvalho V; Ceballos J; Freed P; Heacox S; Lester B; Richards SJ; Trainor CR; Sanchez C; O'Shea M, 2001. The herpetofauna of Timor-Leste: a first report. Zookeys, No. 109:19-86. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.109.1439

Moore M; Fidy JFSN; Edmonds D, 2015. The new toad in town: distribution of the Asian toad, Duttaphrynus melanostictus, in the Toamasina area of eastern Madagascar. Tropical Conservation Science, 8(2):440-455. http://tropicalconservationscience.mongabay.com/content/v8/tcs_v8i2_439-454_Moore.pdf

O'Shea M; Sanchez C; Kathriner A; Mecke S; Lopes Carvalho V; Varela Ribeiro A; Afranio Soares Z; Lemos Araujo L de; Kaiser H, 2015. Herpetological diversity of Timor-Leste: updates and a review of species distributions. Asian Herpetological Research, 6(2):73-131.

Trainor CR, 2009. Survey of a population of black-spined toad Bufo melanostictus in Timor-Leste: confirming identity, distribution, abundance and impacts of an invasive and toxic toad. Darwin, Australia: Charles Darwin University, 50 pp. https://core.ac.uk/display/47196141

Wogan GOU; Stuart BL; Iskandar DT; McGuire JA, 2016. Deep genetic structure and ecological divergence in a widespread human commensal toad. Biology Letters, 12(1):20150807. http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/12/1/20150807

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
AmphibiaWebhttp://amphibiaweb.org/
IUCN Red Listhttp://www.redlist.org

Distribution Maps

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