Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype
(wheat blast)

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Datasheet

Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 January 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype
  • Preferred Common Name
  • wheat blast
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Wheat blast is a fungal disease of wheat which is caused by a host-specialized ascomycete Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum (MoT) pathotype (Anamorph Pyricularia oryzae Triticum). It was first dis...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); a severely blast affected wheat field, with a huge number of infected heads.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); a severely blast affected wheat field, with a huge number of infected heads.
Copyright©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); a severely blast affected wheat field, with a huge number of infected heads.
SymptomsMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); a severely blast affected wheat field, with a huge number of infected heads.©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); blast affected wheat spikes, with typical bleached head symptom from the point of infection.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); blast affected wheat spikes, with typical bleached head symptom from the point of infection.
Copyright©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); blast affected wheat spikes, with typical bleached head symptom from the point of infection.
SymptomsMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); blast affected wheat spikes, with typical bleached head symptom from the point of infection.©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); complete bleaching of a wheat spike above the point of infection by blast fungus.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); complete bleaching of a wheat spike above the point of infection by blast fungus.
Copyright©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); complete bleaching of a wheat spike above the point of infection by blast fungus.
SymptomsMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); complete bleaching of a wheat spike above the point of infection by blast fungus.©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); a completely bleached wheat spike, grey from blast sporulation at the neck of the spike.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); a completely bleached wheat spike, grey from blast sporulation at the neck of the spike.
Copyright©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); a completely bleached wheat spike, grey from blast sporulation at the neck of the spike.
SymptomsMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); a completely bleached wheat spike, grey from blast sporulation at the neck of the spike.©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); lesions and dark grey spots on a mature leaf infected by wheat blast.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); lesions and dark grey spots on a mature leaf infected by wheat blast.
Copyright©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); lesions and dark grey spots on a mature leaf infected by wheat blast.
SymptomsMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); lesions and dark grey spots on a mature leaf infected by wheat blast.©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); close-up of lesions and dark grey spots on a mature leaf infected by wheat blast.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); close-up of lesions and dark grey spots on a mature leaf infected by wheat blast.
Copyright©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); close-up of lesions and dark grey spots on a mature leaf infected by wheat blast.
SymptomsMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); close-up of lesions and dark grey spots on a mature leaf infected by wheat blast.©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); typical eye-shaped lesions with light grey centres, and dark brown spots on a severely blast infected wheat leaf.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); typical eye-shaped lesions with light grey centres, and dark brown spots on a severely blast infected wheat leaf.
Copyright©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); typical eye-shaped lesions with light grey centres, and dark brown spots on a severely blast infected wheat leaf.
SymptomsMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); typical eye-shaped lesions with light grey centres, and dark brown spots on a severely blast infected wheat leaf.©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); typical eye-shaped lesions with light grey centres, and dark brown spots on a severely blast infected wheat leaf.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); typical eye-shaped lesions with light grey centres, and dark brown spots on a severely blast infected wheat leaf.
Copyright©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); typical eye-shaped lesions with light grey centres, and dark brown spots on a severely blast infected wheat leaf.
SymptomsMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); typical eye-shaped lesions with light grey centres, and dark brown spots on a severely blast infected wheat leaf.©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); large dark brown lesion, with light grey coloured centres on a stalk of a wheat spike.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); large dark brown lesion, with light grey coloured centres on a stalk of a wheat spike.
Copyright©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); large dark brown lesion, with light grey coloured centres on a stalk of a wheat spike.
SymptomsMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); large dark brown lesion, with light grey coloured centres on a stalk of a wheat spike.©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); two completely bleached spikes with traces of grey and a lesion from blast sporulation at the base.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); two completely bleached spikes with traces of grey and a lesion from blast sporulation at the base.
Copyright©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); two completely bleached spikes with traces of grey and a lesion from blast sporulation at the base.
SymptomsMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); two completely bleached spikes with traces of grey and a lesion from blast sporulation at the base.©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); severely infected wheat spike, and two stems with dark grey lesions of blast sporulation.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); severely infected wheat spike, and two stems with dark grey lesions of blast sporulation.
Copyright©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); severely infected wheat spike, and two stems with dark grey lesions of blast sporulation.
SymptomsMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); severely infected wheat spike, and two stems with dark grey lesions of blast sporulation.©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); completely damaged spike (discoloured), with traces of dark grey blast sporulation at the stalk.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); completely damaged spike (discoloured), with traces of dark grey blast sporulation at the stalk.
Copyright©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); completely damaged spike (discoloured), with traces of dark grey blast sporulation at the stalk.
SymptomsMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); completely damaged spike (discoloured), with traces of dark grey blast sporulation at the stalk.©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); severely infected rachis, with dark grey blast sporulation at the neck and severely damaged spikelets.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); severely infected rachis, with dark grey blast sporulation at the neck and severely damaged spikelets.
Copyright©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); severely infected rachis, with dark grey blast sporulation at the neck and severely damaged spikelets.
SymptomsMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); severely infected rachis, with dark grey blast sporulation at the neck and severely damaged spikelets.©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); close-up of severely infected grains and severely damaged spikelets.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); close-up of severely infected grains and severely damaged spikelets.
Copyright©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam
Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); close-up of severely infected grains and severely damaged spikelets.
SymptomsMagnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype (wheat blast); close-up of severely infected grains and severely damaged spikelets.©Professor Md. Tofazzal Islam

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype B.C. Couch and L.M. Kohn (2002)

Preferred Common Name

  • wheat blast

Other Scientific Names

  • Magnaporthe oryzae Lolium pathotype M. Farman, K. Pedley and B. Valent (2011)
  • MoT
  • Pyricularia oryzae Triticum pathotype Cavara 1891

International Common Names

  • Portuguese: brusone

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: bishforon

Summary of Invasiveness

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Wheat blast is a fungal disease of wheat which is caused by a host-specialized ascomycete Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum (MoT) pathotype (Anamorph Pyricularia oryzae Triticum). It was first discovered in Paraná state of Brazil in 1985 and then gradually spread in wheat growing areas in several countries in Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Argentina. It is a fearsome disease of wheat which causes yield loss up to 100%. It is now a threat to wheat production in about 3 million hectares of wheat growing areas in South America. Application of fungicides to control this disease is unreliable and breeding resistant varieties is also not durable. At conducive environmental conditions (18-30°C and >80% RH) during ear emergence or grain filling, this disease can become an epidemic and devastate wheat crop within a week. In 2016, MoT emerged as an epidemic in eight districts of Bangladesh and has so far destroyed more than 15,000 hectares of wheat. The wheat blast pathogen in Bangladesh is determined as a South American lineage of M. oryzae. Scientists fear that MoT may spread to neighbouring South Asian wheat-growing countries and thus pose a serious threat to food and nutritional security of South America.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Sordariomycetidae
  •                         Family: Magnaporthaceae
  •                             Genus: Magnaporthe
  •                                 Species: Magnaporthe oryzae Triticum pathotype

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshWidespreadIntroduced2016 Invasive Islam et al., 2016Kushtia, Meherpur, Chuadanga, Pabna, Jessore, Jhenaidah, Bhola and Barisal

North America

USA
-KentuckyAbsent, formerly presentNative Invasive Pratt, 2012

South America

ArgentinaWidespreadIntroduced2007 Invasive Alberione et al., 2008Chaco
BoliviaWidespreadIntroduced1996 Invasive Barea and Toledo, 1996Santa Cruz
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ParanaWidespreadIntroduced1985 Invasive Igarashi et al., 1986
ParaguayWidespreadIntroduced2002 Invasive Viedma and Morel, 2002

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / discoloration
Fruit / mummification
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Inflorescence / lesions on glumes
Inflorescence / premature ripening
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / rot
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / shrivelled
Stems / discoloration
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / necrosis
Whole plant / discoloration
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

References

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Akbar Hossain; Silva JATda, 2013. Wheat production in Bangladesh: its future in the light of global warming. AoB Plants, 2013:pls042. http://aobpla.oxfordjournals.org/content/5/pls042.full

Alberione E; Bainotti C; Cettour I; Salines J, 2008. Evaluation of diseases in summer planting wheat in the Argentine-Campana NEA 2007/2008. (Evaluacion de enfermedades en trigos en siembra de verano en el NEA argentino-Campana 2007/2008.) 7th National Congress of Wheat. Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina.

Barea G; Toledo J, 1996. Identification and zoning of rice blast or bruzzone (Pyricularia oryzae) in the cultivation of wheat in the apartment of Santa Cruz. (Identificacion y zonificacion de piricularia o bruzone (Pirycylaria oryzae) en el cultivo del trigo en el dpto. de Santa Cruz.) Informe Tecnico. Trigo, Santa Cruz, Bolivia: CIAT, 76-86.

Callaway E, 2016. Devastating wheat fungus appears in Asia for first time. Nature, 532:421-2.

Cardoso CAde A; Reis EM; Moreira EN, 2008. Development of a warning system for wheat blast caused by Pyricularia grisea. Summa Phytopathologica, 34(3):216-221. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/sp/v34n3/02.pdf

Chiapello H; Mallet L; Guérin C; Aguileta G; Amselem J; Kroj T; Ortega-Abboud E; Lebrun MH; Henrissat B; Gendrault A; Rodolphe F; Tharreau D; Fournier E, 2015. Deciphering genome content and evolutionary relationships of isolates from the fungus Magnaporthe oryzae attacking different host plants. Genome Biology and Evolution, 7(10):2896-2912. http://gbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/7/10/2896.full

CIMMYT, 2013. CGIAR Research Program on Wheat 2013, CRP Annual Report. DF, Mexico: CIMMYT; CGIAR.

CIMMYT, 2016. Wheat blast., Mexico: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT). www.cimmyt.org/wheat-blast/

Couch BC; Fudal I; Lebrun MH; Tharreau D; Valent B; Pham van Kim; Nottéghem JL; Kohn LM, 2005. Origins of host-specific populations of the blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae in crop domestication with subsequent expansion of pandemic clones on rice and weeds of rice. Genetics, 170(2):613-630. http://www.genetics.org/cgi/content/abstract/170/2/613

Cruz CD; Kiyuna J; Bockus WW; Todd TC; Stack JP; Valent B, 2015. Magnaporthe oryzae conidia on basal wheat leaves as a potential source of wheat blast inoculum. Plant Pathology, 64(6):1491-1498. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ppa.12414/full

Cruz CD; Peterson GL; Bockus WW; Kankanala P; Dubcovsky J; Jordan KW; Akhunov E; Chumley F; Baldelomar FD; Valent B, 2016. The 2NS translocation from Aegilops ventricosa confers resistance to the Triticum pathotype of Magnaporthe oryzae. Crop Science, 56(3):990-1000. https://dl.sciencesocieties.org/publications/cs/articles/56/3/990

Cruz MF; Prestes AM; Maciel JLN; Scheeren PL, 2010. Partial resistance to rice blast genotypes of common and synthetic wheat in young plant stages and adult plant. (Resistencia parcial a brusone de genotipos de trigo comum e sintetico nos estadios de planta jovem e de planta adulta.) Tropical Plant Pathology, 35:24-31.

Duveiller E; Hodson D; Sonder K; Tiedemann Avon, 2011. An international perspective on wheat blast. Phytopathology, 101:S220.

Faivre-Rampant O; Thomas J; Allegre M; Morel J-B; Tharreau D; Notteghem J-L; Lebrun M-H; Schaffrath U; Piffanelli P, 2008. Characterisation of the model system rice-Magnaporthe for the study of non-host resistance in cereals. New Phytology, 180:899-910.

Farman ML, 2002. Pyricularia grisea isolates causing gray leaf spot on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) in the United States: relationship to P. grisea isolates from other host plants. Phytopathology, 92(3):245-254.

Goulart A, 2005. Losses in wheat caused by the blast. (Perdas em trigo causadas pela brusone.) Plant Disease Epidemiology Workshop. Lush, M. Quantification of loss in the management of plant diseases: anal, 2004. Vicosa, Brazil: Federal University of Vicosa, 123-130.

Goulart ACP; Paiva Fde A; Mesquita ANde, 1992. Losses in wheat (Triticum aestivum) caused by Pyricularia oryzae.. (Perdas em trigo (Triticum aestivum) causadas por Pyricularia oryzae.) Fitopatologia Brasileira, 17(1):115-117.

Goulart ACP; Sousa PG; Urashima AS, 2007. Damages in wheat caused by infection of Pyricularia grisea. (Danos em trigo causados pela infecção de Pyricularia grisea.) Summa Phytopathologica, 33(4):358-363. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/sp/v33n4/a07v33n4.pdf

Igarashi S, 1990. Update on wheat blast (Pyricularia oryzae) in Brazil. In: Proceedings of the International Conference - Wheat for the Nontraditional Warm Areas [ed. by Saunder, D.]., Mexico: CIMMYT, 480-483.

Igarashi S, 1991. Update on wheat blast (Pyricularia oryzae) in Brazil. Proc Intl Conf Foz Do Iguacu, Brazil. In: Wheat for the nontraditional warm areas. Proceedings International Conference Foz Do Iguacu, Brazil. 29 July-3 Aug 1990 [ed. by Saunder, D.]., Brazil 480-483.

Igarashi S; Utiamada CM; Igarashi LC; Kazuma AH; Lopes RS, 1986. Pyricularia Wheat. 1. Occurrence of Pyricularia sp. in the state of Parana. (Pyriculariaemtrigo. Ocorrencia de Pyricularia sp. no estado do Parana.) Fitopatol Bras, 11:351-2.

Islam MT; Croll D; Gladieux P; Soanes DM; Persoons A; Bhattacharjee P; Hossain MS; Gupta DR; Rahman MM; Mahboob MG; Cook N; Salam MU; Sancho VB; Maciel JN; Nani A; Castroagudin V; Assis Reges JTde; Ceresini P; Ravel S; Kellner R; Fournier E; Tharreau D; Lebrun MH; McDonald B; Stitt T; Swan D; Talbot N; Saunders D; Win J; Kamoun S, 2016. Emergence of wheat blast in Bangladesh was caused by a South American Lineage of Magnaporthe oryzae. BMC Biology, 14:84.

Jones HD, 2015. Regulatory uncertainty over genome editing. Nature Plants, 1(1):14011. http://www.nature.com/articles/nplants201411

Kato H; Yamamoto M; Yamaguchi-Ozaki T; Kadouchi H; Iwamoto Y; Nakayashiki H; Tosa Y; Mayama S; Mori N, 2000. Pathogenicity, mating ability and DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms of Pyricularia populations isolated from Gramineae, Bambusideae and Zingiberaceae plants. Journal of General Plant Pathology, 66(1):30-47.

Klaubauf S; Tharreau D; Fournier E; Groenewald JZ; Crous PW; Vries RPde; Lebrun MH, 2014. Resolving the polyphyletic nature of Pyricularia (Pyriculariaceae). Studies in Mycology, No.79:85-120. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166061614000104

Kohli MM; Mehta YR; Guzman E; Viedma Lde; Cubilla LE, 2011. Pyricularia blast - a threat to wheat cultivation. Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding [Proceedings from the 8th International Wheat Conference + BGRI 2010 Technical Workshop, St. Petersburg, Russia, 30 May-4 June 2010.], 47(Special Issue):S130-S134.

Krishnamurthy K; Gnanamanickam SS, 1998. Biological control of rice blast by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Pf7-14: evaluation of a marker gene and formulations. Biological Control, 13(3):158-165.

Maciel JLN; Ceresini PC; Castroagudin VL; Zala M; Kema GHJ; McDonald BA, 2014. Population structure and pathotype diversity of the wheat blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae 25 years after its emergence in Brazil. Phytopathology, 104(1):95-107. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/phyto

Maciel JLN; Paludo EA; Silva MS; Scheeren PL; Caierao E, 2008. Reaction to wheat genotypes blast of Embrapa Wheat breeding program in the adult plant stage (Reacao a brusone de genotipos de trigo do programa de melhoramento da Embrapa Trigo no estadio de planta adulta). Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil: Embrapa Trigo. file:///C:/Users/deyk/Downloads/p-bp64.pdf

Malaker PK; Barma NCD; Tiwari TP; Collis WJ; Duveiller E; Singh PK; Joshi AK; Singh RP; Barun H-J; Pedley KF; Farman ML; Valent B, 2016. First report of wheat blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae pathotype triticum in Bangladesh. Plant Disease, 100(11):2330.

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Nga NTT; Hau VTB; Tosa Y, 2009. Identification of genes for resistance to a Digitaria isolate of Magnaporthe grisea in common wheat cultivars. Genome, 52(9):801-809. http://genome.nrc.ca

Ou SH, 1985. Rice diseases. Wallingford, UK; CAB International, 380 pp.

Paula A; Pagani APS; Dianese AC; Café-Filho AC, 2014. Management of wheat blast with synthetic fungicides, partial resistance and silicate and phosphite minerals. Phytoparasitica, 42(5):609-617. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs12600-014-0401-x

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Rios JA; Rios VS; Paul PA; Souza MA; Araujo L; Rodrigues FA, 2016. Fungicide and cultivar effects on the development and temporal progress of wheat blast under field conditions. Crop Protection, 89:152-160. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194

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Urashima AS, 2010. Blast. Compendium of wheat diseases and pests [ed. by Bockus, W. W. \Bowden, R. L. \Hunger, R. M. \Morrill, W. L. \Murray, T. D. \Smiley, R. W.]. Saint Paul, MN, USA: American Phytopathological Society, 22-23.

Urashima AS; Grosso CRF; Stabili A; Freitas EG; Silva CP; Netto DCS; Franco I; Merola Bottan JH, 2009. Effect of Magnaporthe grisea on Seed Germination, Yield and Quality of Wheat. In: Advances in Genetics, Genomics and Control of Rice Blast Disease [ed. by Xiaofan, W. \Valent, B.]. New York, USA: Springer, 267-77.

Urashima AS; Hashimoto Y; Don LD; Kusaba M; Tosa Y; Nakayashiki H; Mayama S, 1999. Molecular analysis of the wheat blast population in Brazil with a homolog of retrotransposon MGR583. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 65(4):429-436.

Urashima AS; Igarashi S; Kato H, 1993. Host range, mating type, and fertility of Pyricularia grisea from wheat in Brazil. Plant Disease, 77(12):1211-1216.

Urashima AS; Lavorent NA; Goulart ACP; Mehta YR, 2004. Resistance spectra of wheat cultivars and virulence diversity of Magnaporthe grisea isolates in Brazil. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 29(5):511-518. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/fb/v29n5/21860.pdf

Vidhyasekaran P; Rabindran R; Muthamilan M; Nayar K; Rajappan K; Subramanian N; Vasumathi K, 1997. Development of a powder formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens for control of rice blast. Plant Pathology, 46(3):291-297.

Viedma LQ; Morel W, 2002. The Pyricularia Wheat Blast. Diptych (Anublo o Piricularia del Trigo. Diptico). Itapúa, Paraguay: Wheat Research Programme, MAG/DIA/CRIA.

Vu Lan Anh; Nguyen Tuan Anh; Tagle AG; Vy TTP; Inoue Y; Takumi S; Chuma I; Tosa Y, 2015. Rmg8, a new gene for resistance to Triticum isolates of Pyricularia oryzae in hexaploid wheat. Phytopathology, 105(12):1568-1572. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/phyto

Wang Y; Cheng X; Shan Q; Zhang Y; Liu J; Gao C; Qiu JL, 2014. Simultaneous editing of three homoeoalleles in hexaploid bread wheat confers heritable resistance to powdery mildew. Nat Biotechnol, 32:947-51.

Yoshida K; Saunders DGO; Mitsuoka C; Natsume S; Kosugi S; Saitoh H; Inoue Y; Chuma I; Tosa Y; Cano LM; Kamoun S; Terauchi R, 2016. Host specialization of the blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is associated with dynamic gain and loss of genes linked to transposable elements. BMC Genomics, 17(370):(18 May 2016). http://bmcgenomics.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12864-016-2690-6

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