Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Euphorbia tithymaloides
(devil's backbone)

Rojas-Sandoval J, 2017. Euphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.121886.20203483107

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Euphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 10 December 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Euphorbia tithymaloides
  • Preferred Common Name
  • devil's backbone
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Euphorbia tithymaloides is a succulent, perennial shrub widely cultivated as an ornamental plant. Native to the Americas, this species has been introduced in Africa, Asia and Oceania, occurring on rocky soils in dry, sunny habitats such a...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Euphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone); flowering habit.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionEuphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone); flowering habit.
Copyright©Mokkie/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Euphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone); flowering habit.
Flowering habitEuphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone); flowering habit.©Mokkie/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Euphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone); flowering habit, planted as an ornamental.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionEuphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone); flowering habit, planted as an ornamental.
Copyright©Mokkie/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Euphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone); flowering habit, planted as an ornamental.
Flowering habitEuphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone); flowering habit, planted as an ornamental.©Mokkie/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Euphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone); flowering habit. Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
TitleFlowering habit
CaptionEuphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone); flowering habit. Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone); flowering habit. Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Flowering habitEuphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone); flowering habit. Pukalani, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone); habit, showing leaves. Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
TitleHabit
CaptionEuphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone); habit, showing leaves. Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone); habit, showing leaves. Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.
HabitEuphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone); habit, showing leaves. Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. March 2015.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone); habit. Nihoku, Mokolea Pt., Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. March 2013.
TitleHabit
CaptionEuphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone); habit. Nihoku, Mokolea Pt., Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. March 2013.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Euphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone); habit. Nihoku, Mokolea Pt., Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. March 2013.
HabitEuphorbia tithymaloides (devil's backbone); habit. Nihoku, Mokolea Pt., Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Hawaii, USA. March 2013.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Euphorbia tithymaloides L.

Preferred Common Name

  • devil's backbone

Other Scientific Names

  • Crepidaria carinata (Donn) Haw.
  • Crepidaria myrtifolia (L.) Haw.
  • Crepidaria subcarinata Haw.
  • Euphorbia carinata Donn
  • Pedilanthus campester Brandegee
  • Pedilanthus camporum Standl. & Steyerm.
  • Pedilanthus canaliculatus (Lodd.) Sweet
  • Pedilanthus carinatus (Donn) Spreng.
  • Pedilanthus deamii Millsp.
  • Pedilanthus fendleri Boiss.
  • Pedilanthus gritensis Zahlbr.
  • Pedilanthus houlletii Baill.
  • Pedilanthus ierensis Britton
  • Pedilanthus myrtifolius (L.) Link
  • Pedilanthus petraeus Brandegee
  • Pedilanthus pringlei Rob.
  • Pedilanthus subcarinatus (Haw.) Sweet
  • Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L.) Poit.
  • Tithymaloides fendleri (Boiss.) Kuntze
  • Tithymaloides houlletii (Baill.) Kuntze
  • Tithymaloides myrtifolia (L.) Kuntze
  • Tithymalus deamii (Millsp.) Croizat
  • Tithymalus ierensis (Britton) Croizat
  • Tithymalus myrtifolius (L.) Mill.
  • Tithymalus petraeus (Brandegee) Croizat
  • Tithymalus pringlei (Rob.) Croizat
  • Tithymalus tithymaloides (L.) Croizat
  • Tithymalus villicus Croizat

International Common Names

  • English: Japanese poinsettia; milkbush; redbird cactus; redbird flower; ribbon cactus; shoe flower; shoe spurge; slipper flower; slipper spurge; slipperplant; zigzag plant
  • Spanish: gallito colorado; itamo; zapatilla de diablo; zapatilla de duende
  • French: herbe à cors; lait à cors; pantoufle
  • Chinese: hong que shan hu

Local Common Names

  • Bahamas: fiddle flower
  • Brazil: sapatinho do diabo
  • Costa Rica: zapatito de duende
  • Cuba: díctamo; díctamo real; itamo real
  • Dominican Republic: couena; ipecacuana; zapatico
  • Haiti: gros négre; porcelaine; z’herbe de l’eau
  • India: agia; airi; baire; Christmas candle
  • Indonesia: penawar lipan; pokok lipan
  • Jamaica: monkey fiddle
  • Japan: gin-ryu
  • Lesser Antilles: bleeding heart; bois-lait; grosse oreilles; Jew bush; patagon
  • Niue: matavivi
  • Samoa: atualoa
  • Tonga: feo

Summary of Invasiveness

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Euphorbia tithymaloides is a succulent, perennial shrub widely cultivated as an ornamental plant. Native to the Americas, this species has been introduced in Africa, Asia and Oceania, occurring on rocky soils in dry, sunny habitats such as hillsides, wastelands and roadsides. Currently it is listed as invasive in New Caledonia, Wake Island, the British Indian Ocean Territory and Cuba. Despite being classified as high risk in the Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment, its environmental impact on native species and habitats is unknown.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Euphorbiales
  •                         Family: Euphorbiaceae
  •                             Genus: Euphorbia
  •                                 Species: Euphorbia tithymaloides

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Euphorbiaceae includes 218 genera and 6745 species distributed across all tropical regions of the world (Stevens, 2012). Members of this family are primarily monoecious herbs, shrubs and trees, though some are succulent and cactus-like plants with xerophytic adaptations (Esser et al., 2009; Stevens, 2012). The subfamily Euphorbioideae comprises 39 genera and 2810 species. With about 2420 species, the genus Euphorbia is the largest within this subfamily (Stevens, 2012). Eight subspecies of E. tithymaloides have been recognized based on their geography and their vegetative and reproductive traits:

  • Euphorbia tithymaloides subsp. angustifolia
  • Euphorbia tithymaloides subsp. bahamensis
  • Euphorbia tithymaloides subsp. jamaicensis
  • Euphorbia tithymaloides subsp. padifolia
  • Euphorbia tithymaloides subsp. parasitica
  • Euphorbia tithymaloides subsp. retusa
  • Euphorbia tithymaloides subsp. smallii
  • Euphorbia tithymaloides subsp. tithymaloides

Phylogenetic analyses have shown that this Euphorbia tithymaloides complex forms a ring species (Cacho and Baum, 2012).

Description

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The following description is from the Flora of China Editorial Committee (2016):

Erect subshrubs 40-70 cm tall; stems stout, slightly fleshy, strongly flexuous, glabrous or pubescent when young. Leaves distichous; stipules small, with a rounded ca 1 mm in diameter gland; leaf blade ovate or long ovate, 3.5-8 x 2.5-5 cm, fleshy, both surfaces pubescent, glabrescent, base rounded or obtuse, apex ± acuminate; midrib elevated abaxially, lateral veins 7-9 pairs, ascending steeply and running close to margin for some distance before terminating. Cyathia in cymes clustered on leafless stems, terminal or axillary at upper part, each one with many male flowers and one female flower; involucres shoe-shaped, deep-red or purple-red, equilateral, ca 1 cm, glabrous, apex nearly labiate-shaped, 2-fid, lobes small, oblong, 3-serrulate at apex, other lobe boat-shaped, ca 1 cm, 2-partite at apex. Male flower: pedicels slender, 2.5-4 mm, glabrous, similar to filaments; anthers globose, slightly shorter than filaments. Female flower inserted at centre of involucres, oblique, exserted from involucre; pedicels 6-8 mm, glabrous; ovary fusiform; styles usually connate; stigma three, 2-fid.

Plant Type

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Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Succulent
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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E. tithymaloides is native to Florida (USA), Mexico, Central America, northern South America and most islands in the Caribbean (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Govaerts, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016). It has been introduced in Asia, Africa, Hawaii (USA) and a small number of islands in Oceania and the Caribbean. It has become naturalized in Bangladesh, Chad, Gambia and Hawaii and is recorded as invasive in Cuba, the British Indian Ocean Territory, New Caledonia and Wake Island, one of the US Minor Outlying Islands (Govaerts, 2016; PIER, 2016). It is also widely cultivated in China, India and Singapore and across much of Oceania (Govaerts, 2016; PIER, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

ChadPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
GambiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
MalawiPresentIntroduced
MozambiquePresentIntroduced
SeychellesPresentIntroduced

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroducedNaturalizedNaturalized
British Indian Ocean TerritoryPresentIntroducedInvasiveDiego Garcia Island. Also cultivated
ChinaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPresent based on regional records
-GuangdongPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedListed as Pedilanthus tithymaloides
-GuangxiPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedListed as Pedilanthus tithymaloides
-HainanPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedListed as Pedilanthus tithymaloides
-YunnanPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedListed as Pedilanthus tithymaloides
Hong KongPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedListed as Pedilanthus tithymaloides
IndiaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedPresent based on regional records
-KarnatakaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-KeralaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-MaharashtraPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-Tamil NaduPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
MaldivesPresentIntroduced
SingaporePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced

North America

AnguillaPresentNative
Antigua and BarbudaPresentNative
BahamasPresentNative
BarbadosPresentNative
BelizePresentNative
BermudaPresentNative
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-Sint EustatiusPresentNative
British Virgin IslandsPresentNativeGuana
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced
Costa RicaPresentNative
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveConsidered exotic and invasive in Cuba by CeNBIO
CuraçaoPresentNative
DominicaPresentNative
Dominican RepublicPresentNative
El SalvadorPresentNative
GrenadaPresentNative
GuadeloupePresentNative
GuatemalaPresentNative
HaitiPresentNative
HondurasPresentNative
JamaicaPresentNative
MartiniquePresentNative
MexicoPresentNative
MontserratPresentNative
Netherlands AntillesPresentNative
NicaraguaPresentNative
PanamaPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentNative
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentNative
Saint LuciaPresentNative
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNative
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNative
Turks and Caicos IslandsPresentNative
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentNativeSt Thomas, St John, St Croix
United StatesPresentPresent based on regional records
-FloridaPresentNative
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivation escape. Naturalized

Oceania

Cook IslandsPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedNot naturalized
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedChuuk, Yap, Pohnpei, Kosrae
French PolynesiaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
GuamPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
KiribatiPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
Marshall IslandsPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
NauruPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
New CaledoniaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedInvasive
NiuePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
Northern Mariana IslandsPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedRota Island
PalauPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
Papua New GuineaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
U.S. Minor Outlying IslandsPresentIntroducedPresent based on regional records
-Johnston AtollPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
-Wake IslandPresentIntroducedInvasive

South America

BrazilPresentNativePresent based on regional records
-AcrePresentNative
-AmapaPresentNative
-AmazonasPresentNative
-ParaPresentNative
-PernambucoPresentNative
-RondoniaPresentNative
-RoraimaPresentNative
ColombiaPresentNative
EcuadorPresentNative
-Galapagos IslandsPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
French GuianaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced
GuyanaPresentNativeAlso cultivated
PeruPresentNative
SurinamePresentNativeAlso cultivated
VenezuelaPresentNative

History of Introduction and Spread

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E. tithymaloides has been widely commercialized and has a history of repeated introductions outside its native range for use as an ornamental plant (PBI Euphorbia Project, 2016; PIER, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016).

Habitat

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E. tithymaloides grows in a range of habitats including dry thickets, coastal savanna, wasteland, hillsides and along roadsides on rocky soils, at elevations from sea level to 1200 m (Liogier and Martorell, 2000; González, 2010; Graveson, 2012).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedRail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalScrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
LittoralCoastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Species in the Euphorbiaceae family are extremely variable in terms of their chromosome number. In this vast family, both aneuploidy and polyploidy have led to speciation (Perry, 1943).

Physiology and Phenology

E. tithymaloides is reported to flower throughout the year (PIER, 2016). However, in China, it has been recorded flowering from December to June (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016).

Environmental Requirements

E. tithymaloides prefers dry and sunny conditions, but it can tolerate moderate shade (Liogier and Martorell, 2000). This species is adapted to grow on almost any soil type of pH 6.1-7.8; it also has high drought tolerance (Dave’s Garden, 2016; PIER, 2016; PROTA, 2016).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
25 25 0 1200

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 30

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall7001800mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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E. tithymaloides disperses by seed, but can also reproduce by vegetative fragmentation (PIER, 2016).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escape Yes Yes Liogier and Martorell (2000)
Garden waste disposalSeeds and plant parts Yes Yes
Internet salesOrnamental Yes Yes Arnold (2010)
Nursery tradeOrnamental Yes Yes Arnold (2010)
Ornamental purposesHedge plant and potted plant Yes Yes PIER (2016)

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeeds and plant parts Yes Yes

Environmental Impact

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Although E. tithymaloides has become naturalized outside its native range and is listed as invasive in Cuba, the British Indian Ocean Territory, New Caledonia and Wake Island, there is no available information about the environmental impacts of the species on these islands (Rivers, 2004; Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2016). Further, there is no evidence to suggest that this species forms dense thickets in either its native or naturalized environments (PIER, 2016). However, it has been assessed as high risk in the Hawaii-Pacific Weed Risk Assessment, suggesting it is likely to be invasive based on its biological characteristics (PIER, 2016).

Social Impact

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Like other Euphorbia species, the latex (milky sap) of E. tithymaloides is caustic and poisonous to humans and animals (PIER, 2016PROTA, 2016USDA-ARS, 2016).

Risk and Impact Factors

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Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Long lived
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
Impact mechanisms
  • Poisoning
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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E. tithymaloides is a popular succulent shrub cultivated as an ornamental, often as a hedge or potted plant (Liogier and Martorell, 2000). In some areas, it is planted to remediate toxic soils (Arnold, 2010). Plant parts are also used medicinally in China, e.g. for traumatic injury and fractures (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Soil improvement

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • garden plant
  • Potted plant

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Despite being recorded as an invasive species on a number of islands in Oceania, the Indian Ocean and the Caribbean, there is a lack of information about the environmental impact that E. tithymaloides has on the native species and habitats in these locations. Once this information is available, research into methods on the prevention and control of its spread would be beneficial.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Arnold MA, 2010. Landscape Plants for Texas And Environs, Fourth Edition. Champaign, Illinois, USA: Stipes Publishing LLC. http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/syllabi/608/Lists/Fourth%20Edition/Euphorbiatithymaloides.pdf

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Barbados: The University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Cacho NI, Baum DA, 2012. The Caribbean slipper spurge Euphorbia tithymaloides: the first example of a ring species in plants. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 279:3377-3383. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3396892/pdf/rspb20120498.pdf

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/dna/docs/aa8af9d5572a44368d5aaab9042c470b.pdf

Dave's Garden, 2016. Dave’s Garden. http://davesgarden.com/

Díaz PJ, Guézou A, Mauchamp A, Tye A, 2018. CDF Checklist of Galapagos Flowering Plants. In: Bungartz F, Herrera H, Jaramillo P, Tirado N, Jiménez-Uzcátegui G, Ruiz D, Guézou A, Ziemmeck F, eds. Charles Darwin Foundation Galapagos Species Checklist. Puerto Ayora, Galapagos: Charles Darwin Foundation, 293 pp

Esser HJ, Berry PE, Riina R, 2009. EuphORBia: a global inventory of the spurges. Blumea, 54:11-12

Flora do Brasil, 2016. Brazilian Flora 2020 in construction. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer JY, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Frohlich D, Lau A, 2012. New plant records for the Hawaiian Islands 2010-2011. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2011. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 113:27-54

Funk, V., Hollowell, T., Berry, P., Kelloff, C., Alexander, S. N., 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 55, 584 pp.

González RJ, 2010. Euphorbiaceae. In: Hammel BE, Grayum MH, Herrera C, Zamora N, eds. Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volume V. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 119:290-394

Govaerts R, 2016. World Checklist of Euphorbiaceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Herrera K, Lorence DH, Flynn T, Balick MJ, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia. Lawai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 146 pp

India Biodiversity Portal, 2016. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

Liogier AH, Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, 2nd edition revised. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico

Lorence DH, Flynn T, 2010. Checklist of the plants of Kosrae. Unpublished checklist. Lawai, Hawaii: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 26 pp

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie). Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 164 pp

McCormack G, 2013. Cook Islands Biodiversity Database, Version 2007.2. Rarotonga, Cook Islands: Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust. http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/search.asp

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6 (Special Issue 1):22-96

PBI Euphorbia Project, 2016. Euphorbia Planetary Biodiversity Inventory project. http://www.euphorbiaceae.org/index.html

Perry BA, 1943. Chromosome number and phylogenetic relationships in the Euphorbiaceae. American Journal of Botany, 30, 527-43. doi: 10.2307/2437291

PIER, 2016. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.htm

PROTA, 2016. PROTA4U web database. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Rivers J, 2004. Botanical survey update of Diego Garcia, Chagos Archipeligo, British Indian Ocean Territory. Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Pacific, 16 pp

Space JC, Lorence DH, LaRosa AM, 2009. Report to the Republic of Palau: 2008 update on Invasive Plant Species. Hilo, Hawaii: USDA Forest Service, 227 pp

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, USA. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

Whistler WA, Steele O, 1999. Botanical survey of the United States of America Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Islands. Prepared for Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education and the U. S. Army Environmental Center, 111 pp

Wu TL, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised):384 pp. http://www.hkflora.com/v2/flora/plant_check_list.php

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean., Barbados: The University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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13/02/17 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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