Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Caladium bicolor
(heart of Jesus)

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Datasheet

Caladium bicolor (heart of Jesus)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Caladium bicolor
  • Preferred Common Name
  • heart of Jesus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • C. bicolor is a dormant geophyte herb extensively commercialized in the horticultural trade around the world (Deng, 2012...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Caladium bicolor (heart of Jesus); habit, showing leaves. 6 Route de Kaw, Roura, French Guyana. February 2018.
TitleHabit
CaptionCaladium bicolor (heart of Jesus); habit, showing leaves. 6 Route de Kaw, Roura, French Guyana. February 2018.
Copyright©Bernard DUPONT/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Caladium bicolor (heart of Jesus); habit, showing leaves. 6 Route de Kaw, Roura, French Guyana. February 2018.
HabitCaladium bicolor (heart of Jesus); habit, showing leaves. 6 Route de Kaw, Roura, French Guyana. February 2018.©Bernard DUPONT/via flickr - CC BY-SA 2.0
Caladium bicolor (heart of Jesus); habit, showing leaves. Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. December 2014.
TitleHabit
CaptionCaladium bicolor (heart of Jesus); habit, showing leaves. Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. December 2014.
Copyright©Yercaud-elango/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Caladium bicolor (heart of Jesus); habit, showing leaves. Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. December 2014.
HabitCaladium bicolor (heart of Jesus); habit, showing leaves. Salem, Tamil Nadu, India. December 2014.©Yercaud-elango/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Caladium bicolor (heart of Jesus); habit, showing leaves of varying colours. Home Depot Nursery Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.
TitleLeaves of varying colours
CaptionCaladium bicolor (heart of Jesus); habit, showing leaves of varying colours. Home Depot Nursery Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2012 - CC BY 4.0
Caladium bicolor (heart of Jesus); habit, showing leaves of varying colours. Home Depot Nursery Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.
Leaves of varying coloursCaladium bicolor (heart of Jesus); habit, showing leaves of varying colours. Home Depot Nursery Kahului, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2012.©Forest & Kim Starr-2012 - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Caladium bicolor (Aiton) Vent

Preferred Common Name

  • heart of Jesus

Other Scientific Names

  • Alocasia roezlii N.E.Br.
  • Arum bicolor Aiton
  • Arum pulchrum Salisb.
  • Arum vermitoxicum Vell
  • Caladium albopunctatissimum Jacob-Makoy ex H.Karst.
  • Caladium amoenum Engl.
  • Caladium argyrospilum Lem.
  • Caladium barraquinii Hérincq
  • Caladium brongniartii Lem.
  • Caladium chantinii Lem.
  • Caladium concolor K.Koch
  • Caladium connaertii Engl.
  • Caladium curwadlii Engl.
  • Caladium devosianum Lem.
  • Caladium discolor Engl.
  • Caladium duchartrei Engl.
  • Caladium dussii Sieber & Voss
  • Caladium eckhartii Lem. ex Engl.
  • Caladium enkeanum K.Koch
  • Caladium firmulum Schott
  • Caladium gaerdtii K.Koch and Fint.
  • Caladium griseoargenteum Engl.
  • Caladium haageanum K.Koch
  • Caladium medioradiatum L.Linden and Rodigas
  • Caladium neumannii Lem.
  • Caladium pallidum K.Koch and C.D.Bouché
  • Caladium regale Lem.
  • Caladium rubrovenium Engl.
  • Caladium splendens K.Koch and Fint.
  • Caladium steudneriifolium Engl.
  • Caladium thelemannii Verschaff.
  • Caladium vellozoanum Schott
  • Cyrtospadix bicolor (Aiton) Britton and P.Wilson

International Common Names

  • English: angel wings; angel-wings; artist's pallet; caladium
  • Spanish: corazón de Jesús; corazón de Maria; malanga de jardín; malanguita
  • French: palette de peintre
  • Portuguese: tinhorão

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: tinhorão
  • Costa Rica: corazón de Jesús; corazón de María
  • Cuba: corazón de cabrito; malanga; malanguilla; malanguita cimarrona; paleta de pintor; papagayo
  • Dominican Republic: cananga; lágrimas de maría; paleta de pintor
  • Haiti: coeur saignant
  • India: artist's pallet; caladium; elephant's ear; fancy-leaf caladium
  • Nigeria: spotted cocoyam
  • Panama: corazon de Jesus; wild coco
  • Puerto Rico: caladio; cara de caballo; paleta de pintor; venas de jesús; yautía de jardín
  • USA: angel-wings; artist's pallet

Summary of Invasiveness

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C. bicolor is a dormant geophyte herb extensively commercialized in the horticultural trade around the world (Deng, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2016). It is often cultivated as an ornamental and potted plant and naturalized populations of C. bicolor can be found in areas within and outside its native distribution range (Madison, 1981; Govaerts, 2016). Currently, C. bicolor is listed as invasive in Trinidad and Tobago, Guam, Micronesia, Palau, Hawaii and the Philippines, where it is considered a species that is altering native plant communities by displacing native species, and changing community structures and ecological functions (Space et al., 2003; Herrera et al., 2010; PIER, 2016; Trinidad Biodiversity, 2016).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Arales
  •                         Family: Araceae
  •                             Genus: Caladium
  •                                 Species: Caladium bicolor

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Araceae comprises 123 genera and about 4150 species distributed mostly in tropical areas in the New World, but also in Australia and Africa (Stevens, 2012). Araceae is a family of monocotyledonous flowering plants also known as the “aroid family”. The subfamily Aroideae includes 75 genera and 2305 species (Stevens, 2012).

The genus Caladium is native to the Neotropics (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005). The exact number of species in the genus Caladium is still a matter of discussion, varying from seven (Madison, 1981) to 17 species (Croat, 1994). The debate mainly centers on the classification of three species: Caladium bicolor, Caladium marmoratum, and Caladium picturatum. Madison (1981) merged these three species into one single species: C. bicolor (sensu Madison). However, this treatment is considered to be too broad by some taxonomists. Croat (1994) maintained the species status for each of these three species and considered that the genus was comprised of 17 species. More recently, Mayo et al. (1997) reclassified the genus into 12 species while the most recent version of The Plant List (2013) recognized 14 species. Other authors have proposed to refer to the cultivated caladiums as Caladium × hortulanum (Birdsey, 1951). It is generally believed that cultivated caladiums have resulted from hybridization among C. bicolor (sensu stricto), C. picturatum, and/or Caladium schomburgkii Schott (Birdsey, 1951; Wilfret, 1993; Deng, 2012).

Description

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C. bicolor is a glabrous, erect acaulescent herb with a fleshy corm at base. Leaves 1-2; blades pointing downward, 30 × 20 cm, chartaceous, usually with small, irregular whitish or pinkish spots, or variegated along secondary veins, less often completely green, glaucous beneath, the apex acute or shortly acuminate, the base peltate, cordate, the margins more or less wavy; petioles erect, 35-55 cm long, sheathing, white at the very base, usually with purple stripes. Inflorescences axillary, ascending, solitary; peduncles as long as or little shorter than the petioles, cylindrical, green, usually with purple stripes; flowers unisexual; spathe chartaceous, glaucous, to 14 cm long, the blade twice as long as the tube, withering, elliptic, apiculate at apex; spadix shorter than the spathe, the staminate zone twice as long as the pistillate (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005).

Plant Type

Top of page Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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C. bicolor is native to Central and South America (Govaerts, 2016). It is widely cultivated and naturalized in tropical and subtropical areas of the world (Govaerts, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
British Indian Ocean TerritoryPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016Diego Garcia Is.
ChinaRestricted distributionIntroducedWu, 2001Cultivated in Hong Kong
-Hong KongPresentIntroducedWu, 2001Cultivated
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentIntroducedSwarbrick, 1997
IndiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
-AssamPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016Cultivated
-DelhiPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016
-GujaratPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016Cultivated
-KeralaPresentIntroducedIndia Biodiversity Portal, 2016Cultivated
Korea, DPRPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
Korea, Republic ofPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
PhilippinesPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al., 2009Cultivated

Africa

BeninPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
Burkina FasoPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
CameroonPresentIntroducedPROTA, 2016
Central African RepublicPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
GabonPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
GuineaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
Guinea-BissauPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
NigeriaPresent only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedAzuwike et al., 2016Cultivated
SeychellesPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016
TogoPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2016

North America

USAPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Imada et al., 2013
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Virgin Gorda
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Costa RicaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2016
CubaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
DominicaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
HondurasPresentNativeGovaerts, 2016
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
NicaraguaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2016
PanamaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2016
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentIntroducedCooper et al., 2011
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced Invasive Trinidad Biodiversity, 2016
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012St Croix

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2016
BoliviaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2016
BrazilPresentNativeCoelho et al., 2015
-AcrePresentNativeCoelho et al., 2015
-AlagoasPresentNativeCoelho et al., 2015
-AmapaPresentNativeCoelho et al., 2015
-AmazonasPresentNativeCoelho et al., 2015
-BahiaPresentNativeCoelho et al., 2015
-CearaPresentNativeCoelho et al., 2015
-Mato GrossoPresentNativeCoelho et al., 2015
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeCoelho et al., 2015
-ParaPresentNativeCoelho et al., 2015
-ParanaPresentNativeCoelho et al., 2015
-PernambucoPresentNativeCoelho et al., 2015
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeCoelho et al., 2015
-RondoniaPresentNativeCoelho et al., 2015
-RoraimaPresentNativeCoelho et al., 2015
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeCoelho et al., 2015
-Sao PauloPresentNativeCoelho et al., 2015
ColombiaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2016
EcuadorPresentNativeGovaerts, 2016
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedCharles Darwin Foundation, 2008Cultivated
French GuianaPresentNativeFunk et al., 2007
GuyanaPresentNativeFunk et al., 2007
PeruPresentNativeGovaerts, 2016
SurinamePresentNativeFunk et al., 2007
VenezuelaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2016

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
FijiPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedFlorence et al., 2013Cultivated
GuamPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2016
Heard and McDonald IslandsPresentIntroducedSpace and Imada, 2004
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1987; Herrera et al., 2010Cultivated. Chuuk, Kosrae and Yap.
NauruPresentIntroducedThaman et al., 1994Cultivated
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedMacKee, 1994Cultivated
NiuePresentIntroducedSpace et al., 2004
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1987Cultivated
PalauPresentIntroduced Invasive Space et al., 2003
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedHancock and Henderson, 1988Hancock and Henderson, 1988
US Minor Outlying IslandsPresentIntroducedStarr et al., 2008Cultivated on Sand Island
Wake IslandPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016Cultivated
Wallis and Futuna IslandsPresentIntroducedPIER, 2016Cultivated

History of Introduction and Spread

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According to Madison (1981), C. bicolor is native to South and Central America where it is widespread, being reported from Costa Rica and Panama, the Amazon basin of Suriname and throughout most of the Brazilian coast (Maia and Schlindwein, 2006). In 1704, wild plants of C. bicolor collected in Suriname were sent to the Amsterdam Botanical Garden (DeFilipps et al., 2004). The type material used to describe the species originated from specimens introduced into England in 1737, from plants cultivated in Madeira (Madison, 1981).

In the West Indies, this species appears in herbarium collections made as early as 1879 in Martinique, 1885 in Puerto Rico, and 1892 in Guadeloupe (US National Herbarium). In Florida (USA), plants of C. bicolor have been cultivated and commercialized since 1905 (Sheehan, 1960). In Hawaii, C. bicolor was first collected in 1975 in cultivation and by 2008 it was reported as naturalized in Puna and South Hilo districts (Resslar, 2010).

The majority of the C. bicolor plants commercialized around the world are cultivars produced from hybridization between breeding lines. Caladium breeding was pioneered in France in the mid-1800s and later in the United States in 1970s (Wilfret, 1993; Deng, 2012). At present, about 1500 cultivars of this decorative species have been developed and are cultivated around the world (DeFilipps et al., 2004).

Risk of Introduction

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C. bicolor is a fast-growing herb widely planted as an ornamental in tropical and subtropical regions (USDA-ARS, 2016). Even when it has been demonstrated that this species has the potential to escape from cultivation and become naturalized into natural habitats, it is still sold in the horticulture trade around the world. Thus, the probability of new introductions of this species remains high.

Habitat

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In the West Indies, C. bicolor is cultivated as an ornamental and can be found naturalized in open disturbed, moist areas, common along rivers and swampy areas (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005). In Nigeria and Cameroon, it can be found in riverine forests, forest edges and in cassava gardens (PROTA, 2016). In Hawaii, C. bicolor has been found growing only in areas where deep, argillaceous soil occurs (Resslar, 2010).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for C. bicolor is 2n = 30 (Roy et al., 1994). Ploidy level barriers do not exist among cultivars, as they all are diploids with 2n = 2x = 30 (Deng, 2012).

Reproductive Biology

The inflorescences of C. bicolor are adapted to the pollination syndrome performed by Cyclocephalini beetles, a syndrome associated with intense floral heat production and emission of attractive volatiles (Gottsberger, 1990; Bernhardt, 2000; Maia and Schlindwein, 2006). In this species, the inflorescences show floral thermogenesis, odour emission, and also offer nutritious rewards for visitors (i.e., starch-rich tissues, pollen, and exudates) (Gottsberger, 1990; Bernhardt, 2000). The heated floral chambers are also used as shelters and mating sites for the beetles (Seymour et al., 2003; Maia and Schlindwein, 2006).

Physiology and Phenology

C. bicolor is a perennial, dormant geophyte herb, with populations commonly found as scattered patches in disturbed forest areas, along fragment borders, and in forest clearings (Madison, 1981; Croat, 1994; Mayo et al., 1997; Maia and Schlindwein, 2006). In Brazil, the flowering period of C. bicolor lasts for about 65 days, from March to the end of May (Maia and Schlindwein, 2006). In Central America, it has been recorded flowering from May to July and fruiting in October (Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016).

Environmental Requirements

C. bicolor grows on soils with pH ranging from 5.6 to 6.5. It prefers open disturbed sites in moist habitats along rivers and swamps (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 5
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 12 28

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Uniform

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Dasheen mosaic virus Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific
Fusarium solani Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific
Meloidogyne incognita Parasite Other/All Stages not specific
Pythium myriotylum Pathogen Other/All Stages not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Fusarium tuber rot (Fusarium solani) and the root rot Pythium myriotylum are the most important diseases impacting C. bicolor in cultivation. Plant-parasitic nematodes in the genus Meloidogyne also infect roots and tubers of C. bicolor (Deng, 2012).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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C. bicolor spreads by seed and vegetatively by rhizomes and tubers. In cultivation it is propagated by division of the tubers (Madison, 1981; Deng, 2012).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Botanical gardens and zoos Yes Yes Deng, 2012
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeed and rhizomes Yes Yes PIER, 2016
HorticultureVery valuable in the horticulture trade for its colorful and variably-shaped leaves Yes Yes Deng, 2012
Medicinal useUsed in traditional medicine Yes Yes DeFilipps et al., 2004
Nursery tradeWidely commercialized in the horticulture trade Yes Yes Deng, 2012
Ornamental purposesVery valuable in the horticulture trade for its colorful and variably-shaped leaves Yes Yes Deng, 2012

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesSeed and rhizomes escaped from gardens Yes Yes PIER, 2016
MailAdult plants, seedlings, tubers and seeds are sold online Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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C. bicolor is host of Spodoptera littoralis, one of the most destructive agricultural lepidopterous pests within its subtropical and tropical range (EPPO, 1997).

Environmental Impact

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C. bicolor is a fast-growing herb with the capability to escape from cultivation and become naturalized in the wild. Once naturalized, it grows forming “scattered patches” which alter native plant communities by displacing native species, changing community structures and ecological functions (Space et al., 2003; Maia and Schlindwein, 2006; Herrera et al., 2010; PIER, 2016; Trinidad Biodiversity, 2016).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Hybridization
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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Economic Value

C. bicolor is extensively commercialized and cultivated as a foliage ornamental and potted plant (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005; USDA-ARS, 2016). More than 1500 cultivars of this decorative plant species have been developed and are cultivated around the world (DeFilipps et al., 2004; Deng, 2012). Extracts from leaves and stems of C. bicolor have moderate antibacterial and antifungal activities and a recent study show that these extracts can be used as raw material for pharmaceutical preparations to treat infections (Azuwike et al., 2016).

Social Benefit

In South America, C. bicolor is used in traditional medicine to treat different illnesses. The powdered tuber is used to treat facial skin blemishes. All parts of the leaf are macerated in fresh water for an external bath to remedy numerous skin illnesses. Crushed leaves are used in veterinary medicine to destroy vermin on sores of cattle (DeFilipps et al., 2004).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Ornamental

  • Potted plant

Prevention and Control

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There is no information available for the control or management of C. bicolor. Herbicides such as glyphosate, triclopyr and fluroxypyr have been used to control invasions of other aroid species.

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2005. Monocots and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, volume 52:415 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Azuwike CO, Ihejirika CE, Ajuruchi VMC, Ononiwu EZ, 2016. Antibacterial and antifungal potential of extracts of Caladium bicolor., TLEP International Journal, 1:24-28

Bernhardt P, 2000. Convergent evolution and adaptive radiation of beetle-pollinated angiosperms., Plant Systematics and Evolution, 222:293–320

Birdsey MR, 1951. The Cultivated Aroids. Berkeley, CA, USA: Gillick Press.

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation

Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Coelho MAN, Soares ML, Calazans LSB, Gonçalves EG, Andrade IM, Mayo S, 2015. Araceae in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil. Rio de Janeiro , Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB4994

Cooper B, Mings L, Lindsay K, Bacle JP, 2011. Environmental and Socioeconomic Baseline Studies. St. Kitts and Nevis Site Report.

Croat T, 1994. Taxonomic status of neotropical Araceae., Aroideana, 17:33-60

DeFilipps RA, Maina SL, Crepin J, 2004. Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Washington, DC: Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. http://www.mnh.si.edu/biodiversity/bdg/medicinal

Deng Z, 2012. Caladium genetics and breeding: recent advances., Floriculture and Ornamental Biotechnology, 6:53-61

EPPO, 1997. Spodoptera littoralis and Spodoptera litura. In: Smith IM, McNamara DG, Scott PR, Holderness M, eds. Quarantine pests for Europe. 2nd edition. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, pp 518-525

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer JY, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Fosberg FR, Sachet MH, Oliver R, 1987. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian monocotyledonae., Micronesica, 20:1-126

Funk VA, Berry PE, Alexander S, Hollowell TH, Kelloff CL, 2007. Checklist of the Plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana)., Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 55(1-584)

Gottsberger G, 1990. Flowers and beetles in the South American tropics., Acta Botanica, 103:360–365

Govaerts R, 2016. World Checklist of Araceae. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Hancock IR, Henderson CP, 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin - Dodo Creek Research Station, No. 7. Honiara, Solomon Islands ii + 203 pp.

Herrera K, Lorence DH, Flynn T, Balick MJ, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Allertonia. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai, Hawaii, 146 pp.

Imada CT, Staples GW, Herbst DR, 2013. Annotated Checklist of Cultivated Plants of Hawaii. http://nsdb.bishopmuseum.org/

India Biodiversity Portal, 2016. Online Portal of India Biodiversity. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.). Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. 164 pp.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
International Aroid Societyhttp://www.aroid.org/

Contributors

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06/09/16 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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