Coleophora deauratella (red clover casebearer)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- History of Introduction and Spread
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Latitude/Altitude Ranges
- Natural enemies
- Economic Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs
- Principal Source
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Coleophora deauratella Lienig & Zeller, 1846
Preferred Common Name
- red clover casebearer
Other Scientific Names
- Damophila deauratella (Lienig & Zeller, 1846)
- Eupista deauratella (Lienig in Lienig & Zeller, 1846)
International Common Names
- English: case-bearer moth; red clover case-bearer; red clover moth; red-clover case-bearer
Local Common Names
- Netherlands: grijze metaalkokermot
- Norway: kløversekkmøll
- Sweden: fjällsprötad grönglanssäckmal
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
Coleophora deauratella is a moth species native to Europe, eastern Siberia and the Middle East.
It was introduced into North America in the 1960s, becoming a significant pest of Trifolium pratense seed crops in Ontario, Canada in 1989. Based on a study of genetic diversity from a limited number of European populations of C. deauratella, the most probable source of North American populations was found to be Switzerland; further sampling within Europe may improve geographical resolution of the source population.
Within North America, C. deauratella has been identified as an invasive in Alberta and Ontario in Canada and Oregon and New York in the USA.
It has been an invasive pest in New Zealand since its discovery there in 2015, where it has devastated T. pratense crops.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Lepidoptera
- Family: Coleophoridae
- Genus: Coleophora
- Species: Coleophora deauratella
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
C. deauratella was formerly considered conspecific with C. frischella and C. alcyonipennella (British Lepidoptera, 2018). C. frischella is itself only distinguishable from C. alcyonipennella by dissection (UKMoths, 2018c); these two species being split at the turn of the century (UKMoths, 2018b).
DescriptionTop of page
C. deauratella is a small moth with a wingspan of 11-13 mm (Gustafsson, 2010; UKMoths, 2018a). The adult moths are described as 9.5-15.5 mm by Landry (1991), about 9 mm long by PNWHandbooks (2018), and 10.5-12.5 mm by British Lepidoptera (2018).
The adult has shiny, metallic, bronze-green coloured forewings (Landry, 1991; Yoder and Otani, 2007; Gustafsson, 2010; British Lepidoptera, 2018; Pitkin et al., 2018; UKMoths, 2018a; Wheeler, 2018). Colour scales are easily brushed off by sweep nets, making the moths appear grey in colour (Yoder and Otani, 2007).
Eyes are fringed with fuscous hairs and fuscous antennae with white tips (Landry, 1991; British Lepidoptera, 2018). The base of the antennae are thickened with projecting scales (Landry, 1991;British Lepidoptera, 2018).
The sacculus is relatively broad at the apex with a broadly rounded ventro-lateral angle and a moderate dorsally-directed process at the dorso-lateral angle. The valva is even in width and shorter than the sacculus. The aedeagus has a highly scleroterized and relatively long tunica (British Lepidoptera, 2018). The vesical has a concave curve and elongated sclerotization of its wall, parallel to a line of elongate cornute in the vesical (British Lepidoptera, 2018).
Larvae are present from July-September in the UK and North America, then they overwinter in the case (Landry, 1991; Yoder and Otani, 2007; Pitkin et al., 2018). The case is cigar-like (Landry, 1991; Yoder and Otani, 2007; PNWHandbooks, 2018), forming during the fourth instar and turning red-brown (British Leafminers, 2007; Pitkin et al., 2018). Larvae are 2-4 mm in length and are easily concealed inside florets.
The pupae have visible head appendages, wings and legs that lie in sheaths (Pitkin et al., 2018).
DistributionTop of page
The range of C. deauratella is the Palearctic, and it is adventive in the Nearctic (Bug Guide, 2018).
C. deauratella is native to Europe, eastern Siberia and the Middle East (Landry and Wright, 1993). It is also present in the Russian Far East and China (Baldizzone and Savenkov, 2002). It is introduced and invasive in parts of North America and is also invasive in New Zealand (Mori et al. 2014; Chynoweth et al. 2018).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|China||Present||Baldizzone and Savenkov, 2002|
|Lebanon||Present||Baldizzone and Savenkov, 2002|
|Turkey||Present||Baldizzone and Savenkov, 2002|
|Tunisia||Present||Baldizzone and Savenkov, 2002|
|Canada||Restricted distribution||Introduced||Invasive||Landry, 1991; Evenden et al., 2010; Mori et al., 2016||Eastern Canada. Introduced from Europe in 1960s but not recognized|
|-Alberta||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Mori and Evenden, 2015b; Yoder and Otani, 2007; Haye et al., 2015; Mori et al., 2016|
|-British Columbia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Mori et al., 2016|
|-Manitoba||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Mori et al., 2016|
|-Nova Scotia||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Landry, 1991|
|-Ontario||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Landry, 1991; Ellis and Bjørnson, 1996; Yoder and Otani, 2007; Haye et al., 2015; Mori et al., 2016|
|-Prince Edward Island||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Mori et al., 2016|
|-Quebec||Present||Introduced||1970||Yoder and Otani, 2007|
|-Saskatchewan||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Mori et al., 2016|
|USA||Present||Introduced||early 1960s||Invasive||Landry, 1991; Chynowyth et al., 2018|
|-Maryland||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Landry and Wright, 1983; Landry, 1991|
|-Massachusetts||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Landry and Wright, 1983; Landry, 1991|
|-Michigan||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Landry and Wright, 1983; Landry, 1991|
|-New Hampshire||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Landry and Wright, 1983; Landry, 1991|
|-New York||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Landry and Wright, 1983; Landry, 1991||Ithaca|
|-Ohio||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Landry and Wright, 1983|
|-Oregon||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Mori et al., 2016|
|Albania||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018|
|Austria||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018|
|Belgium||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018|
|Bulgaria||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018|
|Croatia||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018|
|Czech Republic||Present||BioLib, 2018; Fauna Europaea, 2018||Bohemia, Moravia|
|Denmark||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018||Mainland|
|Estonia||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018|
|Faroe Islands||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018|
|Finland||Present||Markkula and Myllymaki, 1960; Fauna Europaea, 2018||Northern limit of range is approx. 67°N|
|France||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018||Mainland|
|Germany||Present||Mori et al., 2016; Fauna Europaea, 2018; Lepiforum, 2018; Pitkin et al., 2018|
|Greece||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018|
|Hungary||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018; Pitkin et al., 2018|
|Ireland||Widespread||Biodiversity Maps, 2018; Fauna Europaea, 2018; Pitkin et al., 2018|
|Italy||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018||Mainland, Sicily|
|Latvia||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018|
|Lithuania||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018|
|Luxembourg||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018|
|Macedonia||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018|
|Malta||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018|
|Netherlands||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018|
|Norway||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018||Mainland|
|Romania||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018|
|Russian Federation||Present||Present based on regional distribution|
|-Central Russia||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018|
|-Eastern Siberia||Present||Native||Haye et al., 2015|
|-Russian Far East||Present||Baldizzone and Savenkov, 2002||Present in the vicinity of Vladivostok|
|-Southern Russia||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018|
|Slovakia||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018|
|Spain||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018|
|Sweden||Widespread||Native||Gustafsson, 2010; Mori et al., 2016; Fauna Europaea, 2018|
|Switzerland||Present||Native||Mori et al., 2016; Fauna Europaea, 2018|
|UK||Widespread||Native||UKMoths, 2018a; British Lepidoptera, 2018; Fauna Europaea, 2018; NBN Atlas, 2018; Pitkin et al., 2018; Wheeler, 2018||Common in southern England|
|-Channel Islands||Present||Fauna Europaea, 2018|
|Australia||Unconfirmed record||Based on unconfirmed record in Tasmania|
|-Tasmania||Unconfirmed record||Dumbleton, 1952||Possible that the specimens collected were C. frischella|
|New Zealand||Widespread||Introduced||no later than Spring 2015||Invasive||Chynoweth et al., 2018||First found in Auckland in 2015. Major pest in red clover crops in Mid-Canterbury in 2016/7. Also present on the South Island in South Canterbury, Marlborough, Tasman, Southland, North Otago, Mackenzie Basin. Present in Wairarapa on the North Island.|
History of Introduction and SpreadTop of page
C. deauratella was introduced into Quebec, Canada in 1970, and was then observed in red clover fields in Ontario in 1985 (Yoder and Otani, 2007).
Mori (2014) suggested that the initial C. deauratella invasion in North America was likely to be in southern Ontario or adjacent American States, and that it was subsequently transported throughout the continent. There are a low number of haplotypes of C. deauratella in North America, and cluster analysis suggests that there are only two genetic clusters (Mori, 2014) hence there are believed to have been a limited number of invasion events in North America (Mori, 2014). Genetic diversity studies suggest that the most probable route of introduction to North America is from Switzerland (Mori et al. 2016).
C. deauratella was first reported in Auckland, New Zealand in 2016 although the species was present from at least spring 2015 (Chynoweth et al., 2018).
IntroductionsTop of page
|Introduced to||Introduced from||Year||Reason||Introduced by||Established in wild through||References||Notes|
|Natural reproduction||Continuous restocking|
|Quebec||Western Europe||1970||Yes||No||Yoder and Otani (2007)|
|New Zealand||2016||No||No||Chynoweth et al. (2018)|
|New York||Before 1962||No||No||Mori (2014)|
|Alberta||No||No||Mori et al. (2016)|
|Oregon||No||No||Mori et al. (2016)|
HabitatTop of page
In the UK, C. deauratella fly in grassy habitats during June and July (UKMoths, 2018a) where the foodplant (T. pratense) grows (Wheeler, 2018).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural grasslands||Present, no further details||Natural|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Although C. deauratella larvae feed on both Trifolium pratense and T. hybridum in Canada, there have been no reports of damage from T. hybridum seed crop fields (Yoder and Otani, 2007).
Growth StagesTop of page Flowering stage
SymptomsTop of page
White eggs are laid on the calyx of the florets and hatch into larvae that chew into unopened florets of T. pratense to feed (Landry, 1991; Yoder and Otani, 2007). As they feed, they bore into adjacent florets, damaging the reproductive structures and available nectary (Landry, 1991; Ellis and Bjørnson, 1996; Yoder and Otani, 2007). The damage they cause can be seen by pulling apart the inflorescences and looking for 2-3 mm diameter holes at the base or calyx of individual florets.
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Inflorescence / internal feeding||Larvae|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
C. deauratella has one brood of offspring per year (Ellis and Bjørnson, 1996), presumably as they rely on the flowers of Trifolium pratense as a food source.
Females lay eggs on the calyx of unopened red clover (T. pratense) inflorescences (Markkula and Myllymäki, 1960; Landry, 1991; Yoder and Otani, 2007; Chynoweth et al., 2018). When they hatch, the larvae bore through the corolla and feed on the developing ovules and nectary, and then bore into adjacent florets creating a characteristic round hole near each floret base (Markkula and Myllymäki, 1960; Landry, 1991;Yoder and Otani, 2007; Chynoweth et al., 2018). The holes at the base or calyx of individual florets are 2-3 mm in diameter and allow the larvae to move between florets while remaining relatively protected (Yoder and Otani, 2007). As the larvae mature, they feed on developing seed and may be present in fields until late September (Yoder and Otani, 2007).
The larvae go through four instar stages and destroy 2-3 seeds per day as they develop (Hammer 1937; Landry, 1991). During the fourth instar the larvae construct a silk-lined case from floret petals (Landry, 1991).
In late summer, the larvae move from the plant to soil, where they seek somewhere to overwinter in the sealed case (Landry, 1991).
Pupation occurs in early spring, and moths emerge in summer (Ellis and Bjørnson, 1996;Chynoweth et al., 2018; PNWHandbooks, 2018). Moths mate in the summer and lay white eggs on floret calyces (PNWHandbooks, 2018).
Physiology and Phenology
In laboratory investigations, C. deauratella males emerged in larger numbers and earlier than females (Mori and Evenden, 2015b). In the same investigations, male response to pheromones peaked at sunrise.
In New Zealand, flight activity was observed to start on July 1 (Chynoweth et al., 2018).
In 2010-2012 in Alberta, Canada, median male flight occurred at 258.39 degree days (starting from January 1st) (Mori et al., 2014).
In late summer to early autumn, the mature larvae carry their cases to ground level to seek an overwintering site (Yoder and Otani, 2007). They then retract into their case, seal it with silk, and overwinter in the case (Yoder and Otani, 2007).
In early spring, larvae pupate within the case and the adult subsequently emerges (Ellis and Bjørnson, 1996).
Evenden et al. (2010) identified candidate C. deauratella sex pheromone components from female pheromone gland extracts. Three compounds elicited an electrophysiological response from antennae and were identified as: (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate, (Z)-5-dodecenyl acetate, and (Z)-7-dodecen-1-ol. In field tests, males were attracted to a binary mixture of (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate and (Z)-5-dodecenyl acetate. Male capture was greatest in traps baited with lures containing 100:10 or 100:20 ratios of these pheromone components, respectively.
In laboratory investigations, both male and female C. deauratella, lived for a median of 6 days after emergence (Mori and Evenden, 2015b).
In North America, the moths are active in clover fields from June to Mid-August and can be found flying at dawn (PNWHandbooks, 2018).
In the UK, C. deauratella flies in sunshine, mainly before noon (Wheeler, 2018) and can be attracted to light (UK Moths, 2018). The UK flight period is between June and July (UKMoths, 2018a).
C. deauratella larvae feed on the developing seeds of red clover (T. pretense) and build a case that resembles a floret of the plant (Landry, 1991; UKMoths, 2018a). The mature larva carries its case, extends its body out of it to feed, and retreats back inside if disturbed (Yoder and Otani, 2007).
C. deauratella larvae hatch on their host plant (T. pratense) and bore through the corolla to feed on the developing ovules and nectary (Markkula and Myllymäki, 1960; Landry, 1991; Ellis and Bjørnson, 1996). As the larvae mature, they feed on developing seed and may be present in fields until late September (
Ellis and Bjørnson, 1996). The larvae feed on both T. pratense and T. hybridum while adult moths feed on plant nectar (Yoder and Otani, 2007).
ClimateTop of page
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Preferred||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
|Df - Continental climate, wet all year||Preferred||Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)|
Latitude/Altitude RangesTop of page
|Latitude North (°N)||Latitude South (°S)||Altitude Lower (m)||Altitude Upper (m)|
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Agathis rufipalpis||Parasite||Haye et al., 2015|
|Bracon pygmaeus||Parasite||not specific||Mason, 2013|
|Chelonus contractus||Parasite||Haye et al., 2015|
|Neochrysocharis formosa||Parasite||not specific||Ellis and Bjørnson, 1996||New Zealand||Trifolium pratense|
Economic ImpactTop of page
C. deauratella can reduce clover crop seed yield by up to 80% (Ellis and Bjørnson,1996), causing damage in first and second year red clover seed fields (Yoder and Otani, 2007). Where honey bees rely on red clover for honey production, yields of honey may be affected (Yoder and Otani, 2007).
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
- Damaged ecosystem services
- Host damage
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
- Difficult/costly to control
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
C. deauratella adult moths are similar to C. trifolii, although they lack the orange ‘eye-lashes’ (postocular scales) (Landry and Wright, 1993; British Lepidoptera, 2018). Postocular scales are dark brown rather than pale yellow or orange-yellow as in C. trifolii and C. apicalbella (Landry and Wright, 1993; Bug Guide, 2018).
In C. deauratella the thickened basal section of the antenna is of the same length as the white antenna tip (British Lepidoptera, 2018). In C. frischella and C. alcyonipennella the white tip is longer than the thickened basal section (British Lepidoptera, 2018). ). In addition, C. deauratella resemble C. mayrella, but the latter can be distinguished by alternating white and brown annulations on the thin portion of the antenna (Landry, 1991).
In C. trifolii the sacculus ends in a medially-directed short apical point, and the valva is narrowed at the base and is the same length as the sacculus (British Lepidoptera, 2018). The aedeagus has a weakly sclerotized tunica, the vesical does not have a sclerotized curve, and it has one long cornutus in the vesica (British Lepidoptera, 2018).
In C. alcyonipennella and C. frischella the sacculus comes to a small lateral point that is very small in C. frischella, and the sclerotized tunica of the aedeagus is much shorter than in C. deauratella (British Lepidoptera, 2018).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Early Warning Systems
Pheromone-based monitoring is a potential method for detecting the spread of C. deauratella (Mori et al., 2014).
C. deauratella larvae are difficult to control and monitor on T. pratense due to their internal feeding mechanism on developing seeds (Mori and Evenden, 2013). Pheromone-mediated mating disruption is being investigated as a potential control mechanism (Mori and Evenden, 2014).
Insecticidal control of C. deauratella is challenging as adult flight coincides with the activity of pollinators, and because the larvae are deep inside the florets reducing the efficacy of contact insecticides (Chynoweth et al., 2018).
Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures
Cutting/removing red clover silage in late May to early July may disrupt the lifecycle of C. deauratella and may help prevent damage to seeds (PNWHandbooks, 2018).
Since old red clover stands suffer more damage, it is suggested that plants should not be left in fields for second-year seed cropping, although first-year crops can also be affected (Yoder and Otani, 2007).
Burning stubble in red clover fields post-harvest is not effective at reducing larvae present in the stubble (Yoder and Otani, 2007). It is thought that this is due to the larvae overwintering close to the ground where the fire does not reach (Yoder and Otani, 2007).
In New Zealand, a European parasitoid, the eulophid Neochrysocharis formosa has been successfully used to control C. deauratella (Mason, 2013). It is possible that the parasitoid used was a distinct, more host-specific, population of N. formosa, or the related N. trifolii (Mason, 2013).
In Ontario, Canada, N. formosa, was released as a potential control agent for C. deauratella, but the parasitoids were not recovered from the moth (Ellis and Bjørnson,1996). Other parasitoids, for example, Bracon pygmaeus were recovered (Ellis and Bjørnson,1996; Mason, 2013).
Agathis rufipalpis, Chelonus contractus, N. formosa and B. pygmaeus may be part of a complex of parasitoids that naturally control Coleophora species in Europe (Haye, 2015).
C. deauratella larvae are difficult to control on T. pretense due to their internal feeding mechanism, so the use of pheromone-baited traps to capture males has been investigated (Mori and Evenden, 2013; Mori and Evenden, 2014).
Z-7-dodecenyl acetate-containing micro-flakes that release pheromones have been shown to disrupt C. deauratella communication and mating in red clover seed production fields (Mori and Evenden, 2015a). This disruption has the potential to suppress C. deauratella populations and reduce damage to T. pratense crops even at high population densities (Mori and Evenden, 2014).
In laboratory investigations, selected insecticides (synthetic pyrethroids and an organophosphate) were effective against adult moths caught in New Zealand (Chynoweth et al., 2018).
In Alberta, Canada, little benefit was achieved by applying insecticides at the bud or the early flowering (adult flight period) stages, and application at the larval stage was also ineffective due to the larvae residing deep in the florets with protection from foliar sprays (Yoder and Otani, 2007). Insecticide treatments may also negatively affect beneficial insects, such as bees that pollinate the clover crops (Yoder and Otani, 2007).
Gaps in Knowledge/Research NeedsTop of page
There is little information available on the means of dispersal and introduction of C. deauratella.
ReferencesTop of page
Baldizzone, G., Savenkov, N., 2002. Casebearers (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) of the Far East region of Russia. I.: (Contribution to the knowledge of the Eastern Palaearctic insects 12). Beiträge zur Entomologie, 52(2), 367-405.
Biodiversity Maps, 2018. Coleophora deauratella. National Biodiversity Information Facility, Ireland. https://maps.biodiversityireland.ie/Map/Terrestrial/Species/81213
BioLib, 2018. Coleophora deauratella Lienig & Zeller, 1846. https://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id46977/
British Leafminers, 2007. Coleophora deauratella Lienig & Zeller, 1846. 37.046. . http://www.leafmines.co.uk/html/Lepidoptera/C.deauratella.htm
British Lepidoptera, 2018. 37.046 Coleophora deauratella (Red-clover Case-bearer). https://britishlepidoptera.weebly.com/046-coleophora-deauratella.html
Bug Guide, 2018. Coleophora deauratella – Hodges#1398.2. Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, USA.https://bugguide.net/node/view/363448
Chynoweth R, Rolston P, McNeill M, Hardwick S, Bell O, 2018. Red clover casebearer moth (Coleophora deauratella) is widespread throughout New Zealand. New Zealand Plant Protection, 71, 232-239.
Ellis, C. R., Bjørnson, S., 1996. The biology, importance, and biological control of Coleophora deauratella (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae), a new pest of red clover in North America. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 127, 115-124.
Evenden ML, Mori BA, Gries R, Otani J, 2010. Sex pheromone of the red clover casebearer moth, Coleophora deauratella, an invasive pest of clover in Canada. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 137(3):255-261. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1570-7458
Fauna Europaea, 2018. Coleophora deauratella Lienig & Zeller, 1846. https://fauna-eu.org/cdm_dataportal/taxon/e3ed83d0-4ba3-400e-9f8a-4aae2c68501a
GBIF, 2018. Coleophora deauratella Lienig & Zeller, 1846. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. https://www.gbif.org/species/5121613
Gustafsson B, 2010. Coleophora deauratella. Naturhistoriska riksmuseet. Swedish butterflies. http://www2.nrm.se/en/svenska_fjarilar/c/coleophora_deauratella.html
Hammer M, 1937. Kløver-Saekmøllet (Coleophora spissicornis Hw.). Tidsskrift for Planteavl, 42, 333-343.
Haye T, Dancau T, Hughes C, Quach D, Otani J, Mason PG, Gillespie D, Gariepy T, 2015. CABI Switzerland Annual Report, 2014. Delémont, Switzerland: CABI 28. https://www.cabi.org/Uploads/CABI/about-us/4.4-global-locations/Switzerland/Swiss_Centre_Report_2014.pdf
Landry JF, 1991. Coleophora deauratella Lienig and Zeller (Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae) in North America: an introduced, newly detected European moth injurious to red clover seeds. Canadian Entomologist, 123(5):1125-1133
Lepiforum, 2018. Coleophora deauratella. http://www.lepiforum.de/lepiwiki.pl?Coleophora_Deauratella
Mason, P. G., 2013. Biological control in Ontario 1952-2012: a summary of publications in the "Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario". Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 144, 27-111. http://www.entsocont.com/pub.htm
Mori BA, 2014. Following the plume: Development of a pheromone-based monitoring and management program for Coleophora deauratella (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae). Alberta, Canada: University of Alberta. https://era.library.ualberta.ca/items/9f38e43a-f65c-4098-b253-e8f6ac95693e/view/108d65cf-722b-4de3-9ac1-3711cb2db4c6/Mori_Boyd_AR_201407_PhD.pdf
Mori, B. A., Davis, C. S., Evenden, M. L., 2016. Genetic diversity and population structure identify the potential source of the invasive red clover casebearer moth, Coleophora deauratella, in North America. Biological Invasions, 18(12), 3595-3609. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-016-1250-y doi: 10.1007/s10530-016-1250-y
Mori, B. A., Evenden, M. L., 2013. Factors affecting pheromone-baited trap capture of male Coleophora deauratella, an invasive pest of clover in Canada. Journal of Economic Entomology, 106(2), 844-854. http://esa.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/jee/2013/00000106/00000002/art00040 doi: 10.1603/EC12437
Mori, B. A., Evenden, M. L., 2014. Efficacy and mechanisms of communication disruption of the red clover casebearer moth (Coleophora deauratella) with complete and partial pheromone formulations. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 40(6), 577-589. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10886 doi: 10.1007/s10886-014-0461-x
Mori, B. A., Evenden, M. L., 2015. Challenges of mating disruption using aerosol-emitting pheromone puffers in red clover seed production fields to control Coleophora deauratella (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae). Environmental Entomology, 44(1), 34-43. http://www.bioone.org/loi/enve doi: 10.1093/ee/nvu001
Mori, B. A., Evenden, M. L., 2015. Mating disruption of Coleophora deauratella (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) using laminate flakes in red clover seed production fields. Pest Management Science, 71(8), 1149-1157. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ps.3898/full doi: 10.1002/ps.3898
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Principal SourceTop of page
Draft datasheet under review
ContributorsTop of page
13/12/18 Original text by:
Vicki Cottrell, Consultant, UK
Distribution MapsTop of page
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