Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Coleophora deauratella
(red clover casebearer)

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Datasheet

Coleophora deauratella (red clover casebearer)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 07 May 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Coleophora deauratella
  • Preferred Common Name
  • red clover casebearer
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Coleophora deauratella is a moth species native to Europe, eastern Siberia and the Middle East.

    It was introduced into North America in the 196...

  • Principal Source
  • Draft datasheet under review

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Coleophora deauratella (red clover casebearer); adult at rest. Hexton Chalk Pit, Hertfordshire, UK. June 2017.
TitleAdult
CaptionColeophora deauratella (red clover casebearer); adult at rest. Hexton Chalk Pit, Hertfordshire, UK. June 2017.
Copyright©Ben Sale/via flickr - CC BY 2.0
Coleophora deauratella (red clover casebearer); adult at rest. Hexton Chalk Pit, Hertfordshire, UK. June 2017.
AdultColeophora deauratella (red clover casebearer); adult at rest. Hexton Chalk Pit, Hertfordshire, UK. June 2017.©Ben Sale/via flickr - CC BY 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Coleophora deauratella Lienig & Zeller, 1846

Preferred Common Name

  • red clover casebearer

Other Scientific Names

  • Damophila deauratella (Lienig & Zeller, 1846)
  • Eupista deauratella (Lienig in Lienig & Zeller, 1846)

International Common Names

  • English: case-bearer moth; red clover case-bearer; red clover moth; red-clover case-bearer

Local Common Names

  • Netherlands: grijze metaalkokermot
  • Norway: kløversekkmøll
  • Sweden: fjällsprötad grönglanssäckmal

Summary of Invasiveness

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Coleophora deauratella is a moth species native to Europe, eastern Siberia and the Middle East.

It was introduced into North America in the 1960s, becoming a significant pest of Trifolium pratense seed crops in Ontario, Canada in 1989. Based on a study of genetic diversity from a limited number of European populations of C. deauratella, the most probable source of North American populations was found to be Switzerland; further sampling within Europe may improve geographical resolution of the source population.

Within North America, C. deauratella has been identified as an invasive in Alberta and Ontario in Canada and Oregon and New York in the USA.

It has been an invasive pest in New Zealand since its discovery there in 2015, where it has devastated T. pratense crops.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Coleophoridae
  •                             Genus: Coleophora
  •                                 Species: Coleophora deauratella

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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C. deauratella was formerly considered conspecific with C. frischella and C. alcyonipennella (British Lepidoptera, 2018). C. frischella is itself only distinguishable from C. alcyonipennella by dissection (UKMoths, 2018c); these two species being split at the turn of the century (UKMoths, 2018b).

Description

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C. deauratella is a small moth with a wingspan of 11-13 mm (Gustafsson, 2010UKMoths, 2018a). The adult moths are described as 9.5-15.5 mm by Landry (1991), about 9 mm long by PNWHandbooks (2018), and 10.5-12.5 mm by British Lepidoptera (2018).

The adult has shiny, metallic, bronze-green coloured forewings (Landry, 1991Yoder and Otani, 2007; Gustafsson, 2010; British Lepidoptera, 2018; Pitkin et al., 2018; UKMoths, 2018a; Wheeler, 2018). Colour scales are easily brushed off by sweep nets, making the moths appear grey in colour (Yoder and Otani, 2007).

Eyes are fringed with fuscous hairs and fuscous antennae with white tips (Landry, 1991British Lepidoptera, 2018). The base of the antennae are thickened with projecting scales (Landry, 1991;British Lepidoptera, 2018).

The sacculus is relatively broad at the apex with a broadly rounded ventro-lateral angle and a moderate dorsally-directed process at the dorso-lateral angle. The valva is even in width and shorter than the sacculus. The aedeagus has a highly scleroterized and relatively long tunica (British Lepidoptera, 2018). The vesical has a concave curve and elongated sclerotization of its wall, parallel to a line of elongate cornute in the vesical (British Lepidoptera, 2018).

Larvae are present from July-September in the UK and North America, then they overwinter in the case (Landry, 1991Yoder and Otani, 2007; Pitkin et al., 2018). The case is cigar-like (Landry, 1991Yoder and Otani, 2007; PNWHandbooks, 2018), forming during the fourth instar and turning red-brown (British Leafminers, 2007Pitkin et al., 2018). Larvae are 2-4 mm in length and are easily concealed inside florets.

The pupae have visible head appendages, wings and legs that lie in sheaths (Pitkin et al., 2018).

Distribution

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The range of C. deauratella is the Palearctic, and it is adventive in the Nearctic (Bug Guide, 2018).

C. deauratella is native to Europe, eastern Siberia and the Middle East (Landry and Wright, 1993). It is also present in the Russian Far East and China (Baldizzone and Savenkov, 2002). It is introduced and invasive in parts of North America and is also invasive in New Zealand (Mori et al. 2014; Chynoweth et al. 2018).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentBaldizzone and Savenkov, 2002
LebanonPresentBaldizzone and Savenkov, 2002
TurkeyPresentBaldizzone and Savenkov, 2002

Africa

TunisiaPresentBaldizzone and Savenkov, 2002

North America

CanadaRestricted distributionIntroduced Invasive Landry, 1991; Evenden et al., 2010; Mori et al., 2016Eastern Canada. Introduced from Europe in 1960s but not recognized
-AlbertaPresentIntroduced Invasive Mori and Evenden, 2015b; Yoder and Otani, 2007; Haye et al., 2015; Mori et al., 2016
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Mori et al., 2016
-ManitobaPresentIntroduced Invasive Mori et al., 2016
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Landry, 1991
-OntarioPresentIntroduced Invasive Landry, 1991; Ellis and Bjørnson, 1996; Yoder and Otani, 2007; Haye et al., 2015; Mori et al., 2016
-Prince Edward IslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Mori et al., 2016
-QuebecPresentIntroduced1970Yoder and Otani, 2007
-SaskatchewanPresentIntroduced Invasive Mori et al., 2016
USAPresentIntroducedearly 1960s Invasive Landry, 1991; Chynowyth et al., 2018
-MarylandPresentIntroduced Invasive Landry and Wright, 1983; Landry, 1991
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced Invasive Landry and Wright, 1983; Landry, 1991
-MichiganPresentIntroduced Invasive Landry and Wright, 1983; Landry, 1991
-New HampshirePresentIntroduced Invasive Landry and Wright, 1983; Landry, 1991
-New YorkPresentIntroduced Invasive Landry and Wright, 1983; Landry, 1991Ithaca
-OhioPresentIntroduced Invasive Landry and Wright, 1983
-OregonPresentIntroduced Invasive Mori et al., 2016
-VermontPresentIntroduced Invasive Landry, 1991
-WashingtonPresentGBIF, 2018

Europe

AlbaniaPresentFauna Europaea, 2018
AustriaPresentFauna Europaea, 2018
BelgiumPresentFauna Europaea, 2018
BulgariaPresentFauna Europaea, 2018
CroatiaPresentFauna Europaea, 2018
Czech RepublicPresentBioLib, 2018; Fauna Europaea, 2018Bohemia, Moravia
DenmarkPresentFauna Europaea, 2018Mainland
EstoniaPresentFauna Europaea, 2018
Faroe IslandsPresentFauna Europaea, 2018
FinlandPresentMarkkula and Myllymaki, 1960; Fauna Europaea, 2018Northern limit of range is approx. 67°N
FrancePresentFauna Europaea, 2018Mainland
GermanyPresentMori et al., 2016; Fauna Europaea, 2018; Lepiforum, 2018; Pitkin et al., 2018
GreecePresentFauna Europaea, 2018
HungaryPresentFauna Europaea, 2018; Pitkin et al., 2018
IrelandWidespreadBiodiversity Maps, 2018; Fauna Europaea, 2018; Pitkin et al., 2018
ItalyPresentFauna Europaea, 2018Mainland, Sicily
LatviaPresentFauna Europaea, 2018
LithuaniaPresentFauna Europaea, 2018
LuxembourgPresentFauna Europaea, 2018
MacedoniaPresentFauna Europaea, 2018
MaltaPresentFauna Europaea, 2018
NetherlandsPresentFauna Europaea, 2018
NorwayPresentFauna Europaea, 2018Mainland
RomaniaPresentFauna Europaea, 2018
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution
-Central RussiaPresentFauna Europaea, 2018
-Eastern SiberiaPresentNativeHaye et al., 2015
-Russian Far EastPresentBaldizzone and Savenkov, 2002Present in the vicinity of Vladivostok
-Southern RussiaPresentFauna Europaea, 2018
SlovakiaPresentFauna Europaea, 2018
SpainPresentFauna Europaea, 2018
SwedenWidespreadNativeGustafsson, 2010; Mori et al., 2016; Fauna Europaea, 2018
SwitzerlandPresentNativeMori et al., 2016; Fauna Europaea, 2018
UKWidespreadNativeUKMoths, 2018a; British Lepidoptera, 2018; Fauna Europaea, 2018; NBN Atlas, 2018; Pitkin et al., 2018; Wheeler, 2018Common in southern England
-Channel IslandsPresentFauna Europaea, 2018

Oceania

AustraliaUnconfirmed recordBased on unconfirmed record in Tasmania
-TasmaniaUnconfirmed recordDumbleton, 1952Possible that the specimens collected were C. frischella
New ZealandWidespreadIntroducedno later than Spring 2015 Invasive Chynoweth et al., 2018First found in Auckland in 2015. Major pest in red clover crops in Mid-Canterbury in 2016/7. Also present on the South Island in South Canterbury, Marlborough, Tasman, Southland, North Otago, Mackenzie Basin. Present in Wairarapa on the North Island.

History of Introduction and Spread

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The first North American record is from Ithaca, NY in 1962 (Landry, 1991). The first recorded outbreak in North America occurred in southern Ontario, Canada, in 1989 (Ellis and Bjørnson, 1996).

C. deauratella was introduced into Quebec, Canada in 1970, and was then observed in red clover fields in Ontario in 1985 (Yoder and Otani, 2007).

Mori (2014) suggested that the initial C. deauratella invasion in North America was likely to be in southern Ontario or adjacent American States, and that it was subsequently transported throughout the continent. There are a low number of haplotypes of C. deauratella in North America, and cluster analysis suggests that there are only two genetic clusters (Mori, 2014) hence there are believed to have been a limited number of invasion events in North America (Mori, 2014). Genetic diversity studies suggest that the most probable route of introduction to North America is from Switzerland (Mori et al. 2016).

C. deauratella was first reported in Auckland, New Zealand in 2016 although the species was present from at least spring 2015 (Chynoweth et al., 2018).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Quebec Western Europe 1970 Yes No Yoder and Otani (2007)
New Zealand 2016 No No Chynoweth et al. (2018)
Ontario 1980s No No Mori (2014)
New York Before 1962 No No Mori (2014)
Alberta No No Mori et al. (2016)
Oregon No No Mori et al. (2016)

Habitat

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In the UK, C. deauratella fly in grassy habitats during June and July (UKMoths, 2018a) where the foodplant (T. pratense) grows (Wheeler, 2018).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Although C. deauratella larvae feed on both Trifolium pratense and T. hybridum in Canada, there have been no reports of damage from T. hybridum seed crop fields (Yoder and Otani, 2007).  

Growth Stages

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Symptoms

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White eggs are laid on the calyx of the florets and hatch into larvae that chew into unopened florets of T. pratense to feed (Landry, 1991Yoder and Otani, 2007). As they feed, they bore into adjacent florets, damaging the reproductive structures and available nectary (Landry, 1991Ellis and Bjørnson, 1996;  Yoder and Otani, 2007). The damage they cause can be seen by pulling apart the inflorescences and looking for 2-3 mm diameter holes at the base or calyx of individual florets.

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / internal feeding Larvae
Seeds Larvae

Biology and Ecology

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Reproductive Biology

C. deauratella has one brood of offspring per year (Ellis and Bjørnson, 1996), presumably as they rely on the flowers of Trifolium pratense as a food source.

Females lay eggs on the calyx of unopened red clover (T. pratense) inflorescences (Markkula and Myllymäki, 1960; Landry, 1991Yoder and Otani, 2007; Chynoweth et al., 2018). When they hatch, the larvae bore through the corolla and feed on the developing ovules and nectary, and then bore into adjacent florets creating a characteristic round hole near each floret base (Markkula and Myllymäki, 1960; Landry, 1991;Yoder and Otani, 2007; Chynoweth et al., 2018). The holes at the base or calyx of individual florets are 2-3 mm in diameter and allow the larvae to move between florets while remaining relatively protected (Yoder and Otani, 2007). As the larvae mature, they feed on developing seed and may be present in fields until late September (Yoder and Otani, 2007).

The larvae go through four instar stages and destroy 2-3 seeds per day as they develop (Hammer 1937; Landry, 1991). During the fourth instar the larvae construct a silk-lined case from floret petals (Landry, 1991).

In late summer, the larvae move from the plant to soil, where they seek somewhere to overwinter in the sealed case (Landry, 1991).

Pupation occurs in early spring, and moths emerge in summer (Ellis and Bjørnson, 1996;Chynoweth et al., 2018; PNWHandbooks, 2018). Moths mate in the summer and lay white eggs on floret calyces (PNWHandbooks, 2018).

Physiology and Phenology

In laboratory investigations, C. deauratella males emerged in larger numbers and earlier than females (Mori and Evenden, 2015b). In the same investigations, male response to pheromones peaked at sunrise.

In New Zealand, flight activity was observed to start on July 1 (Chynoweth et al., 2018).

In 2010-2012 in Alberta, Canada, median male flight occurred at 258.39 degree days (starting from January 1st) (Mori et al., 2014).

In late summer to early autumn, the mature larvae carry their cases to ground level to seek an overwintering site (Yoder and Otani, 2007). They then retract into their case, seal it with silk, and overwinter in the case (Yoder and Otani, 2007).

In early spring, larvae pupate within the case and the adult subsequently emerges (Ellis and Bjørnson, 1996).

Evenden et al. (2010) identified candidate C. deauratella sex pheromone components from female pheromone gland extracts. Three compounds elicited an electrophysiological response from antennae and were identified as: (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate, (Z)-5-dodecenyl acetate, and (Z)-7-dodecen-1-ol. In field tests, males were attracted to a binary mixture of (Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate and (Z)-5-dodecenyl acetate. Male capture was greatest in traps baited with lures containing 100:10 or 100:20 ratios of these pheromone components, respectively.

 Longevity

In laboratory investigations, both male and female C. deauratella, lived for a median of 6 days after emergence (Mori and Evenden, 2015b).

Activity Patterns

In North America, the moths are active in clover fields from June to Mid-August and can be found flying at dawn (PNWHandbooks, 2018).

In the UK, C. deauratella flies in sunshine, mainly before noon (Wheeler, 2018) and can be attracted to light (UK Moths, 2018). The UK flight period is between June and July (UKMoths, 2018a).

C. deauratella larvae feed on the developing seeds of red clover (T. pretense) and build a case that resembles a floret of the plant (Landry, 1991UKMoths, 2018a). The mature larva carries its case, extends its body out of it to feed, and retreats back inside if disturbed (Yoder and Otani, 2007).

Nutrition

C. deauratella larvae hatch on their host plant (T. pratense) and bore through the corolla to feed on the developing ovules and nectary (Markkula and Myllymäki, 1960; Landry, 1991; Ellis and Bjørnson, 1996). As the larvae mature, they feed on developing seed and may be present in fields until late September (
Ellis and Bjørnson, 1996). The larvae feed on both T. pratense and T. hybridum while adult moths feed on plant nectar (Yoder and Otani, 2007).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Df - Continental climate, wet all year Preferred Continental climate, wet all year (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, wet all year)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
64 -45

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Agathis rufipalpis Parasite Haye et al., 2015
Bracon pygmaeus Parasite not specific Mason, 2013
Chelonus contractus Parasite Haye et al., 2015
Neochrysocharis formosa Parasite not specific Ellis and Bjørnson, 1996 New Zealand Trifolium pratense

Economic Impact

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C. deauratella can reduce clover crop seed yield by up to 80% (Ellis and Bjørnson,1996), causing damage in first and second year red clover seed fields (Yoder and Otani, 2007). Where honey bees rely on red clover for honey production, yields of honey may be affected (Yoder and Otani, 2007).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Host damage
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
Impact mechanisms
  • Herbivory/grazing/browsing
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult/costly to control

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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C. deauratella adult moths are similar to C. trifolii, although they lack the orange ‘eye-lashes’ (postocular scales) (Landry and Wright, 1993British Lepidoptera, 2018). Postocular scales are dark brown rather than pale yellow or orange-yellow as in C. trifolii and C. apicalbella (Landry and Wright, 1993Bug Guide, 2018).

In C. deauratella the thickened basal section of the antenna is of the same length as the white antenna tip (British Lepidoptera, 2018). In C. frischella and C. alcyonipennella the white tip is longer than the thickened basal section (British Lepidoptera, 2018). ). In addition, C. deauratella resemble C. mayrella, but the latter can be distinguished by alternating white and brown annulations on the thin portion of the antenna (Landry, 1991).

In C. trifolii the sacculus ends in a medially-directed short apical point, and the valva is narrowed at the base and is the same length as the sacculus (British Lepidoptera, 2018). The aedeagus has a weakly sclerotized tunica, the vesical does not have a sclerotized curve, and it has one long cornutus in the vesica (British Lepidoptera, 2018).

In C. alcyonipennella and C. frischella the sacculus comes to a small lateral point that is very small in C. frischella, and the sclerotized tunica of the aedeagus is much shorter than in C. deauratella (British Lepidoptera, 2018).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Early Warning Systems

Pheromone-based monitoring is a potential method for detecting the spread of C. deauratella (Mori et al., 2014).

Control

C. deauratella larvae are difficult to control and monitor on T. pratense due to their internal feeding mechanism on developing seeds (Mori and Evenden, 2013). Pheromone-mediated mating disruption is being investigated as a potential control mechanism (Mori and Evenden, 2014).

Insecticidal control of C. deauratella is challenging as adult flight coincides with the activity of pollinators, and because the larvae are deep inside the florets reducing the efficacy of contact insecticides (Chynoweth et al., 2018).

Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

Cutting/removing red clover silage in late May to early July may disrupt the lifecycle of C. deauratella and may help prevent damage to seeds (PNWHandbooks, 2018).

Since old red clover stands suffer more damage, it is suggested that plants should not be left in fields for second-year seed cropping, although first-year crops can also be affected (Yoder and Otani, 2007).

Physical/Mechanical Control

Burning stubble in red clover fields post-harvest is not effective at reducing larvae present in the stubble (Yoder and Otani, 2007). It is thought that this is due to the larvae overwintering close to the ground where the fire does not reach (Yoder and Otani, 2007).

Biological Control

In New Zealand, a European parasitoid, the eulophid Neochrysocharis formosa has been successfully used to control C. deauratella (Mason, 2013). It is possible that the parasitoid used was a distinct, more host-specific, population of N. formosa, or the related N. trifolii (Mason, 2013).

In Ontario, Canada, N. formosa, was released as a potential control agent for C. deauratella, but the parasitoids were not recovered from the moth (Ellis and Bjørnson,1996). Other parasitoids, for example, Bracon pygmaeus were recovered (Ellis and Bjørnson,1996; Mason, 2013).

Agathis rufipalpis, Chelonus contractus, N. formosa and B. pygmaeus may be part of a complex of parasitoids that naturally control Coleophora species in Europe (Haye, 2015).  

Chemical Control

C. deauratella larvae are difficult to control on T. pretense due to their internal feeding mechanism, so the use of pheromone-baited traps to capture males has been investigated (Mori and Evenden, 2013; Mori and Evenden, 2014).

Z-7-dodecenyl acetate-containing micro-flakes that release pheromones have been shown to disrupt C. deauratella communication and mating in red clover seed production fields (Mori and Evenden, 2015a). This disruption has the potential to suppress C. deauratella populations and reduce damage to T. pratense crops even at high population densities (Mori and Evenden, 2014).

In laboratory investigations, selected insecticides (synthetic pyrethroids and an organophosphate) were effective against adult moths caught in New Zealand (Chynoweth et al., 2018).

In Alberta, Canada, little benefit was achieved by applying insecticides at the bud or the early flowering (adult flight period) stages, and application at the larval stage was also ineffective due to the larvae residing deep in the florets with protection from foliar sprays (Yoder and Otani, 2007). Insecticide treatments may also negatively affect beneficial insects, such as bees that pollinate the clover crops (Yoder and Otani, 2007).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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There is little information available on the means of dispersal and introduction of C. deauratella.

References

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Baldizzone, G., Savenkov, N., 2002. Casebearers (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) of the Far East region of Russia. I.: (Contribution to the knowledge of the Eastern Palaearctic insects 12). Beiträge zur Entomologie, 52(2), 367-405.

Biodiversity Maps, 2018. Coleophora deauratella. National Biodiversity Information Facility, Ireland. https://maps.biodiversityireland.ie/Map/Terrestrial/Species/81213

BioLib, 2018. Coleophora deauratella Lienig & Zeller, 1846. https://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id46977/

British Leafminers, 2007. Coleophora deauratella Lienig & Zeller, 1846. 37.046. . http://www.leafmines.co.uk/html/Lepidoptera/C.deauratella.htm

British Lepidoptera, 2018. 37.046 Coleophora deauratella (Red-clover Case-bearer). https://britishlepidoptera.weebly.com/046-coleophora-deauratella.html

Bug Guide, 2018. Coleophora deauratella – Hodges#1398.2. Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, USA.https://bugguide.net/node/view/363448

Chynoweth R, Rolston P, McNeill M, Hardwick S, Bell O, 2018. Red clover casebearer moth (Coleophora deauratella) is widespread throughout New Zealand. New Zealand Plant Protection, 71, 232-239.

Dumbleton LJ, 1952. Coleophoridae (Lep.) as pests of clovers. N. Z, J. Sci. Technol, 33(5), 109-12.

Ellis, C. R., Bjørnson, S., 1996. The biology, importance, and biological control of Coleophora deauratella (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae), a new pest of red clover in North America. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 127, 115-124.

Evenden ML, Mori BA, Gries R, Otani J, 2010. Sex pheromone of the red clover casebearer moth, Coleophora deauratella, an invasive pest of clover in Canada. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 137(3):255-261. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1570-7458

Fauna Europaea, 2018. Coleophora deauratella Lienig & Zeller, 1846. https://fauna-eu.org/cdm_dataportal/taxon/e3ed83d0-4ba3-400e-9f8a-4aae2c68501a

GBIF, 2018. Coleophora deauratella Lienig & Zeller, 1846. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. https://www.gbif.org/species/5121613

Gustafsson B, 2010. Coleophora deauratella. Naturhistoriska riksmuseet. Swedish butterflies. http://www2.nrm.se/en/svenska_fjarilar/c/coleophora_deauratella.html

Hammer M, 1937. Kløver-Saekmøllet (Coleophora spissicornis Hw.). Tidsskrift for Planteavl, 42, 333-343.

Haye T, Dancau T, Hughes C, Quach D, Otani J, Mason PG, Gillespie D, Gariepy T, 2015. CABI Switzerland Annual Report, 2014. Delémont, Switzerland: CABI 28. https://www.cabi.org/Uploads/CABI/about-us/4.4-global-locations/Switzerland/Swiss_Centre_Report_2014.pdf

Landry JF, 1991. Coleophora deauratella Lienig and Zeller (Lepidoptera, Coleophoridae) in North America: an introduced, newly detected European moth injurious to red clover seeds. Canadian Entomologist, 123(5):1125-1133

Landry, J. F., Wright, B., 1993. Systematics of the Nearctic species of metallic-green Coleophora (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae). Canadian Entomologist, 125(3), 549-618.

Lepiforum, 2018. Coleophora deauratella. http://www.lepiforum.de/lepiwiki.pl?Coleophora_Deauratella

Markkula M, Mullimaki S, 1960. Coleophora deauratella Zell. (Lep., Coleophoridae), a seed pest of red clover. Ann. ent. fenn, 26:74-8

Mason, P. G., 2013. Biological control in Ontario 1952-2012: a summary of publications in the "Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario". Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 144, 27-111. http://www.entsocont.com/pub.htm

Mori BA, 2014. Following the plume: Development of a pheromone-based monitoring and management program for Coleophora deauratella (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae). Alberta, Canada: University of Alberta. https://era.library.ualberta.ca/items/9f38e43a-f65c-4098-b253-e8f6ac95693e/view/108d65cf-722b-4de3-9ac1-3711cb2db4c6/Mori_Boyd_AR_201407_PhD.pdf

Mori, B. A., Davis, C. S., Evenden, M. L., 2016. Genetic diversity and population structure identify the potential source of the invasive red clover casebearer moth, Coleophora deauratella, in North America. Biological Invasions, 18(12), 3595-3609. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-016-1250-y doi: 10.1007/s10530-016-1250-y

Mori, B. A., Evenden, M. L., 2013. Factors affecting pheromone-baited trap capture of male Coleophora deauratella, an invasive pest of clover in Canada. Journal of Economic Entomology, 106(2), 844-854. http://esa.publisher.ingentaconnect.com/content/esa/jee/2013/00000106/00000002/art00040 doi: 10.1603/EC12437

Mori, B. A., Evenden, M. L., 2014. Efficacy and mechanisms of communication disruption of the red clover casebearer moth (Coleophora deauratella) with complete and partial pheromone formulations. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 40(6), 577-589. http://rd.springer.com/journal/10886 doi: 10.1007/s10886-014-0461-x

Mori, B. A., Evenden, M. L., 2015. Challenges of mating disruption using aerosol-emitting pheromone puffers in red clover seed production fields to control Coleophora deauratella (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae). Environmental Entomology, 44(1), 34-43. http://www.bioone.org/loi/enve doi: 10.1093/ee/nvu001

Mori, B. A., Evenden, M. L., 2015. Mating disruption of Coleophora deauratella (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) using laminate flakes in red clover seed production fields. Pest Management Science, 71(8), 1149-1157. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ps.3898/full doi: 10.1002/ps.3898

Mori, B. A., Yoder, C., Otani, J., Evenden, M. L., 2014. Relationships among male Coleophora deauratella (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) pheromone-baited trap capture, larval abundance, damage and flight phenology. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 16(2), 207-215. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1461-9563 doi: 10.1111/afe.12050

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UKMoths, 2018c. Coleophora frischella. https://ukmoths.org.uk/species/coleophora-frischella/adult-2/

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Principal Source

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Draft datasheet under review

Contributors

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13/12/18 Original text by:

Vicki Cottrell, Consultant, UK

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