Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Ceratocystis paradoxa
(black rot of pineapple)

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Datasheet

Ceratocystis paradoxa (black rot of pineapple)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 03 January 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Ceratocystis paradoxa
  • Preferred Common Name
  • black rot of pineapple
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Sordariomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Infection of sugarcane cuttings by C. paradoxa; affected tissues first develop a reddish colour which turns to brownish-black.
TitleSymptoms on sugarcane cuttings
CaptionInfection of sugarcane cuttings by C. paradoxa; affected tissues first develop a reddish colour which turns to brownish-black.
CopyrightMauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute
Infection of sugarcane cuttings by C. paradoxa; affected tissues first develop a reddish colour which turns to brownish-black.
Symptoms on sugarcane cuttingsInfection of sugarcane cuttings by C. paradoxa; affected tissues first develop a reddish colour which turns to brownish-black.Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute
Infection of maize cob by C. paradoxa.
TitleSymptoms on maize cob
CaptionInfection of maize cob by C. paradoxa.
CopyrightMauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute
Infection of maize cob by C. paradoxa.
Symptoms on maize cobInfection of maize cob by C. paradoxa.Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute
Black rot of pineapple fruit.
TitleC. paradoxa in pineapple
CaptionBlack rot of pineapple fruit.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Black rot of pineapple fruit.
C. paradoxa in pineappleBlack rot of pineapple fruit.©Anna L. Snowdon
Spores of C. paradoxa (x 400).
TitleSpores
CaptionSpores of C. paradoxa (x 400).
CopyrightMauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute
Spores of C. paradoxa (x 400).
SporesSpores of C. paradoxa (x 400).Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Ceratocystis paradoxa (Dade) C. Moreau

Preferred Common Name

  • black rot of pineapple

Other Scientific Names

  • Ceratostomella paradoxa Dade
  • Chalara paradoxa (De Seynes) Sacc.
  • Chalara thielavioides (Peyr.) Nag Raj & Kendr.
  • Chalaropsis thielavioides Peyr.
  • Endoconidium fragrans E.G. Lacroix
  • Hughesiella euricoi Bat. & A.F. Vital
  • Ophiostoma paradoxa (Dade) Nannf.
  • Ophiostoma paradoxum
  • Sporoschisma paradoxum De Seynes
  • Stilbochalara dimorpha Ferd. & Winge
  • Thielaviopsis ethacetica Went
  • Thielaviopsis paradoxa (De Seynes) Höhn.
  • Thielaviopsis thielavioides (Peyr.) A.E. Paulin, T.C. Harr. & McNew

International Common Names

  • English: base rot; bitten leaf of coconut; black end of banana; black rot; black rot of sugarcane; black scorch of date palm; bleeding stem of coconut; bulb rot; crown decay of date palm; crown rot of banana; dry basal rot of coconut; dry basal rot of oil palm; finger tip rot of banana; fruit rot; head rot of date palm; heart rot of date palm; leaf rot of coconut; pineapple disease of sugarcane; pod rot of cocoa; post-harvest rot; root rot of coconut; sett rot of sugarcane; soft rot; stalk rot of banana; stalk rot of pineapple; sugarcane black rot; water blister of pineapple
  • Spanish: corazon negro de la cana; enfermedad de la piña; mal de pina; marchitez barbada; marchitez barbada de los arboles frutales; pie negro criptogamico; podredumbre de raicillas; pudredumbre basal seca; pudricion esquejes cana azucar
  • French: maladie de l'ananas; moisissure chevelue; moisissure chevelue des arbres fruitiers; pourriture couronnee du bananier; pourriture couronnee du palmier-dattier; pourriture des boutures; pourriture du fruit de l'ananas; pourriture molle de l'ananas; pourriture noire; pourriture noire de l'ananas

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Ananaskrankheit: Zuckerrohr; Fruchtfaeule; Kronenfaeule: Ananas; Kronenfaeule: Banane; Nassfaeule; Weichfaeule
  • Togo: kain cope
  • Tunisia: madjnoon

EPPO code

  • CERAPA (Ceratocystis paradoxa)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Sordariomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
  •                         Order: Microascales
  •                             Family: Ceratocystidaceae
  •                                 Genus: Ceratocystis
  •                                     Species: Ceratocystis paradoxa

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshWidespreadRamhan et al., 1989
British Indian Ocean TerritoryWidespreadCMI, 1987
Brunei DarussalamPresentCMI, 1987
ChinaWidespreadCMI, 1987
-FujianPresentChen and Yang, 2002
-HainanPresentYu et al., 2012; Tang et al., 2014; Yu et al., 2016
-HunanPresentXu and Huang, 2001
-JiangsuPresentCMI, 1987
Cocos IslandsPresentCMI, 1987
IndiaWidespreadCMI, 1987
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentCMI, 1987
-AssamWidespreadChaudhari, 1948; CMI, 1987
-GoaWidespreadRao et al., 1992
-Indian PunjabPresentCMI, 1987
-KarnatakaWidespreadCMI, 1987; Sastry et al., 1989
-KeralaWidespreadCMI, 1987; Rao et al., 1992
-LakshadweepPresentCMI, 1987
-MaharashtraWidespreadCMI, 1987
-OdishaPresentMishra et al., 1989
-Tamil NaduWidespreadCMI, 1987; Shah et al., 1990
-Uttar PradeshWidespreadTewari et al., 1988
IndonesiaPresentCMI, 1987
-JavaPresentCMI, 1987
-SumatraPresentCMI, 1987
IranPresentCMI, 1987
IraqPresentCMI, 1987
JapanPresentCMI, 1987
KuwaitWidespreadMubarak et al., 1994
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-SabahPresentCMI, 1987
-SarawakPresentCMI, 1987
MyanmarPresentCMI, 1987
PakistanPresentCMI, 1987
PhilippinesPresentCMI, 1987
QatarPresentAbbas and Abdulla, 2003
Saudi ArabiaWidespreadAl Rokibah et al., 1998
Sri LankaPresentCMI, 1987
TaiwanPresentCMI, 1987; Tzeng et al., 2010
ThailandPresentCMI, 1987
VietnamPresentCMI, 1987

Africa

AlgeriaPresentCMI, 1987
AngolaPresentCMI, 1987
Burkina FasoPresentCMI, 1987
CameroonPresentCMI, 1987
CongoPresentCMI, 1987
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentCMI, 1987
Côte d'IvoirePresentCMI, 1987
EgyptPresentCMI, 1987
EthiopiaPresentCMI, 1987
GhanaPresentCMI, 1987
GuineaPresentCMI, 1987
KenyaPresentCMI, 1987
LibyaPresentGariani et al., 1994
MadagascarPresentCMI, 1987
MalawiPresentCMI, 1987
MauritaniaPresentCMI, 1987
MauritiusPresentCMI, 1987
MoroccoPresentCMI, 1987
MozambiquePresentCMI, 1987
NigeriaPresentCMI, 1987
RéunionPresentCMI, 1987
Sao Tome and PrincipePresentVovlas et al., 1994
SenegalPresentCMI, 1987
Sierra LeonePresentCMI, 1987
SomaliaPresentCMI, 1987
South AfricaPresentCMI, 1987; Nkuekam et al., 2013
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentHernandez-Hernandez et al., 1988; Hernandez-Hernandez and Sala Mayato, 1990
SwazilandPresentCMI, 1987
TanzaniaPresentCMI, 1987
TogoPresentCMI, 1987
TunisiaPresentCMI, 1987
UgandaPresentCMI, 1987
ZimbabwePresentCMI, 1987

North America

MexicoPresentCMI, 1987
Saint Pierre and MiquelonPresentCMI, 1987
USAPresentCMI, 1987
-CaliforniaWidespreadStreets, 1933
-FloridaWidespreadRaid, 1990
-HawaiiPresentCMI, 1987

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentCMI, 1987
BarbadosPresentCMI, 1987
BelizePresentCMI, 1987
Cayman IslandsPresentCMI, 1987
Costa RicaPresentCMI, 1987
CubaPresentCMI, 1987
CuraçaoPresentCMI, 1987
DominicaPresentCMI, 1987
Dominican RepublicPresentCMI, 1987
El SalvadorPresentCMI, 1987
GuadeloupePresentCMI, 1987
GuatemalaPresentCMI, 1987
HaitiPresentCMI, 1987
HondurasPresentCMI, 1987
JamaicaPresentCMI, 1987
MartiniquePresentCMI, 1987
NicaraguaPresentCMI, 1987
PanamaPresentCMI, 1987
Puerto RicoPresentCMI, 1987
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentCMI, 1987
Saint LuciaPresentCMI, 1987
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentCMI, 1987
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCMI, 1987

South America

ArgentinaPresentCMI, 1987
BrazilPresentCMI, 1987
-PiauiPresentViana and Silva, 2001
ColombiaPresentCMI, 1987
EcuadorPresentCMI, 1987
French GuianaPresentHubert et al., 2014
GuyanaPresentCMI, 1987
ParaguayPresentCMI, 1987
PeruPresentCMI, 1987
SurinamePresentCMI, 1987
UruguayPresentCMI, 1987; Gepp et al., 2013
VenezuelaPresentCMI, 1987

Europe

FrancePresentCMI, 1987
ItalyPresentCMI, 1987
-SicilyPresentPolizzi et al., 2007
PolandPresentKowalska, 2003
PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-MadeiraPresentCMI, 1987
SpainPresentPresent based on regional distribution.

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCMI, 1987; Croft and Smith, 1996
-New South WalesPresentCMI, 1987
-QueenslandPresentCMI, 1987
FijiPresentCMI, 1987
French PolynesiaPresentCMI, 1987
New CaledoniaPresentCMI, 1987
Papua New GuineaPresentCMI, 1987
Solomon IslandsPresentCMI, 1987
VanuatuPresentCMI, 1987

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / premature drop
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / rot
Stems / dieback
Stems / internal discoloration
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / unusual odour

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Wood hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants

References

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Abbas EH; Abdulla AS, 2003. First report of neck bending disease on date palm in Qatar. Plant Pathology, 52(6):790.

Agnihotri VP, 1990. Pineapple Disease. In: Diseases of Sugarcane and sugarbeet, 138-149. Mohan Primalni for Oxford and IBH Publishing Co., Pvt Ltd., 66, Janpath, New Delhi, India.

Alexopoulos; Mims CW, 1979. Introductory Mycology. Wiley Far Eastern Limited, New Delhi.

Al-Rokibah AA; Abdalla MY; El-Fakharani YM, 1998. Effect of water salinity on Thielaviopsis paradoxa and growth of date palm seedlings. Journal of King Saud University, Agricultural Sciences, 10(1):55-63; 12 ref.

Anon, 1940. Burma Department of Agriculture and Forests, Agriculture Branch Notification Nos. 29 of 1937, 376 of 1939 and 45 of 1940.

Anon, 1947. Water blister of pineapple. Agriculture Journal LXV, 280.

Anon, 1964. Reports of Entomology and Pathology. Disease investigation. Report Bulletin of Sugarcane Experiment Stations, Qudn, 63:50-76.

Anon, 1969. Plant Protection Disease - Report Hawaiian Sugarcane Agriculture Experimental Station, 67-72.

Anon, 1988. Annual Reports for 1986. Kasargod, India: Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI).

Anon, 1996. Annual Report of Central Plantation Crops Research Institute (CPCRI), Kasargod, India.

Bakra J, 1930. Wastage in Imported Fruit. Its nature, extent and prevention. Department of Science and Industry, Research Food Investment Board Special Report 38.

Barthelet J; Vinot M, 1944. Notes on the disease of plants grown in the South of France. Annual Epitology NS X, Faxc. Unique, 11-23.

Beccari F; Gerini V, 1965. Notes on the action of a cupro-organic fungicide on stem end rot of Banana caused by C. paradoxa. Rev Agric Subtrap. trop., 59:494-514.

Bell AF, 1936. Pineapple disease. A cause of poor germination in cane. Cane Grower Quarterly Bulletin, 4:46-48.

Benny GL; Kimbrough JW, 1980. A synopsis of the orders and families of Plectomycetes with keys to genera. Mycotaxon, 12(1):1-91

Berg AJJ, 1926. The effect of a hotwater treatment on the germination of cane cuttings. Arch Voor Suikerinad Nederl Indie, 3:88-89.

Bhuvaneswari V; Ramana KTV; Bhagavan BVK; Lakshmi RN, 2010. Thieloviopsis state of Ceratocystis paradoxa - a new pathogen causing tuber rot of palmyrah. Indian Phytopathology, 63(3):359. http://www.ipsdis.org

Bratley CO; Mason AS, 1939. Control of black rot of pineapple in transit. Circular of the US Department of Agriculture, 511.

Bretz TW, 1951. A preliminary report on the perithecial stage of Chalara quercina Henry. USDA Plant Disease Report, 35:298-299.

Bretz TW, 1952. The ascigerous stage of the oak wilt fungus. Phytopathology, 42:435-437.

Byther RS; Moore PH, 1974. Inhibition of sugarcane rooting by C. paradoxa. Canadian Journal of Botany, 52:761-766.

Camargo M; Gimenes-Fernandes N, 1997. Occurrence of fruit basal rot in common coconut in the high plain of Sao Paulo. Summa Phytopathologica, 23(2):164-166; 13 ref.

Chabrolin C, 1932. A contribution to the study of fruit tree disease in Tuni. Ann du service bot et agron de Tunie, 177-200.

Chang VCS; Jensen L, 1974. Transmission of the pineapple disease organism of sugarcane by Nitidulid beetles in Hawaii. Journal of Economic Entomology, 67(2):190-192.

Chaudhari SD, 1948. Appendix II, Annual report of the economic botanist. Assam for the year 1945-46. Report of Department of Agriculture, Assam, 1945-46, 85-170.

Chen FuRu; Yang XiuJuan, 2002. Investigation and identification of fungal disease of Eriobotrya japonica in Fujian, China. Fujian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 17(3):151-154.

Chi Chien Chen, 1949. A preliminary report on the study of pineapple disease of sugarcane in Taiwan. Journal Sugarcane Research, 3:71-102.

CMI, 1987. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases No. 142., Edition 5. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Costa DM de; Subasinghe SSNS; de Costa DM, 1998. Antagonistic bacteria associated with the fruit skin of banana in controlling its post-harvest diseases. Tropical Science, 38:206-212.

Croft BJ; Hogarth DM, 1998. Improving the germination of sugarcane and the control of pineapple disease. Proceedings of the 20th conference of the Australian Society of Sugar Cane Technologists held at Ballina, NSW, Australia, 28th April to 1st May 1998. Brisbane; Australia: PK Editorial Services, 300-306.

Croft BJ; Smith GR, 1996. Major diseases affecting sugarcane production in Australia and recent experiences with sugarcane diseases in quarantine. In: Croft BJ, Piggin CM, Wallis ES, Hogarth DM, eds. Sugarcane germplasm conservation and exchange: report of an international workshop held in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, 28-30 June 1995. Canberra; Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR). ACIAR Proceedings No. 67, 55-58.

Dade, 1928. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 13:184-194.

Damayanti M; Sharma GJ; Kundi SC, 1990. Effect of gamma radiation on pineapple fruit rotting fungus. C. paradoxa at different temperature. Microbios Letters, Manipur University, Imphal, India, 45:179-180.

Damayanti M; Susheela K; Sharma GJ, 1996. Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa. Cytobios, 86(346):155-165; 8 ref.

Desrosires R, 1955. Thielaviopsis pod rot of Cocoin Ecuador. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 3:154-155.

Deutschmann F, 1964. Contribution to understanding of Kaincope, disease of coconut palm in Togo. Zeitschrift Planzen Krankeit, 70:23-33.

Dickson BT, 1929. Division of economic botany: some present activities. Journal of Australia Council of Science and Industrial Research, 94-97.

Dickson BT; Agell HR; Simmonds JH, 1931. The control of soft rot (water blister) of pineapple caused by T. paradoxa. Journal of Australia Council Science and Industrial Research, 152-161.

El Sheikh Aly MM; Felaifel MSA; Fouad NA; Badawy HMA, 1998. Comparative effectiveness of some fungicides and salts applied preharvest or postharvest for controlling pear fruit rots. Proceedings, Seventh conference of agricultural development research, Cairo, Egypt, 15-17 December 1998. Volume 1. Annals of Agricultural Science, Cairo, 1998, Special Issue, Volume 1, 135-149.

Eziashi EI; Odigie EE; Airede CE, 2010. Evaluation of crude leaf extracts and benlate solution treatments on oil palm sprouted seeds for the control of Ceratocystis paradoxa causing black seed rot. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 4(13):1285-1288. http://www.academicjournals.org/JMPR/PDF/pdf2010/4July/Eziashi%20et%20al.pdf

Eziashi EI; Uma NU; Adekunle AA; Omamor IB, 2006. Biological control of Ceratocystis paradoxa causing black seed rot in oil palm sprouted seeds by Trichoderma species. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 9(10):1987-1990. http://www.ansinet.org/pjbs

Fawcett GL, 1931. La putrefacion negra de la conna de Azucar. Rev Indust Y Agritucaman, 21:51-59.

Flori Bai A, 1985. Studies on pineapple disease of sugarcane. M.Phil. Thesis. Coimbatore, India: Bharathiar University.

Frossard P, 1978. Control of pineapple rot caused by Thielaviopsis paradoxa. Importance of storage temperature and fungicidal treatment. Fruits, 33(2):91-99

Gariani NK; Nuesery SM; Edongali EA, 1994. Disease and pest outbreaks. Libya. Black scorch disease of date palms (Phoenix dactylifera) in Libya. Arab and Near East Plant Protection Newsletter, No. 19:40

Geeta Sumbali; Kusum Badyal, 1990. Some new market diseases of pome fruits in India. National Academy Science Letters, 13(9):331-332; 3 ref.

Gepp V; Hernández L; Alaniz S; Zaccari F, 2013. First report of Thielaviopsis paradoxa causing palm fruit rot of Butia capitata in Uruguay. New Disease Reports, 27:12. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=027012

Hansford CG, 1941. Contributions towards the fungus flora of Uganda III. Some Uganda Ascomycetes. Proc Linn Soc Land, 41:4-52.

Heller WE, 2012. A new method of quantitative detection of Chalara elegans and C. thielavioides in soils using carrot discs. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 119(5/6):169-173. http://www.jpdp-online.com

Hema Singh; Patil AS, 1999. Biochemical changes in sugarcane due to infection by Ceratocystis paradoxa. Sugar Cane, No. November:9-13; 13 ref.

Hernandez Hernandez J; Gallo Llobet L; Acosta J; Gonzalez A, 1988. Thielaviopsis paradoxa (De Seyn.) Hoehn. on pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) on the island of Hierro. Comunicaciones del III Congreso Nacional de Fitopatologia. Puerto de la Cruz (Tenerife-Islas Canarias) 29 Oct.-2 Nov., 1984 [edited by Llobet, L.G.] La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Centro de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agrarias, 51-56

Hernandez Hernandez JM; Sala Mayato L, 1990. Chemical control of Thielaviopsis black rot of pineapple in the Canary Islands. Acta Horticulturae, No. 269:509-513

Hernandez JM; Regalado VM; Caballero Ruano M, 1999. Palm diseases in "the Glasshouse" of Madrid's Atocha Train Station. Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Ornamental Palms and other Monocots from the Tropics, Tenerife, Spain, 3-6 February 1997. Acta Horticulturae, 1999, No. 486, 195-198.

Hoette S, 1935. Certain aspects of investigations on black end disease of banana in Australia. Pamphlet of Australia Council of Science and Industrial Research, 58:22.

Holla BS; Poojary KN; Balakrishna Kalluraya; Gowda PV, 1996. Synthesis, characterisation and antifungal activity of some N-bridged heterocycles derived from 3-(3-bromo-4-methoxyphenyl)-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole. Farmaco, Edizione Scientifica, 51(12):793-799; 19 ref.

Hubert J; Fourrier C; Laplace D; Ioos R, 2014. First report of pineapple black rot caused by Ceratocystis paradoxa on Ananas comosus in French Guiana. Plant Disease, 98(11):1584-1585. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Hughes CG; Steindl DRL; Egan BT, 1965. Division of Pathology. Report Bureau Sugar Experiment Station, Queensland, 65:63-74.

Kalaimani T; Natarajan S; Parameswaran P, 1996. Effect of some chemicals, fertilizers and FYM on the control of sugarcane sett rot caused by Ceratocystis paradoxa. Plant Disease Research, 11(2):153-155; 3 ref.

Kiryu T, 1939. Studies on the physiological characters of Ceratostomell paradoxa. Report Government Sugar Experiment Station, Taiwan, 6:21-37.

Koltz LJ; Fawcett HS, 1932. Black scorch of the Date palm caused by Thielaviopsis paradoxa. Journal of Agricultural Research, 155-166.

Kowalska B, 2003. Black rot on carrots. (Czernienie korzeni marchwi.) Ochrona Roslin, 47(9):20-21.

Liu LJ; Manilor AC; Mignucci J, 1971. The pineapple disease of sugarcane in Puerto Rico. Proceedings of International Society of Sugarcane Technology, 14th Congress, 1052-1058.

Mabbett T, 1996. Invaders of sugar cane. Far Eastern Agriculture, January, February:12-14.

Mallamaire A, 1936. The parasites and disease of banana in French Guinea. Review Bot Appl XVI 173:49-56.

Manzo SK, 1975. Pineapple disease on standing sugarcane in Nigeria. Sugarcane Pathologists' Newsletter, No. 13/14:3-4

Martínez B; Cachón AK; Ramos O, 1997. Effect of temperature and culture medium on the growth of Colletotrichum falcatum (Went); Fusarium moniliforme (Sheldon) and Thielaviopsis paradoxa (De Seynes). Revista de Protección Vegetal, 12(2):99-102; 8 ref.

Martinez B; Ganzales R; Balance C, 1998. Antagonism of Trichoderma spp. strains on some sugarcane pathogens. Fitopatologia 33:207-211.

Mbenoun M; Beer ZWde; Wingfield MJ; Wingfield BD; Roux J, 2014. Reconsidering species boundaries in the Ceratocystis paradoxa complex, including a new species from oil palm and cacao in Cameroon. Mycologia, 106(4):757-784. http://www.mycologia.org/content/106/4/757.abstract

McMartin A, 1937. Pathological conditions affecting growth of sugarcane plant cutting from Natal. South Africa Sugar Journal, 21:353-359.

Mishra D; Singh N; Hota AK; Sahoo SC, 1989. A survey of important diseases of coconut palm in Orissa. Orissa Journal of Horticulture, 17(1-2):10-14; 6 ref.

Montealegre JR; Luchsinger LE, 1990. Postharvest rots of pineapple fruits marketed in Chile. Fitopatología, 25(2):51-53; 5 ref.

Morgan-Jones G, 1967. Ceratocystis paradoxa. Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 143. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Mubarak HF; Riaz M; As-Saeed I; Hameed JA, 1994. Physiological studies and chemical control of black scorch disease of date palm caused by Thielaviopsis (Ceratocystis) paradoxa in Kuwait. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 6(1):7-12

Muller E; von Arx JA, 1973. Pyrenomyceters: Meliolaes, Coronopharales, Spphaeriales, pp 87-137. In the fungi Vol. IVA; Ainsworth GG, Sparrow FK, Sussman AS (eds). Academic Press, New York.

Nambiar KKN; Yetendra Joshi; Venugopal MN; Mohn RC, 1986. Reproduction of symptoms by inoculatin with T. paradoxa. Journal of Plantation Crops, 14:132-133.

Natarajan S, 1997. Control of sett rot disease of sugarcane. Indian Sugar, 46(11):875-877; 4 ref.

Nath P; Saikia AK; Singh SN, 1999. On the occurrence of sugarcane diseases in Assam. Indian Phytopathology, 52(4):420; 2 ref.

Natrajan S; Subba Raja KT, 1976. Infection of C. paradoxa Moreu on the standing canes of some sugarcane plants. Sugarcane Pathology Newsletter, 17:25-78.

Nkuekam GK; Wingfield MJ; Roux J, 2013. Ceratocystis species, including two new taxa, from Eucalyptus trees in South Africa. Australasian Plant Pathology, 42(3):283-311. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13313-012-0192-9

Omanor IB, 1985. Black rot of sprouted seeds of the oil palm, Elaeis guineenis. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 84:159-161.

Orian G, 1929. Les maladies de la Canne a Maurice. Review Agriculture del'lle Maurice, 1929. 206-210.

Padmanabhan D; Jaleel Ahmed N, 1970. Studies on the infection of C. paradoxa (de Saynes) Moreau on the standing canes of sugarcane varieties. Indian Sugar, 20:605-612.

Patil AS; Jadhav SB, 1995. Final project report on studies on Pokkah boeng and pineapple diseases of sugarcane in Maharashtra with their economic losses in yield and quality of sugarcane. Manjari, Pune, India: Vasantdada Sugar Institute.

Ploetz R; Galan Sauco V, 1998. Banana diseases in the subtropics: a review of their importance, distribution and management. Proceedings of the first international symposium on banana in the subtropics, Puerto de la Cruz, Tenerife, Spain, 10 14 November 1997. Acta Horticulturae, No. 490, 263-276.

Polizzi G; Castello I; Aiello D; Vitale A, 2007. First report of stem bleeding and trunk rot of Kentia palm caused by Thielaviopsis paradoxa in Italy. Plant Disease, 91(8):1057. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Radhakrishnan TC, 1990. Control of stem bleeding disease of coconut. Indian Coconut Journal (Cochin), 20(9):13-14

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