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Datasheet

Lemna aequinoctialis
(lesser duckweed)

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Datasheet

Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 18 June 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Lemna aequinoctialis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lesser duckweed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Lemna aequinoctialis is a tiny free-floating aquatic plant. It is listed as an invasive species in New Caledonia and Cuba. It can become abundant in freshwater lakes, pools, canals and slow flowing rivers and h...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); habit, growing in 10-40 mm of peaty water, in a back swamp adjacent Te Whanga. Chatham Islands, Rekohu (Chatham Island), Airport Road, Te Whanga, New Zealand. May 2019.
TitleHabit
CaptionLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); habit, growing in 10-40 mm of peaty water, in a back swamp adjacent Te Whanga. Chatham Islands, Rekohu (Chatham Island), Airport Road, Te Whanga, New Zealand. May 2019.
Copyright©Peter de Lange/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); habit, growing in 10-40 mm of peaty water, in a back swamp adjacent Te Whanga. Chatham Islands, Rekohu (Chatham Island), Airport Road, Te Whanga, New Zealand. May 2019.
HabitLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); habit, growing in 10-40 mm of peaty water, in a back swamp adjacent Te Whanga. Chatham Islands, Rekohu (Chatham Island), Airport Road, Te Whanga, New Zealand. May 2019.©Peter de Lange/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); habit, growing in 10-40 mm of peaty water, in a back swamp adjacent Te Whanga. Chatham Islands, Rekohu (Chatham Island), Airport Road, Te Whanga, New Zealand. May 2019.
TitleHabit
CaptionLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); habit, growing in 10-40 mm of peaty water, in a back swamp adjacent Te Whanga. Chatham Islands, Rekohu (Chatham Island), Airport Road, Te Whanga, New Zealand. May 2019.
Copyright©Peter de Lange/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); habit, growing in 10-40 mm of peaty water, in a back swamp adjacent Te Whanga. Chatham Islands, Rekohu (Chatham Island), Airport Road, Te Whanga, New Zealand. May 2019.
HabitLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); habit, growing in 10-40 mm of peaty water, in a back swamp adjacent Te Whanga. Chatham Islands, Rekohu (Chatham Island), Airport Road, Te Whanga, New Zealand. May 2019.©Peter de Lange/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); habit.
TitleHabit
CaptionLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); habit.
Copyright©Kevin Thiele/via iNaturalist - CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); habit.
HabitLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); habit.©Kevin Thiele/via iNaturalist - CC BY-NC-SA 4.0
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); habit. Much magnified, note mm scale.
TitleHabit
CaptionLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); habit. Much magnified, note mm scale.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by Peter de Lange/via iNaturalist - CC0 1.0
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); habit. Much magnified, note mm scale.
HabitLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); habit. Much magnified, note mm scale.Public Domain - Released by Peter de Lange/via iNaturalist - CC0 1.0
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); close view of leaflets. Growing in 10-40 mm of peaty water, in a back swamp adjacent Te Whanga. Chatham Islands, Rekohu (Chatham Island), Airport Road, Te Whanga, New Zealand. May 2019.
TitleHabit
CaptionLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); close view of leaflets. Growing in 10-40 mm of peaty water, in a back swamp adjacent Te Whanga. Chatham Islands, Rekohu (Chatham Island), Airport Road, Te Whanga, New Zealand. May 2019.
Copyright©Peter de Lange/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); close view of leaflets. Growing in 10-40 mm of peaty water, in a back swamp adjacent Te Whanga. Chatham Islands, Rekohu (Chatham Island), Airport Road, Te Whanga, New Zealand. May 2019.
HabitLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); close view of leaflets. Growing in 10-40 mm of peaty water, in a back swamp adjacent Te Whanga. Chatham Islands, Rekohu (Chatham Island), Airport Road, Te Whanga, New Zealand. May 2019.©Peter de Lange/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); close view of leaflets. Growing in 10-40 mm of peaty water, in a back swamp adjacent Te Whanga. Chatham Islands, Rekohu (Chatham Island), Airport Road, Te Whanga, New Zealand. May 2019.
TitleHabit
CaptionLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); close view of leaflets. Growing in 10-40 mm of peaty water, in a back swamp adjacent Te Whanga. Chatham Islands, Rekohu (Chatham Island), Airport Road, Te Whanga, New Zealand. May 2019.
Copyright©Peter de Lange/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); close view of leaflets. Growing in 10-40 mm of peaty water, in a back swamp adjacent Te Whanga. Chatham Islands, Rekohu (Chatham Island), Airport Road, Te Whanga, New Zealand. May 2019.
HabitLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); close view of leaflets. Growing in 10-40 mm of peaty water, in a back swamp adjacent Te Whanga. Chatham Islands, Rekohu (Chatham Island), Airport Road, Te Whanga, New Zealand. May 2019.©Peter de Lange/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); habit, in a roadside culvert. Kinmen, Fujian, Taiwan. March 2020.
TitleHabit
CaptionLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); habit, in a roadside culvert. Kinmen, Fujian, Taiwan. March 2020.
Copyright©Cheng-Tao Lin/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0
Lemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); habit, in a roadside culvert. Kinmen, Fujian, Taiwan. March 2020.
HabitLemna aequinoctialis (lesser duckweed); habit, in a roadside culvert. Kinmen, Fujian, Taiwan. March 2020.©Cheng-Tao Lin/via iNaturalist - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Lemna aequinoctialis Welw.

Preferred Common Name

  • lesser duckweed

Other Scientific Names

  • Lemna angolensis Welw. ex Hegelm.
  • Lemna aoukikusa T.Beppu & Murata
  • Lemna blatteri McCann
  • Lemna eleanorae McCann
  • Lemna minima Blatt. & Hallb.
  • Lemna paucicostata Hegelm.
  • Lemna trinervis (Austin) Small

International Common Names

  • English: duckweed
  • French: lentille d’eau; vert de gris

Local Common Names

  • Australia: common duckweed; tropical duckweed
  • China: xi mai fu ping
  • Cuba: lenteja de agua
  • France: lentille d’eau
  • Italy: lente d’acqua delle risaie
  • Puerto Rico: lentejilla de agua; yerba de pato
  • USA: tropical duckweed

Summary of Invasiveness

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Lemna aequinoctialis is a tiny free-floating aquatic plant. It is listed as an invasive species in New Caledonia and Cuba. It can become abundant in freshwater lakes, pools, canals and slow flowing rivers and has been reported as a transformer species in Cuba.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Arales
  •                         Family: Araceae
  •                             Genus: Lemna
  •                                 Species: Lemna aequinoctialis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The duckweeds are a group of 37 species of aquatic herbs, included in five genera: Spirodela, Lemna, Landoltia, Wolffiela and Wolffia (Appenroth et al., 2013; Sree et al., 2016). These species, the smallest known flowering plants, were placed in the family Lemnaceae, until molecular studies included them in the Araceae (Cabrera et al., 2008; Cusimano et al., 2011). Some researchers still believe that the duckweeds should be moved back into the Lemnaceae (Bog et al., 2010; Appenroth et al., 2013; Sree et al., 2016).

Landolt (1980) recognized 13 species in Lemna. The Plant List (2013) has 14 accepted species, but it includes L. valdesiana as a valid species. L. valdesiana is a synonym of L. valdiviana (Sree et al., 2016). All species of Lemna are free-floating plants, with the exception of L. trisulca, which grows submerged (Landolt, 1980).

Lemna aequinoctialis was placed as a synonym of L. perpusilla by Daubs (1965). Kandeler and Huegel (1974) and Landolt (1980) recognized both as distinct species, which has been confirmed by allozyme studies and molecular data (Les et al., 1997Crawford et al., 2001; Les et al., 2002; Bog et al., 2010; Appenroth et al., 2013). To this day, the change has not been consistently applied in the literature, leading to confusion about the distribution of both species.

Lemna comes from a Greek word meaning aquatic plant and the epithet aequinoctialis refers to the equinox, probably for the tropical distribution (Landolt, 1992; Encyclopedia of Life, 2017).

Description

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The following description is adapted from Flora of North America North of Mexico (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2017): Roots to 3 cm; tip usually sharp pointed; sheath winged at base (wing 1-2.5 times as long as wide). Stipes small, white, often decaying. Fronds floating, 1 or 2-few, coherent in groups, ovate-lanceolate, flat, 1-6 mm, 1-3 times as long as wide, margins entire; veins 3, greatest distance between lateral veins near or proximal to middle; 1 often very distinct papilla near apex on upper surface and 1 above node; anthocyanin absent, no reddish colour; largest air spaces much shorter than 0.3 mm; distinct turions absent. Flowers: ovaries 1-ovulate, utricular scale open on 1 side. Fruits 0.5-0.8 mm, not winged. Seeds with 8-26 distinct ribs, falling out of fruit wall after ripening.

Plant Type

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Aquatic
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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Lemna aequinoctialis is an aquatic herb with a cosmopolitan tropical and subtropical distribution (Landolt, 1980). It can be found in temperate areas, but mostly in cultivation, as it will not persist or produce flowers and fruits at low temperatures (Crawford et al., 2001; Flora of North America, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017). It has been reported in Asia, Africa, North America, Central America, the Caribbean, South America, Europe and Oceania (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Beentje and Lansdown, 2018; Xu et al., 2015; DAISIE, 2017; PIER, 2017; USDA-ARS, 2017).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 18 Jun 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
AngolaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
BeninPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
BotswanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
Burkina FasoPresentNativeBeentje and Lansdown (2018)
BurundiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
Cabo VerdePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
CameroonPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
Central African RepublicPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
ChadPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
ComorosPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
Congo, Republic of thePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
Côte d'IvoirePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EgyptPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EswatiniPresentNativeBeentje and Lansdown (2018)
EthiopiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
GabonPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
GambiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
GhanaPresentNativeBeentje and Lansdown (2018)
GuineaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
Guinea-BissauPresentNativeBeentje and Lansdown (2018)
KenyaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
LesothoPresentNativeBeentje and Lansdown (2018)
LiberiaPresentNativeBeentje and Lansdown (2018)
MadagascarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
MalawiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
MaliPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
MauritaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
MauritiusPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
MozambiquePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
NamibiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
NigerPresentNativeBeentje and Lansdown (2018)
NigeriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
RéunionPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
RwandaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
São Tomé and PríncipePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
SenegalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
SeychellesPresentNativeBeentje and Lansdown (2018)
Sierra LeonePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
South AfricaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)Cape Province, ZwaZulu-Natal, Free State, Transvaal
SudanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
TanzaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
TogoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
UgandaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
ZambiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
ZimbabwePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
IndonesiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-BorneoPresentNativeBeentje and Lansdown (2018)
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentNativeBeentje and Lansdown (2018)
-Maluku IslandsPresentNativeBeentje and Lansdown (2018)
CambodiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
ChinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-AnhuiPresentNativeBeentje and Lansdown (2018)
-BeijingPresentNativeXu YaLiang et al. (2015)
-ChongqingPresentNativeXu YaLiang et al. (2015)
-FujianPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-GuangdongPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-GuangxiPresentNativeXu YaLiang et al. (2015)
-GuizhouPresentNativeXu YaLiang et al. (2015)
-HainanPresentNativeXu YaLiang et al. (2015)
-HebeiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-HenanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-HubeiPresentNativeBeentje and Lansdown (2018)
-HunanPresentNativeXu YaLiang et al. (2015)
-JiangsuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-JiangxiPresentNativeBeentje and Lansdown (2018)
-LiaoningPresentNativeBeentje and Lansdown (2018)
-QinghaiPresentNativeBeentje and Lansdown (2018)
-ShaanxiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-ShandongPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-ShanghaiPresentNativeXu YaLiang et al. (2015)
-ShanxiPresentNativeXu YaLiang et al. (2015)
-SichuanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-TianjinPresentNativeXu YaLiang et al. (2015)
-YunnanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-ZhejiangPresentNativeBeentje and Lansdown (2018)
Hong KongPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
IndiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
JapanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-HokkaidoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-HonshuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-KyushuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-ShikokuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
JordanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
LebanonPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
MalaysiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
MyanmarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
NepalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
PakistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
PhilippinesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
SingaporePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
South KoreaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
Sri LankaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
TaiwanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
ThailandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
VietnamPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)

Europe

FrancePresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroducedDAISIE (2017); USDA-ARS (2017)Cultivated in Corsica
GermanyPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedHussner et al. (2010); USDA-ARS (2017)Rare,North Rhine-Westphalia
HungaryPresentIntroduced2005Lukács et al. (2016); Pinke et al. (2014)
ItalyPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017); Landolt (1997)
RussiaPresentNativeBeentje and Lansdown (2018); Martirosyan et al. (2008)Khabarovsk
SpainPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-Canary IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
SwedenPresentIntroducedRyman and Anderberg (1999)Cultivated in ponds, plant nurseries and greenhouses

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)Antigua
ArubaPresentNativeBeentje and Lansdown (2018)
BarbadosPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
BelizePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
BermudaPresentNativeBeentje and Lansdown (2018)
Bonaire, Saint Eustatius and Saba
-BonairePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
British Virgin IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)Tortola, Virgin Gorda
Cayman IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
Costa RicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto et al. (2012)As a transformer species
CuraçaoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
El SalvadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
GrenadaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
GuadeloupePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
GuatemalaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
HaitiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
HondurasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
JamaicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
MartiniquePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)Baja Norte, Baja Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Coahuila, Colima, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacan, Morelos, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Queretaro, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatan
NicaraguaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
PanamaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
Puerto RicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentNativeAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)St. John, St. Croix
United StatesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-AlabamaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-ArizonaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-ArkansasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-CaliforniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-FloridaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-GeorgiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-HawaiiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-IllinoisPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-IndianaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-IowaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-KansasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-KentuckyPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-LouisianaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-MississippiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-MissouriPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-NebraskaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-New MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-North CarolinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-OklahomaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-South CarolinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-TennesseePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-TexasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-VirginiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-WisconsinPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-New South WalesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-Northern TerritoryPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-QueenslandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-Western AustraliaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
Christmas IslandPresentNativeBeentje and Lansdown (2018)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentNativePIER (2017)
-ChuukPresentNativePIER (2017)
-YapPresentNativePIER (2017)
FijiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
GuamPresentNativePIER (2017)
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveBeauvais et al. (2006); USDA-ARS (2017)Abundant in freshwater lakes, pools, canals and slow flowing rivers. Eradication is recommended
Northern Mariana IslandsPresentNativePIER (2017)
Papua New GuineaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
SamoaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
TongaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)Cordoba, Chaco, Chubut, Corrientes, Entre Rios, Formosa, Jujuy, Mendoza, La Rioja, Salta, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tucuman
BoliviaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)Santa Cruz
BrazilPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-AlagoasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-AmazonasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-BahiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-CearaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-Espirito SantoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-MaranhaoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-Mato GrossoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-Minas GeraisPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-ParaibaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-PernambucoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-Rio Grande do NortePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
-Sao PauloPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
ColombiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
EcuadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
French GuianaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
GuyanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
ParaguayPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
PeruPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
SurinamePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)
VenezuelaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2017)

History of Introduction and Spread

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Lemna aequinoctialis has been introduced to temperate areas in Europe, central North America, northern China and Japan through rice cultivation, as fish food and for ornamental purposes (Bengtsson et al., 1999; Ryman and Anderberg, 1999). It spreads naturally via slow flowing water into interconnected waterways and floods, or moved unintentionally by aquatic birds and fish (Hicks, 1937). It has been reported in Germany since the 1980s and in Hungary since 2005 (Hussner et al., 2010; Lukács et al., 2016).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Germany South America 1980s No No Hussner et al. (2010) Rare
Hungary 2005 No No Lukács et al. (2016)

Risk of Introduction

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Lemna aequinoctialis is an aquatic weed with a medium risk of introduction. The species is already distributed worldwide in most tropical and subtropical areas (Landolt, 1980). Environmental requirements limit its spread into temperate areas (Crawford et al., 2001), but climate change could potentially expand the range of distribution. The species has a high reproductive capability that is advantageous in eutrophic lentic water (Appenroth et al., 2013).

Habitat

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Lemna aequinoctialis can be found in mesotrophic to eutrophic lentic waters of lakes, pools, ponds, rice fields and ditches and warm-temperate to tropical climates from sea level to 2800 m (Landolt, 1992Beentje and Lansdown, 2018; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Freshwater
Irrigation channels Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Irrigation channels Present, no further details Natural
Lakes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lakes Present, no further details Natural
Reservoirs Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Reservoirs Present, no further details Natural
Rivers / streams Present, no further details Natural
Ponds Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Ponds Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosomes numbers reported for L. aequinoctialis are 2n=40, 42, 50, 60, 80, 84 (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2017). DNA barcode information for the species is available at the Barcode of Life Data Systems (The Barcode of Life Data Systems, 2017), and at the GenBank (Xu et al., 2015).

Reproductive Biology

Lemna aequinoctialis reproduces vegetatively by plant buds that eventually separate from the parent plant (Landolt, 1980; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2017). Vegetative reproduction is fast and the species can double its biomass in two days or less (Appenroth et al., 2013). Yu et al. (2014) reported a15-fold increase in biomass in 24 days under ideal nutrient concentrations and a 7.5-fold increase in 18 days in sewage water, due to low nutrient levels and lack of sucrose. 

Physiology and Phenology

Lemna aequinoctialis is one of the duckweed species that flowers and fruits frequently (Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2017). It flowers from April to May (Encyclopedia of Life, 2017). High yields of duckweed with a high protein content can be achieved in cultivation (Leng et al., 1995).

Environmental Requirements

Lemna aequinoctialis is shade tolerant (Pinke et al., 2014). The species will not survive frosts, or desiccation for more than half an hour to a few hours (Landolt, 1997; Crawford et al., 2001). It will tolerate temperatures from 6 to 33°C and pH from 3.2 to 9; optimal growth occurs at 20-28°C and pH 6.5-7.5. A minimum water depth of 0.30 m is desirable and levels of 60 mg/l of soluble nitrogen and 1 mg/l of phosphorus are required for normal growth (Gherardi, 2007). It grows abundantly at high phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentrations (Mukhopadhyay and Dewanji, 2005).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
51 -48

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 0
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 6 30

Rainfall Regime

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Winter

Water Tolerances

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ParameterMinimum ValueMaximum ValueTypical ValueStatusLife StageNotes
Total Nitrogen (mg/l) 60 Optimum
Total Phosphorus (mg/l) 1 Optimum
Water pH (pH) 6.5 7.5 Optimum 3.2-9 tolerated
Water temperature (ºC temperature) 20 28 Optimum 6-33°C tolerated

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aix sponsa Herbivore Les, 2020
Aythya valisineria Herbivore Les, 2020
Ctenopharyngodon idella Herbivore not specific
Nymphula Herbivore not specific
Oreochromis niloticus Herbivore not specific
Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae Herbivore not specific
Tilapia rendalli Herbivore not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Lemna aequinoctialis is eaten by various species of ducks (Les, 2020). Duckweeds in general serve as food for many species of herbivorous fish (e.g. Ctenopharyngodon idella, Puntius gonionotus, Oreochromis niloticus, Tilapia rendalli and T. zillii) and by the insects Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae and Nymphula sp. (Iqbal, 1999).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Duckweeds may be introduced to new water areas by slow-moving water along interconnected watercourses and by floods (Hicks, 1937).

Vector Transmission

Lemna species can be distributed by birds, fish and mammals over short distances (Hicks, 1937; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2017).

Accidental Introduction

Duckweeds in general are accidentally transported with fish and aquatic plants released for restocking ponds (Hicks, 1937). L. aequinoctialis has also been dispersed through rice cultivation (Pott, 2002). It is reported in water tanks used for bird farming in Brazil (Pott, 2002).

Intentional Introduction

Lemna aequinoctialis has been intentionally introduced to provide food for waterfowl (Hicks, 1937). It is also used as an aquarium plant (Pott, 2002).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquarium tradeCould be moved unintentionally with aquarium trade. Used as an aquarium plant Yes Yes Pott, 2002
Breeding and propagationCultivated for research and for use in sewage treatment Yes Yes Yu et al., 2014
Crop productionIn rice fields Yes Yes Pinke et al., 2014
FisheriesIntroduced as fish food Yes Yes Hicks, 1937
ForageBy birds and fish Yes Mukhopadhyay and Dewanji, 2005
HitchhikerShort distance by birds and fish Yes Hicks, 1937
Industrial purposesFor waste water treatment Yes Yes Edwards et al., 1992
Intentional releaseIn small ponds for sewage management and for fish food Yes Yes ,
Interconnected waterwaysCould be moved in a slow-moving water flow Yes
Nursery tradeSome Lemna species are available for sale at aquaria and nurseries Yes Yes Pott, 2002
Off-site preservation Live plant collections preserved at various sites Yes Yes Landolt Duckweed Collection, 2017
Ornamental purposesSome Lemna species are used as ornamentals Yes Yes
ResearchResearch model for physiological and environmental studies Yes Yes Khurana et al., 2011

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Aquaculture stockMight be moved unintentionally in aquaculture of freshwater fish Yes Yes Hicks, 1937
Floating vegetation and debrisCould be moved by water into connected waterways Yes
WaterMoved by water into nearby connected waterways Yes
WindCould be blown by wind into nearby areas Yes Mkandawire and Dudel, 2007
Host and vector organismsBirds and fish Yes ,

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

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In India, L. aequinoctialis is one of the species that restricts the proper functioning of ponds, and contributes to eutrophication (Sengupta et al., 2010). L. aequinoctialis is being promoted for use in contaminant removal from polluted water; however, their small size and floating ability allow them to be easily blown off the water surface resulting in the transfer of contaminants to uncontaminated sites (Mkandawire and Dudel, 2007).

Impact: Biodiversity

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In ponds in India, the submerged vegetation is reduced when L. aequinoctialis cover is higher than 40% (Sengupta et al., 2010). Dense aggregations of duckweeds in eutrophic waters can reduce light penetration and pond aeration causing anoxia and fish death (Bengtsson et al., 1999). Generally, invasive aquatic plants can affect microinvertebrate communities (Lukács et al., 2016).

Social Impact

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Invasive aquatic plants can impact human activities such as boating, swimming and hydroelectric power plants (Hussner et al., 2010).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Gregarious
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Monoculture formation
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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Economic Value

Lemna species are being regarded as a potential new crop (Sree et al., 2016) due to possible use in human nutrition, as animal feed and for biofuel and biogas. Under optimal conditions, a duckweed farm can produce 10 to 30 tons of dried duckweed per hectare per year (Leng et al., 1995).

Lemna aequinoctialis has been shown to remove nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metal ions from sewage water (Edwards et al., 1992; Tang et al., 2013; Yu et al., 2014). Its rapid growth, high starch content and high digestibility makes it a good alternative substrate for industrial scale bioethanol production (Yu et al., 2014; Yin et al., 2015).

Social Benefit

Medicinal uses are reported for other species of Lemna (Beentje and Lansdown, 2018). L. aequinoctialis is used as a research model for physiological studies and environmental studies (Khurana et al., 2011;). The species is useful as an indicator of phytotoxic contaminants in irrigation water in urbanized areas (Bengtsson et al., 1999). It is a good food source for humans and livestock due to its high protein content and high digestibility (Leng et al., 1995; Appenroth et al., 2017).

Environmental Services

According to Mukhopadhyay and Dewanji (2005) duckweed removal or disappearance from ponds can lead to cyanobacterial blooms and water quality degradation. Lemna species in general have been used as phytoremediation agents because of their rapid growth, high bioaccumulation, resilience to extreme contaminant concentrations and ability to transform or degrade contaminants (Mkandawire and Dudel, 2007). L. aequinoctialis has shown a capacity for accumulating heavy metals from contaminated waters (Pio et al., 2013).

L. aequinoctialis is also a food source for waterfowl, fish, and invertebrates (Xu et al., 2015). The species supports dense populations of diatoms, green algae, rotifers, invertebrates and bacteria (Mkandawire and Dudel, 2007). It is reported as a good method for keeping water free from mosquito larvae (Chouhan and Sarma, 2013Xu et al., 2015).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage
  • Invertebrate food

Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Wildlife habitat

Fuels

  • Biofuels

General

  • Pet/aquarium trade
  • Research model

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Due to their small size the duckweeds are not easy to identify; the use of a microscope, preservation in alcohol, and clearing and staining are recommended for their identification to species (Landolt, 1992). Lemna species can be distinguished from other duckweeds as they have only one root. L. aequinoctialis is similar to L. perpusilla, as both have roots that are winged at the base. The main differences between the two species are: L. perpusilla has 36 to 60 longitudinal ribs on the seed coat which are not prominent, while L. aequinoctialis has 8 to 26 prominent longitudinal ribs on the seed coat; the seeds in L. aequinoctialis are released from the fruits while in L. perpusilla these remain attached to the fruits and sink to the bottom of the water with dead plant matter (Landolt, 1980; Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2017). These two species also differ in their habitat: L. perpusilla is restricted to temperate areas of central and eastern North America, while L. aequinoctialis occurs mainly in subtropical and tropical areas worldwide (Crawford et al., 2001).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Physical/Mechanical Control

Lemna species can be removed mechanically from invaded waterways (Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, 2004).

Biological Control

Lemna species in general can be controlled by herbivorous fish such as grass carp (Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, 2004).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Appenroth KJ, Borisjuk N, Lam E, 2013. Telling duckweed apart: genotyping technologies for the Lemnaceae. Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology, 19(1), 1-10.

Appenroth, K. J., Sree, K. S., Böhm, V., Hammann, S., Vetter, W., Leiterer, M., Jahreis, G., 2017. Nutritional value of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) as human food. Food Chemistry, 217, 266-273. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.08.116

Ashima Khurana, Khurana, J. P., Babbar, S. B., 2011. Nitric oxide induces flowering in the duckweed Lemna aequinoctialis Welw. (syn. L. paucicostata Hegelm.) under noninductive conditions. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 30(3), 378-385. doi: 10.1007/s00344-011-9199-7

Beentje, HJ, Lansdown, RV, 2018. Lemna aequinoctialis. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018, (e.T164404A120124962) : International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T164404A120124962.en

Bengtsson, B. E., Bongo, J. P., Eklund, B., 1999. Assessment of duckweed Lemna aequinoctialis as a toxicological bioassay for tropical environments in developing countries. Ambio, 28(2), 152-155.

Bog, M., Baumbach, H., Schween, U., Hellwig, F., Landolt, E., Appenroth, K. J., 2010. Genetic structure of the genus Lemna L. (Lemnaceae) as revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism. Planta, 232(3), 609-619. doi: 10.1007/s00425-010-1201-2

Cabrera, L. I., Salazar, G. A., Chase, M. W., Mayo, S. J., Bogner, J., Dávila, P., 2008. Phylogenetic relationships of aroids and duckweeds (Araceae) inferred from coding and noncoding plastid DNA. American Journal of Botany, 95(9), 1153-1165. doi: 10.3732/ajb.0800073

Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, 2004. Information sheet: Lemna species (duckweeds). Crowmarsh Gifford, Oxfordshire, Centre for Ecology & Hydrology.2 pp.

Chouhan, A. P. S., Sarma, A. K., 2013. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. oil using Lemna perpusilla Torrey ash as heterogeneous catalyst. Biomass and Bioenergy, 55, 386-389. doi: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2013.02.009

Crawford, D. J., Landolt, E., Les, D. H., Kimball, R. T., 2001. Allozyme studies in Lemnaceae: variation and relationships in Lemna sections Alatae and Biformes. Taxon, 50(4), 987-999. doi: 10.2307/1224716

Cusimano, N., Bogner, J., Mayo, S. J., Boyce, P. C., Wong, S. Y., Hesse, M., Hetterscheid, W. L. A., Keating, R. C., French, J. C., 2011. Relationships within the Araceae: comparison of morphological patterns with molecular phylogenies. American Journal of Botany, 98(4), 654-668. doi: 10.3732/ajb.1000158

DAISIE, 2017. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. In: Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe . http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Daubs EH, 1965. Monograph of Lemnaceae. In: Illinois Biological Monographs 34 . Urbana, Illinois, USA: The University of Illinois Press.142 pp.

Edwards, P., Hassan, M. S., Chao, C. H., Pacharaprakiti, C., 1992. Cultivation of duckweeds in septage-loaded earthen ponds. Bioresource Technology, 40(1), 109-117. doi: 10.1016/0960-8524(92)90195-4

Encyclopedia of Life, 2017. Encyclopedia of Life. In: Encyclopedia of Life . http://www.eol.org

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of North America Editorial Committee, 2017. Flora of North America North of Mexico. In: Flora of North America North of Mexico St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=1

Gherardi, F., 2007. Biological Invaders in Inland Waters: Profiles, Distribution and Threats, Dordrecht and London, Springer.

Hicks LE, 1937. The Lemnaceae of Indiana. American Midland Naturalist, 18(5), 774-789.

Hussner, A., Weyer, K. van de, Gross, E. M., Hilt, S., 2010. Comments on increasing number and abundance of non-indigenous aquatic macrophyte species in Germany. Weed Research (Oxford), 50(6), 519-526. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3180.2010.00812.x

Iqbal I, 1999. Duckweed aquaculture. Potentials, possibilities and limitations for combined wastewater treatment and animal feed production in developing countries. SANDEC Report No. 6/99. Duebendorf, Switzerland: Department of Water & Sanitation in Developing Countries (SANDEC), Swiss Federal Institute for Environmental Science & Technology.91 pp.

Kandeler R, Hügel B , 1974. Rediscovery of the genuine Lemna perpusilla Torr. and comparison with L. paucicostata Hegelm. (Wiederentdeckung der echten Lemna perpusilla Torr. und Vergleich mit L. paucicostata Hegelm). Plant Systematics and Evolution, 123, 83–96.

Landolt Duckweed Collection, 2017. Landolt Duckweed Collection. Zurich, Switzerland: Landolt Duckweed Collection.http://www.duckweed.ch/?lang=en

Landolt E, 1980. Key to the determination of taxa within the family of Lemnaceae . Veröffentlichungen des Geobotanischen Institutes der Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Stiftung Rubel, in Zürich, 70(1), 13-21.

Landolt E, 1992. Lemnaceae duckweed family. Journal of the Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, 26(1), 10-14.

Landolt, E., 1997. How do Lemnaceae (duckweed family) survive dry conditions?. Bulletin of the Geobotanical Institute ETH, (No. 63), 25-31.

Leng RA, Stambolie JH, Bell R, 1995. Duckweed – a potential high protein feed resource for domestic animals and fish. Livestock Research for Rural Development , 7(1), 36.

Les DH, 2020. Aquatic monocotyledons of North America. Ecology, life history, and systematics, Boca Raton, Louisiana, USA: CRC Press.

Les, D. H., Crawford, D. J., Landolt, E., Gabel, J. D., Kimball, R. T., 2002. Phylogeny and systematics of Lemnaceae, the duckweed family. Systematic Botany, 27(2), 221-240.

Les, D. H., Landolt, E., Crawford, D. J., 1997. Systematics of the Lemnaceae (duck weeds): inferences from micromolecular and morphological data. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 204(3/4), 161-177. doi: 10.1007/BF00989203

Lukács, B. A., Mesterházy, A., Vidéki, R., Király, G., 2016. Alien aquatic vascular plants in Hungary (Pannonian ecoregion): historical aspects, data set and trends. Plant Biosystems, 150(3), 388-395. doi: 10.1080/11263504.2014.987846

Mkandawire M, Dudel EG, 2007. Are Lemna spp. effective phytoremediation agents?. Bioremediation, Biodiversity and Bioavailability, 1(1), 56-71.

Mukhopadhyay G, Dewanji A, 2005. Presence of tropical hydrophytes in relation to limnological parameters- a study of two freshwater ponds in Kolkata, India. International Journal of Limnology, 41(1), 281-289.

Oviedo Prieto, R., Herrera Oliver, P., Caluff, M. G., et al., 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PIER, 2017. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Pinke, G., Csiky, J., Mesterházy, A., Tari, L., Pál, R. W., Botta-Dukát, Z., Czúcz, B., 2014. The impact of management on weeds and aquatic plant communities in Hungarian rice crops. Weed Research (Oxford), 54(4), 388-397. doi: 10.1111/wre.12084

Pio, M. C. da S., Souza, K. dos S. de, Santana, G. P., 2013. Ability of Lemna aequinoctialis for removing heavy metals from wastewater. (Capacidade da Lemna aequinoctialis para acumular metais pesados de água contaminada). Acta Amazonica, 43(2), 203-210. doi: 10.1590/S0044-59672013000200011

Pott VJ, 2002. (Lemnaceae). In: Flora Fanerogâmica do Estado de São Paulo. Volume 2, [ed. by Wanderley MGL , Shepherd GJ, Giulietti AM , Melhem TS , Bittrich V, Kameyama C]. São Paulo, Brazil: Instituto de Botânica. 135-140.

Ryman, S., Anderberg, A., 1999. Five species of introduced duckweeds. (Fem adventiva andmatsarter). Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 93(3), 129-138.

Saurabh Sengupta, Chiranjeeb Medda, Anjana Dewanji, 2010. The impact of duckweed growth on water quality in sub-tropical ponds. Environmentalist, 30(4), 353-360. doi: 10.1007/s10669-010-9293-6

Sree, K. S., Bog, M., Appenroth, K. J., 2016. Taxonomy of duckweeds (Lemnaceae), potential new crop plants. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 28(5), 291-302. http://www.scopemed.org/fulltextpdf.php?mno=215215

Tang YanKui, Chen Ling, Wei XingRen, Yao QiuYan, Li Ting, 2013. Removal of lead ions from aqueous solution by the dried aquatic plant, Lemna perpusilla Torr. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 244/245, 603-612. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.10.047

The Barcode of Life Data Systems, 2017. In: The Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), https://www.boldsystems.org/index.php/TaxBrowser_Home

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. In: The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1 Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.http://www.theplantlist.org

USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Xu YaLiang, Ma Shuai, Huang Meng, Peng Ming, Bog, M., Sree, K. S., Appenroth, K. J., Zhang JiaMing, 2015. Species distribution, genetic diversity and barcoding in the duckweed family (Lemnaceae). Hydrobiologia, 743, 75-87. doi: 10.1007/s10750-014-2014-2

Yin YeHu, Yu ChangJiang, Yu Li, Zhao JinShan, Sun ChangJiang, Ma YuBin, Zhou GongKe, 2015. The influence of light intensity and photoperiod on duckweed biomass and starch accumulation for bioethanol production. Bioresource Technology, 187, 84-90. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.03.097

Yu ChangJiang, Sun ChangJiang, Yu Li, Zhu Ming, Xu Hua, Zhao JinShan, Ma YuBin, Zhou GongKe, 2014. Comparative analysis of duckweed cultivation with sewage water and SH media for production of fuel ethanol. PLoS ONE, 9(12), e115023. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0115023

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Beauvais ML, Coléno A , Jourdan H, 2006. Les espèces envahissantes dans l'archipel néo-calédonien. Un risque environnemental et économique majeur. [ed. by Beauvais ML, Coléno A , Jourdan H]. Montpellier, France: IRD Éditions. 262 pp. https://www.editions.ird.fr/produit/9782709916134

Beentje HJ, Lansdown RV, 2018. Lemna aequinoctialis. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T164404A120124962.en.

DAISIE, 2017. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. In: Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

Hussner A, Weyer K van de, Gross E M, Hilt S, 2010. Comments on increasing number and abundance of non-indigenous aquatic macrophyte species in Germany. Weed Research (Oxford). 50 (6), 519-526. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/wre DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3180.2010.00812.x

Landolt E, 1997. How do Lemnaceae (duckweed family) survive dry conditions? Bulletin of the Geobotanical Institute ETH. 25-31.

Lukács B A, Mesterházy A, Vidéki R, Király G, 2016. Alien aquatic vascular plants in Hungary (Pannonian ecoregion): historical aspects, data set and trends. Plant Biosystems. 150 (3), 388-395. DOI:10.1080/11263504.2014.987846

Martirosyan EV , Ryzhova NN , Skryabin KG, Kochieva EZ, 2008. RAPD analysis of genome polymorphism in the family Lemnaceae. Russian Journal of Genetics. 360–364.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

PIER, 2017. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Pinke G, Csiky J, Mesterházy A, Tari L, Pál R W, Botta-Dukát Z, Czúcz B, 2014. The impact of management on weeds and aquatic plant communities in Hungarian rice crops. Weed Research (Oxford). 54 (4), 388-397. DOI:10.1111/wre.12084

Ryman S, Anderberg A, 1999. Five species of introduced duckweeds. (Fem adventiva andmatsarter.). Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift. 93 (3), 129-138.

USDA-ARS, 2017. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Xu YaLiang, Ma Shuai, Huang Meng, Peng Ming, Bog M, Sree K S, Appenroth K J, Zhang JiaMing, 2015. Species distribution, genetic diversity and barcoding in the duckweed family (Lemnaceae). Hydrobiologia. 75-87. DOI:10.1007/s10750-014-2014-2

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Landolt Duckweed Collectionhttp://www.duckweed.ch/?lang=en

Contributors

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08/05/2017 Original text by:

Jeanine Vélez-Gavilán, University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez, Puerto Rico

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