Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Echinochloa crus-pavonis
(gulf cockspur grass)

Kaufman S, 2020. Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass) [updated from Kaufman S, 2017]. Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.121129.20203483163

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Datasheet

Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 06 August 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Echinochloa crus-pavonis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • gulf cockspur grass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Echinochloa crus-pavonis is a clump forming grass native to the Americas that is now found in Africa, Asia, Oceania and Europe. It is likely its spread was facilitated by rice cultivation around the world, as it is a frequent contaminant...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Doug Goldman
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
InflorescenceEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.Public Domain - Released by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Doug Goldman
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Doug Goldman
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
InflorescenceEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.Public Domain - Released by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Doug Goldman
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Doug Goldman
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
InflorescenceEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.Public Domain - Released by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Doug Goldman
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Doug Goldman
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
InflorescenceEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.Public Domain - Released by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Doug Goldman
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); Node and sheath. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
TitleNode and sheath
CaptionEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); Node and sheath. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Doug Goldman
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); Node and sheath. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
Node and sheathEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); Node and sheath. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.Public Domain - Released by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Doug Goldman

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Echinochloa crus-pavonis (Kunth) Schult.

Preferred Common Name

  • gulf cockspur grass

Other Scientific Names

  • Echinochloa kimayalaensis Vanderyst
  • Oplismenus crus-pavonis Kunth
  • Panicum crus-pavonis (Kunth) Nees
  • Panicum crus-pavonis (Kunth) Nees
  • Panicum subulicola Nees

International Common Names

  • English: barnyard grass; gulf barnyard grass; South American barnyard grass
  • Spanish: arrocillo

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: capim-coloninho; capituva; inço de arroz; jervāo

Summary of Invasiveness

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Echinochloa crus-pavonis is a clump forming grass native to the Americas that is now found in Africa, Asia, Oceania and Europe. It is likely its spread was facilitated by rice cultivation around the world, as it is a frequent contaminant of rice grains. It listed as invasive and a weed of agriculture. E. crus-pavonis is widely documented as a significant weed of rice fields. It is an 'occasional weed of cultivation' in Australia. It is considered invasive in Cuba, Paraguay, Cameroon, the Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Italy and California, USA.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Echinochloa
  •                                 Species: Echinochloa crus-pavonis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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There are approximately 50 species of Echinochloa globally, several of which are considered weeds (Aoki and Yamaguchi, 2008). Some taxonomists divide E. crus-pavonis into two varieties, E. crus-pavonis var. macera and E. crus-pavonis var. crus-pavonisE. crus-pavonis var. macera is native in Northern Mexico and the USA (SEINet, 2017). E. crus-pavonis and E. crus-pavonis var. crus-pavonis are usually listed as not native to North America (NatureServe, 2017; USDA-NRCS, 2017). E. crus-pavonis is listed as not native to the Western Hemisphere (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong 2007). The African E. crus-pavonis appears to be genetically distinct from E. crus-pavonis in Argentina and may be a synonym for a different species (Aoki and Yamaguchi, 2008), possibly E. rostrata (Michael, 1983).

Description

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E. crus-pavonis is a clump forming perennial or sometimes annual grass growing to 2 m (CalFlora, 2017; Clayton et al., 2017). Leaf sheaths loose and smooth, ligule absent. Leaf blades linear, 10-40 x 1-1.5 cm. Inflorescences droop strongly (although E. crus-pavonis var. macera has more upright inflorescences). Inflorescence is composed of numerous branched racemes, 3-15 cm long. The main inflorescence is 10-30 cm long. Spikelets are crowded on secondary branchlets. Each spikelet is 2-3 mm long, hispid on veins. The lower glume is 1/3 -2/5 as long as the spikelet. The upper glume is rostrate. The lower lemma is sterile, 5-7 veined with a stout 1 – 1.5 cm awn. Michael (1983) describes the spikelets as having many short, curved awns, 3-10 mm long. The upper lemma is 2-2.5 mm long. Fertile spikelets have 1 basal sterile floret and one fertile floret (AusGrass2, 2017; Clayton et al., 2017).

Plant Type

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Annual
Grass / sedge
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated

Distribution

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Echinochloa crus-pavonis is probably native to Central and South America (Michael, 1983; Funk et al., 2007; SEINet, 2017; FloraArgentina, 2017). It may also be native to tropical Africa (Flora of Central Africa, 2017). It is found in wetlands from northern South America to British Columbia, Canada (Barkworth et al., 2007). E. crus-pavonis is listed as introduced in several USA state specific floras (eFloras, 2017; Maryland Plant Atlas Work Group, 2016).

SEINet (2017) and NatureServe (2017) state that E. crus-pavonis var. macera is native to northern Mexico and the USA but list E. crus-pavonis var. crus-pavonis as non-native. Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2007) list E. crus-pavonis as not native in the Caribbean, Central and South America but list it as native to the Old World. Flora of Central Africa (2017) lists E. crus-pavonis as native to Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, and Burundi. E. crus-pavonis is also listed as occurring in several other African countries (Van der Zon, 1992; Pl@ntNet, 2017, Tropicos, 2017). E. crus-pavonis is listed as not native in Nigeria (Adagba et al., 2014). E. crus-pavonis is also listed as occurring in tropical regions in China and it is unclear whether it is considered native or not in China (Tropicos, 2017). Michael (1983) reports that E. crus-pavonis may have been misidentified in Asia.

E. crus-pavonis is naturalized in Australia and in New Zealand (Michael, 1983; AusGrass2, 2017) and is recorded as is present in rice fields in Italy (Ferrero and Tinarelli, 2008).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 06 Aug 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Burkina FasoPresent, Localized
BurundiPresentNative
CameroonPresentInvasive
ChadPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNative
Côte d'IvoirePresentIntroducedInvasive
EthiopiaPresent
GhanaPresent, Widespread
KenyaPresent
MaliPresent, Localized
NigeriaPresentIntroducedInvasive
RwandaPresentNative
SenegalPresent, Localized
South AfricaPresent
TanzaniaPresent
UgandaPresent

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroduced
-FujianPresentIntroduced
-GuangdongPresentIntroduced
-GuizhouPresentIntroduced
-HainanPresentIntroduced
NepalPresentIntroduced

Europe

ItalyPresentIntroducedInvasive

North America

BelizePresentNative
BermudaPresentNative
CanadaPresentNative
-British ColumbiaPresentNative
Costa RicaPresentNative
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
El SalvadorPresentNative
GuatemalaPresentNative
HaitiPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentNative
JamaicaPresentIntroduced
MexicoPresentNative
NicaraguaPresentNative
PanamaPresentNative
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentNative and IntroducedEchinochloa crus-pavonis var.?macera native. Echinochloa crus-pavonis var. crus-pavonis introduced
-AlabamaPresentNative and Introduced
-ArizonaPresentNativeEchinochloa crus-pavonis var.?macera
-ArkansasPresentNativeEchinochloa crus-pavonis var.?macera
-CaliforniaPresent, WidespreadNative and IntroducedInvasive
-ColoradoPresentNativeEchinochloa crus-pavonis var.?macera
-FloridaPresentNative and Introduced
-GeorgiaPresentNative
-KansasPresentNativeEchinochloa crus-pavonis var.?macera
-LouisianaPresentNativeEchinochloa crus-pavonis var.?macera
-MarylandPresentNative and Introduced
-MississippiPresentNative and IntroducedEchinochloa crus-pavonis var.?macera native. Echinochloa crus-pavonis var. crus-pavonis introduced
-MissouriPresentNative and Introduced
-NevadaPresentIntroducedEchinochloa crus-pavonis var. crus-pavonis
-New MexicoPresentNativeEchinochloa crus-pavonis var.?macera
-OklahomaPresentNativeEchinochloa crus-pavonis var.?macera
-OregonPresentNative and IntroducedEchinochloa crus-pavonis var.?macera native. Echinochloa crus-pavonis var. crus-pavonis introduced
-TexasPresentNative and IntroducedEchinochloa crus-pavonis var.?macera native. Echinochloa crus-pavonis var. crus-pavonis introduced
-UtahPresentNativeEchinochloa crus-pavonis var.?macera
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced
-South AustraliaPresentIntroduced
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced
New ZealandPresentIntroduced

South America

ArgentinaPresentNative
BoliviaPresentNative
BrazilPresentNative
-BahiaPresentNative
-Distrito FederalPresentNative
-Mato GrossoPresentNative
-ParanaPresentNative
-Santa CatarinaPresentNative
-Sao PauloPresentNative
ChilePresentNative
ColombiaPresentNative
EcuadorPresentNative
French GuianaPresentNative
GuyanaPresentNative
ParaguayPresentIntroducedInvasive
PeruPresentNative
SurinamePresentNative
UruguayPresentNative
VenezuelaPresentNative

History of Introduction and Spread

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Introduced to New Zealand from South America in 1973 (NZPCN, 2017), probably as a weed in rice seeds (Michael, 1983). E. crus-pavonis was documented in a natural area in Australia as early as 1946 (Blake, 1948). It seems likely that E. crus-pavonis spread with rice cultivation around the world but this has not been widely documented and it is unclear whether E. crus-pavonis is native to the American tropics or to both the Americas and Africa.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
New Zealand South America 1973 Crop production (pathway cause) Yes No NZPCN (2017)
USA Congo Democratic Republic 1947 Crop production (pathway cause) No No Russell (1954)

Risk of Introduction

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Seeds of Echinochloa species are commonly found in shipments of rice seed (Huelma et al., 1996) and may also be spread by contaminated equipment (Webster, 2015).

Habitat

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E. crus-pavonis occurs in wetlands, along wet roadsides and in drainage ditches, muddy stream verges, in marshes, and by springs (CalFlora, 2017; FloraArgentina, 2017; University of Texas Herbarium, 2017). Also found on disturbed ground along roadsides and in waste sites (AgPest, 2017). In South Africa, E. crus-pavonis grows along streambanks and swamps in the fynbos and in grasslands (Russell et al., 1990). The variety E. var. crus-pavonis appears to occur in similar habitats (SEINet, 2017). E. crus-pavonis var. macera tends to occur in drier environments along roadsides and in moist drainage basins as well as in wetlands (SEINet, 2017).

Hosts/Species Affected

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A weed of rice fields (Michael, 1983; Randall, 2007). Difficult to control in rain-fed lowland rice paddies in the Ivory Coast (Johnson and Kent, 2002). A host of rice yellow mottle virus (Pl@ntNet, 2017). E. crus-pavonis is recorded as present in rice fields in Italy (Ferrero and Tinarelli, 2008) and is listed as a major weed of rice production in Europe (Maclean et al., 2002).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Oryza sativa (rice)PoaceaeMain

    Growth Stages

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    Vegetative growing stage

    Biology and Ecology

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    Genetics

    Echinochloa crus-pavonis is a diploid species. A micro-satellite study that included E. crus-pavonis could aid in future population genetic studies of the species (Danquah et al., 2002). Some introgression may occur between E. crus-galli and E. crus-pavonis (Kraehmer et al., 2016).

    Reproductive Biology

    Reproduces by seed (Pl@ntNet, 2017).

    Physiology and Phenology

    Flowers in Feb-March in Australia and South Africa (Russell et al., 1990; AusGrass2, 2017) and June – October in Costa Rica (Pohl, 1980). E. crus-pavonis is intolerant of long periods of flooding (Fox et al., 1995) although seeds can germinate in flooded soils (Estioko et al., 2014).

    Longevity

    Described as a perennial, short-lived perennial and annual (AusGrass2, 2017; CalFlora, 2017; Clayton et al., 2017).

    Environmental Requirements

    Plants are considered obligate to facultative wetland species (USDA-NRCS, 2017).

    Climate

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    ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
    Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
    Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
    Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
    BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
    BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
    Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
    Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

    Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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    Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
    45 45

    Air Temperature

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    Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
    Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -16
    Mean annual temperature (ºC) 14 28
    Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 20 33
    Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 7 23

    Rainfall

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    ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
    Dry season duration010number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
    Mean annual rainfall2391408mm; lower/upper limits

    Rainfall Regime

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    Bimodal
    Uniform
    Winter

    Soil Tolerances

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    Soil drainage

    • free
    • impeded
    • seasonally waterlogged

    Soil reaction

    • neutral

    Soil texture

    • heavy
    • light
    • medium

    Means of Movement and Dispersal

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    Natural Dispersal

    In the closely related species E. crus-galli, seeds are dispersed by water (Bajwa et al., 2015).

    Accidental Introduction

    Echinochloa species seeds are commonly found in shipments of rice seed (Huelma et al., 1996) and may also be spread by contaminated equipment (Webster, 2015).

    Intentional Introduction

    Used for cattle fodder and silage (Pl@ntNet, 2017).

    Pathway Causes

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    CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    Crop productionWeed in rice fields Yes Yes Michael (1983)
    Forage Yes Yes Pl@ntNet (2017)
    HitchhikerContaminated agricultural equipment moved from field to field Yes Webster (2015)
    Seed tradeContaminant in rice seeds Yes Yes Huelma et al. (1996)

    Pathway Vectors

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    VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
    Machinery and equipment Yes Webster (2015)

    Impact Summary

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    CategoryImpact
    Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
    Environment (generally) Negative

    Economic Impact

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    A weed of rice fields (Michael, 1983; Randall, 2007). Difficult to control in rain-fed lowland rice paddies in the Ivory Coast (Johnson and Kent, 2002). Has become resistant to 0/4 group synthetic auxin herbicides in Brazil (Heap, 2017). Can block irrigation and drainage ditches (Brandão et al., 1989).

    Risk and Impact Factors

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    Invasiveness
    • Invasive in its native range
    • Proved invasive outside its native range
    • Has a broad native range
    • Abundant in its native range
    • Pioneering in disturbed areas
    • Has high reproductive potential
    Impact outcomes
    • Infrastructure damage
    • Negatively impacts agriculture
    Impact mechanisms
    • Competition - monopolizing resources
    • Pest and disease transmission
    Likelihood of entry/control
    • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
    • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
    • Difficult/costly to control

    Uses

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    Economic Value

    Used for cattle fodder and silage (Pl@ntNet, 2017). Grown for seeds for research on crop weeds (Herbiseed, 2017).

    Social Benefit

    Traditionally used as a medicinal and possibly as a food plant by Native Americans (SEINet, 2017).

    Uses List

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    Animal feed, fodder, forage

    • Fodder/animal feed

    Human food and beverage

    • Cereal

    Medicinal, pharmaceutical

    • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

    Ornamental

    • Seed trade

    Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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    E. crus-pavonis is closely related to barnyard grass, Echinochloa crus-galliE. crus-galli inflorescences are upright or slightly drooping at the tip with often purple-tinged spikelets (DiTomaso and Healy, 2003). E. crus-pavonis var. macera also has upright inflorescences and may be distinguished from E. crus-galli in lacking a line of hairs at the base of the lemma tip (SEINet, 2017).

    Prevention and Control

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    Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

    Cultural Control and Sanitary Measures

    Flooding is used to control Echinochloa species in rice fields (Estioko et al., 2014).

    Physical/Mechanical Control

    Plants can be hand-pulled (Adagba et al., 2014).

    Chemical Control

    Herbicides are used to control E. crus-pavonis (Labrada, 2003; Adagba et al., 2014).

    Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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    The taxonomy and native range of this species is unclear. There is also little information on the impact of E. crus-pavonis in natural areas.

    References

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    Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2007. Catalogue of the seed plants of the West Indies. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/getonerecord_Emu.cfm?ID=8272

    Adagba MA, Gbanguba AU, Ndarubu AA, Ismaila U, Ukwungwu MN, 2014. Weed species diversity as influenced by different herbicide formulations and rates in lowland rice fields in Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 20(1), 21-36. http://www.wssp.org.pk/vol-20-1-2014/3.%20PJWSR-30-2013.pdf

    AgPest, 2017. Echinochloa crus-pavonis, AgResearch. http://agpest.co.nz/?pesttypes=barnyard-grass

    Aoki D, Yamaguchi H, 2008. Genetic relationship between Echinochloa crus-galli and Echinochloa oryzicola accessions inferred from internal transcribed spacer and chloroplast DNA sequences. Weed Biology and Management, 8(4), 233-242. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/wbm doi: 10.1111/j.1445-6664.2008.00303.x

    AusGrass2, 2017. Echinochloa crus-pavonis. Grasses of Australia. . http://ausgrass2.myspecies.info/content/echinochloa-cruspavonis

    Bajwa AA, Jabran K, Muhammad Shahid, Ali HH, Chauhan BS, Ehsanullah, 2015. Eco-biology and management of Echinochloa crus-galli. Crop Protection, 75, 151-162. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194

    Barkworth ME, Capels KM, Long S, Anderton LK, Piep MB, 2007. Flora of North America vol. 24. http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/

    Blake ST, 1948. The vegetation of the country surrounding Somerset dam. Queensland Naturalist, 13(5), 94-100.

    Brandão M, Laca-Buendia JP, Losada Gavilanes M, 1989. Plantas palustres e aquáticas que se comportam como invasoras, no estado de Minas Gerais. Acta Botanica Brasiliensis, 2(1), 255-265. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/abb/v2n1s1/v2n1s1a20.pdf

    CalFlora, 2017. Echinochloa crus-pavonis, information on wild California plants for conservation, education, and appreciation. Berkeley, California: The Calflora Database. http://www.calflora.org/cgi-bin/species_query.cgi?where-taxon=Echinochloa+crus-pavonis

    Clayton WD, Vorontsova MS, Harman KT, Williamson H, 2017. GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html

    Danquah EY, Hanley SJ, Brookes RC, Aldam C, Karp A, 2002. Isolation and characterization of microsatellites in Echinochloa (L.) Beauv. spp. Molecular Ecology Notes, 2(1), 54-56. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-8286.2002.00144.x

    DiTomaso JM, Healy EA, 2003. Aquatic and riparian weeds of the West, University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources Communications Services - Publications.vi + 442 pp.

    eFloras, 2017. Flora of Missouri. USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University.http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=11

    Egea, J. de, Mereles, F., Pena-Chocarro, M. del C., Céspedes, G., 2016. Checklist for the crop weeds of Paraguay. PhytoKeys, (No.73), 13-92. http://phytokeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=10135

    Estioko, L. P., Miro, B., Baltazar, A. M., Merca, F. E., Ismail, A. M., Johnson, D. E., 2014. Differences in responses to flooding by germinating seeds of two contrasting rice cultivars and two species of economically important grass weeds. AoB Plants, 2014, plu064. http://aobpla.oxfordjournals.org/content/6/plu064.full

    Ferrero A, Tinarelli A, 2008. Rice cultivation in the E.U. Ecological conditions and agronomical practices. In: Capri, E. and Karposzas, D. G. (eds). Pesticide risk assessment in rice paddies: theory and practice. Oxford, UK: Elsevier B.V

    Flora of Central Africa, 2017. Flora of Central Africa. Belgium: Botanic Garden Meise. http://floreafriquecentrale.org/

    FloraArgentina, 2017. Plantas vasculares de la Republica Argentina. . http://www.floraargentina.edu.ar/

    Fox, T. C., Mujer, C. V., Andrews, D. L., Williams, A. S., Cobb, B. G., Kennedy, R. A., Rumpho, M. E., 1995. Identification and gene expression of anaerobically induced enolase in Echinochloa phyllopogon and Echinochloa crus-pavonis. Plant Physiology, 109(2), 433-443. doi: 10.1104/pp.109.2.433

    Funk, V., Hollowell, T., Berry, P., Kelloff, C., Alexander, S. N., 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 55, 584 pp.

    González-Torres LR, Rankin R, Palma-rola R, 2012. Plantas invasoras en Cuba. Bissea, 6 (Special Issue 1), 1-132.

    Heap I, 2017. The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. . www.weedscience.com

    Herbiseed, 2017. The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. www.weedscience.com

    Huelma, C. C., Moody, K., Mew, T. W., 1996. Weed seeds in rice seed shipments: a case study. International Journal of Pest Management, 42(3), 147-150. doi: 10.1080/09670879609371986

    Johnson, D. E., Kent, R. J., 2002. The impact of cropping on weed species composition in rice after fallow across a hydrological gradient in west Africa. Weed Research (Oxford), 42(2), 89-99. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3180.2002.00265.x

    Kraehmer, H., Jabran, K., Mennan, H., Chauhan, B. S., 2016. Global distribution of rice weeds - a review. Crop Protection, 80, 73-86. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194

    Labrada R, 2003. The need for improved weed management in rice. In: Sustainable Rice Production for Food Security, Proceedings of the 20th session of the International Rice Commission, Bangkok, Thailand, 2002. FAO, Rome. http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y4751e/y4751e0l.htm

    Maclean, J. L., Dawe, D. C., Hardy, B., Hettel, G. P., 2002. Rice Almanac: source book for the most important economic activity on earth, (Ed. 3) : CABI Publishing.vi + 253 pp.

    Maryland Plant Atlas Work Group, 2016. Digital Atlas of the Maryland Flora. . http://www.marylandplantatlas.org/index.php

    Michael, P. W., 1983. Taxonomy and distribution of Echinochloa species with special reference to their occurrence as weeds of rice. In: Weed control in rice : IRRI. 291-306.

    NatureServe, 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life Version 7.1, Arlington, Virginia: NatureServe. http://explorer.natureserve.org

    NZPCN, 2017. Echinochloa crus-pavonis. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora_details.aspx?ID=3835

    Ogundipe, O. T., Olatunji, O. A., 1989. Vegetative anatomy of the Nigerian species of Echinochloa P. Beauv. Nigerian Journal of Botany, 2, 37-48.

    Pl@ntNet, 2017. Riceweeds - Poaceae - Echinochloa crus-pavonis (Kunth) Schult. Montpellier, France: Agropolis Foundation. http://publish.plantnet-project.org/project/riceweeds_en/collection/collection/information/details/ECHCV

    PlantNET, 2017. The NSW Plant Information Network System. Sydney, Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust. http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au

    Pohl RW, 1980. Family #15 Graminae. In: Burger W, ed. Flora Costaricenses. Chicago, USA: Field Museum of Natural History. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/2653432#page/11/mode/1up

    Randall, R. P., 2007. The introduced flora of Australia and its weed status, CRC for Australian Weed Management.iv + 524 pp.

    Russell PG , 1954. Plant inventory no. 155. United States Department of Agriculture. Washington, DC. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/41645718#page/470/mode/1up

    Russell, G. E. G., Watson, L., Koekemoer, M., Smook, L., Barker, N. P., Anderson, H. M. , Dallwitz, M. J. , 1990. Grasses of southern Africa. South Africa: National Botanic Gardens. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/51778681#page/7/mode/1up

    SEINet, 2017. Southwest environmental information network, seinet - arizona chapter. http//:swbiodiversity.org/seinet/index.php

    The Plant List, 2017. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

    Tropicos, 2017. Tropicos - Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Name/25513355

    University of Texas Herbarium, 2017. Lundell Plant Diversity Portal. Austin, Texas, USA: Billie L. Turner Plant Resources Center. University of Texas at Austin.https://prc-symbiota.tacc.utexas.edu/index.php

    University of Washington Herbarium, 2017. Washington Flora Checklist. Seattle, Washington, USA: Burke Museum. University of Washington.http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/waflora/checklist.php

    USDA-NRCS, 2017. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, USA. http://plants.usda.gov/

    Van der Zon APM, 1992. Graminées du Cameroun, Vol. II. Wageningen Agricultural Papers 92-1. http://edepot.wur.nl/166175

    Weakley AS , 2005. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia and Georgia. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

    Webster E, 2015. Weed management. In: Saichuk JK, Hollier CA, Oard JH, White LM, Groth DE, Linscombe SD, Stout MJ, Brown S, Webster EP, Harrell DL, Reagan TE, Schultz B, Salassi M. eds. Louisiana rice production handbook. LSU Ag Center. http://www.lsuagcenter.com/MCMS/RelatedFiles/%7BF7E930BF-346A-45DA-A989-37FE3D0B0F11%7D/7---Chapter-5-Weed-Mgmt.pdf

    Distribution References

    Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2007. Catalogue of the seed plants of the West Indies., http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/getonerecord_Emu.cfm?ID=8272

    Adagba M A, Gbanguba A U, Ndarubu A A, Ismaila U, Ukwungwu M N, 2014. Weed species diversity as influenced by different herbicide formulations and rates in lowland rice fields in Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 20 (1), 21-36. http://www.wssp.org.pk/vol-20-1-2014/3.%20PJWSR-30-2013.pdf

    AusGrass2, 2017. (Echinochloa crus-pavonis). In: Grasses of Australia, http://ausgrass2.myspecies.info/content/echinochloa-cruspavonis

    Breitwieser I, Brownsey PJ, Nelson WA, Wilton AD, 2010. Flora of New Zealand Online. Manaaki Whenua - Landcare Research. http://www.nzflora.info

    CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

    CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

    CalFlora, 2017. Echinochloa crus-pavonis, information on wild California plants for conservation, education, and appreciation., Berkeley, California, The Calflora Database. http://www.calflora.org/cgi-bin/species_query.cgi?where-taxon=Echinochloa+crus-pavonis

    eFloras, 2017. Flora of Missouri. USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=11

    Egea J de, Mereles F, Pena-Chocarro M del C, Céspedes G, 2016. Checklist for the crop weeds of Paraguay. PhytoKeys. 13-92. http://phytokeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=10135

    Ferrero A, Tinarelli A, 2008. Rice cultivation in the E.U. Ecological conditions and agronomical practices. In: Pesticide risk assessment in rice paddies: theory and practice, [ed. by Capri E, Karposzas DG]. Oxford, UK: Elsevier B.V.

    Flora of Central Africa, 2017. Flora of Central Africa., Belgium: Botanic Garden Meise. http://floreafriquecentrale.org/

    González-Torres LR, Rankin R, Palma-rola R, 2012. (Plantas invasoras en Cuba). In: Bissea, 6 (1) 1-132.

    Johnson D E, Kent R J, 2002. The impact of cropping on weed species composition in rice after fallow across a hydrological gradient in west Africa. Weed Research (Oxford). 42 (2), 89-99. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-3180.2002.00265.x

    Maryland Plant Atlas Work Group, 2016. Digital Atlas of the Maryland Flora. http://www.marylandplantatlas.org/index.php

    Pl@ntNet, 2017. Riceweeds - Poaceae - Echinochloa crus-pavonis (Kunth) Schult. Montpellier, France: Agropolis Foundation. http://publish.plantnet-project.org/project/riceweeds_en/collection/collection/information/details/ECHCV

    PlantNET, 2017. The NSW Plant Information Network System., Sydney, Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust. http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au

    SEINet, 2017. Southwest environmental information network, seinet - arizona., http//:swbiodiversity.org/seinet/index.php

    Tropicos, 2017. Tropicos - Missouri Botanical Garden., http://www.tropicos.org/Name/25513355

    University of Texas Herbarium, 2017. Lundell Plant Diversity Portal., Austin, Texas, USA: Billie L. Turner Plant Resources Center. University of Texas at Austin. https://prc-symbiota.tacc.utexas.edu/index.php

    University of Washington Herbarium, 2017. Washington Flora Checklist., Seattle, Washington, USA: Burke Museum. University of Washington. http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/waflora/checklist.php

    USDA-NRCS, 2020. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database, Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

    Van der Zon APM, 1992. (Graminées du Cameroun, Vol. II)., Wageningen Agricultural Papers 92-1. http://edepot.wur.nl/166175

    Weakley AS, 2005. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia and Georgia., Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina.

    Links to Websites

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    GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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    29/03/2017 Original text by:

    Sylvan Kaufman, Consultant, USA

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