Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Echinochloa crus-pavonis
(gulf cockspur grass)

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Datasheet

Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Echinochloa crus-pavonis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • gulf cockspur grass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Doug Goldman
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
InflorescenceEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.Public Domain - Released by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Doug Goldman
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Doug Goldman
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
InflorescenceEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); inflorescence. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.Public Domain - Released by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Doug Goldman
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); spikelets. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
TitleSpikelets
CaptionEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); spikelets. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Doug Goldman
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); spikelets. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
SpikeletsEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); spikelets. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.Public Domain - Released by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Doug Goldman
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); spikelets. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
TitleSpikelets
CaptionEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); spikelets. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Doug Goldman
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); spikelets. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
SpikeletsEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); spikelets. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.Public Domain - Released by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Doug Goldman
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); stem, node and ligule. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
TitleStem
CaptionEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); stem, node and ligule. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
CopyrightPublic Domain - Released by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Doug Goldman
Echinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); stem, node and ligule. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.
StemEchinochloa crus-pavonis (gulf cockspur grass); stem, node and ligule. Cumberland Co. New Jersey, USA. August 2011.Public Domain - Released by USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database/original image by Doug Goldman

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Echinochloa crus-pavonis (Kunth) Schult.

Preferred Common Name

  • gulf cockspur grass

Other Scientific Names

  • Echinochloa kimayalaensis Vanderyst
  • Oplismenus crus-pavonis Kunth
  • Panicum crus-pavonis (Kunth) Nees
  • Panicum crus-pavonis (Kunth) Nees
  • Panicum subulicola Nees

International Common Names

  • English: barnyard grass; gulf barnyard grass; South American barnyard grass
  • Spanish: arrocillo

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: capim-coloninho; capituva; inço de arroz; jervāo

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Echinochloa
  •                                 Species: Echinochloa crus-pavonis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Burkina FasoPresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Pl@ntNet (2017)
BurundiPresentNativeFlora of Central Africa (2017)
CameroonPresentInvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: Van der Zon (1992)
ChadPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Pl@ntNet (2017)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentNativeFlora of Central Africa (2017)
EthiopiaPresentTropicos (2017)
GhanaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Pl@ntNet (2017)
KenyaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Pl@ntNet (2017)
MaliPresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Pl@ntNet (2017)
NigeriaPresentIntroducedInvasiveAdagba et al. (2014)
RwandaPresentNativeFlora of Central Africa (2017)
SenegalPresent, LocalizedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Pl@ntNet (2017)
South AfricaPresentTropicos (2017)
TanzaniaPresentTropicos (2017)
UgandaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Pl@ntNet (2017)

Asia

ChinaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-FujianPresentIntroducedTropicos (2017)
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedTropicos (2017)
-GuizhouPresentIntroducedTropicos (2017)
-HainanPresentIntroducedTropicos (2017)
NepalPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: eFloras (2017)

Europe

ItalyPresentIntroducedInvasiveFerrero and Tinarelli (2008)

North America

BelizePresentNativeTropicos (2017)
BermudaPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
CanadaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
Costa RicaPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveGonzález-Torres et al. (2012)
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedTropicos (2017)
El SalvadorPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
GuatemalaPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
HaitiPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2007)
HondurasPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
JamaicaPresentIntroducedTropicos (2017)
MexicoPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
NicaraguaPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
PanamaPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedTropicos (2017)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroducedTropicos (2017)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AlabamaPresentNativeWeakley (2005)
-ArizonaPresentNativeSEINet (2017)
-CaliforniaPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveCalFlora (2017)
-FloridaPresentNativeWeakley (2005)
-GeorgiaPresentNativeSEINet (2017)
-KansasPresentNativeSEINet (2017)
-LouisianaPresentNativeSEINet (2017)
-MarylandPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Maryland Plant Atlas Work Group (2017)
-MississippiPresentNativeWeakley (2005)
-MissouriPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: eFloras (2017)
-New MexicoPresentNativeSEINet (2017)
-OklahomaPresentNativeSEINet (2017)
-TexasPresentNativeCABI (Undated)Original citation: University of Texas Herbarium (2017)
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: University of Washington Herbarium (2017)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Pl@ntNet (2017)
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Pl@ntNet (2017)
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedAusGrass2 (2017)
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Pl@ntNet (2017)
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Pl@ntNet (2017)
New ZealandPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: NZFlora (2017)

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
BoliviaPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
BrazilPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-BahiaPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
-Distrito FederalPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
-Mato GrossoPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
-ParanaPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
-Santa CatarinaPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
-Sao PauloPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
ChilePresentNativeTropicos (2017)
ColombiaPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
EcuadorPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
French GuianaPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
GuyanaPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
ParaguayPresentIntroducedInvasiveEgea et al. (2016); Tropicos (2017)
PeruPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
SurinamePresentNativeTropicos (2017)
UruguayPresentNativeTropicos (2017)
VenezuelaPresentNativeTropicos (2017)

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2007. Catalogue of the seed plants of the West Indies. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/getonerecord_Emu.cfm?ID=8272

Adagba MA, Gbanguba AU, Ndarubu AA, Ismaila U, Ukwungwu MN, 2014. Weed species diversity as influenced by different herbicide formulations and rates in lowland rice fields in Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 20(1), 21-36. http://www.wssp.org.pk/vol-20-1-2014/3.%20PJWSR-30-2013.pdf

AgPest, 2017. Echinochloa crus-pavonis, AgResearch. http://agpest.co.nz/?pesttypes=barnyard-grass

Aoki D, Yamaguchi H, 2008. Genetic relationship between Echinochloa crus-galli and Echinochloa oryzicola accessions inferred from internal transcribed spacer and chloroplast DNA sequences. Weed Biology and Management, 8(4), 233-242. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/wbm doi: 10.1111/j.1445-6664.2008.00303.x

AusGrass2, 2017. Echinochloa crus-pavonis. Grasses of Australia. . http://ausgrass2.myspecies.info/content/echinochloa-cruspavonis

Bajwa AA, Jabran K, Muhammad Shahid, Ali HH, Chauhan BS, Ehsanullah, 2015. Eco-biology and management of Echinochloa crus-galli. Crop Protection, 75, 151-162. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194

Barkworth ME, Capels KM, Long S, Anderton LK, Piep MB, 2007. Flora of North America vol. 24. http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/

Blake ST, 1948. The vegetation of the country surrounding Somerset dam. Queensland Naturalist, 13(5), 94-100.

Brandão M, Laca-Buendia JP, Losada Gavilanes M, 1989. Plantas palustres e aquáticas que se comportam como invasoras, no estado de Minas Gerais. Acta Botanica Brasiliensis, 2(1), 255-265. http://www.scielo.br/pdf/abb/v2n1s1/v2n1s1a20.pdf

CalFlora, 2017. Echinochloa crus-pavonis, information on wild California plants for conservation, education, and appreciation. Berkeley, California: The Calflora Database. http://www.calflora.org/cgi-bin/species_query.cgi?where-taxon=Echinochloa+crus-pavonis

Clayton WD, Vorontsova MS, Harman KT, Williamson H, 2017. GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora. http://www.kew.org/data/grasses-db.html

Danquah EY, Hanley SJ, Brookes RC, Aldam C, Karp A, 2002. Isolation and characterization of microsatellites in Echinochloa (L.) Beauv. spp. Molecular Ecology Notes, 2(1), 54-56. doi: 10.1046/j.1471-8286.2002.00144.x

DiTomaso JM, Healy EA, 2003. Aquatic and riparian weeds of the West, University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources Communications Services - Publications.vi + 442 pp.

eFloras, 2017. Flora of Missouri. USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University.http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=11

Egea, J. de, Mereles, F., Pena-Chocarro, M. del C., Céspedes, G., 2016. Checklist for the crop weeds of Paraguay. PhytoKeys, (No.73), 13-92. http://phytokeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=10135

Estioko, L. P., Miro, B., Baltazar, A. M., Merca, F. E., Ismail, A. M., Johnson, D. E., 2014. Differences in responses to flooding by germinating seeds of two contrasting rice cultivars and two species of economically important grass weeds. AoB Plants, 2014, plu064. http://aobpla.oxfordjournals.org/content/6/plu064.full

Ferrero A, Tinarelli A, 2008. Rice cultivation in the E.U. Ecological conditions and agronomical practices. In: Capri, E. and Karposzas, D. G. (eds). Pesticide risk assessment in rice paddies: theory and practice. Oxford, UK: Elsevier B.V

Flora of Central Africa, 2017. Flora of Central Africa. Belgium: Botanic Garden Meise. http://floreafriquecentrale.org/

FloraArgentina, 2017. Plantas vasculares de la Republica Argentina. . http://www.floraargentina.edu.ar/

Fox, T. C., Mujer, C. V., Andrews, D. L., Williams, A. S., Cobb, B. G., Kennedy, R. A., Rumpho, M. E., 1995. Identification and gene expression of anaerobically induced enolase in Echinochloa phyllopogon and Echinochloa crus-pavonis. Plant Physiology, 109(2), 433-443. doi: 10.1104/pp.109.2.433

Funk, V., Hollowell, T., Berry, P., Kelloff, C., Alexander, S. N., 2007. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 55, 584 pp.

González-Torres LR, Rankin R, Palma-rola R, 2012. Plantas invasoras en Cuba. Bissea, 6 (Special Issue 1), 1-132.

Heap I, 2017. The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. . www.weedscience.com

Herbiseed, 2017. The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds. www.weedscience.com

Huelma, C. C., Moody, K., Mew, T. W., 1996. Weed seeds in rice seed shipments: a case study. International Journal of Pest Management, 42(3), 147-150. doi: 10.1080/09670879609371986

Johnson, D. E., Kent, R. J., 2002. The impact of cropping on weed species composition in rice after fallow across a hydrological gradient in west Africa. Weed Research (Oxford), 42(2), 89-99. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-3180.2002.00265.x

Kraehmer, H., Jabran, K., Mennan, H., Chauhan, B. S., 2016. Global distribution of rice weeds - a review. Crop Protection, 80, 73-86. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194

Labrada R, 2003. The need for improved weed management in rice. In: Sustainable Rice Production for Food Security, Proceedings of the 20th session of the International Rice Commission, Bangkok, Thailand, 2002. FAO, Rome. http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y4751e/y4751e0l.htm

Maclean, J. L., Dawe, D. C., Hardy, B., Hettel, G. P., 2002. Rice Almanac: source book for the most important economic activity on earth, (Ed. 3) : CABI Publishing.vi + 253 pp.

Maryland Plant Atlas Work Group, 2016. Digital Atlas of the Maryland Flora. . http://www.marylandplantatlas.org/index.php

Michael, P. W., 1983. Taxonomy and distribution of Echinochloa species with special reference to their occurrence as weeds of rice. In: Weed control in rice : IRRI. 291-306.

NatureServe, 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life Version 7.1, Arlington, Virginia: NatureServe. http://explorer.natureserve.org

NZ Flora, 2017. Echinochloa crus-pavonis. Flora of New Zealand. . http://www.nzflora.info/factsheet/Taxon/Echinochloa-crus-pavonis.html

NZPCN, 2017. Echinochloa crus-pavonis. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora_details.aspx?ID=3835

Ogundipe, O. T., Olatunji, O. A., 1989. Vegetative anatomy of the Nigerian species of Echinochloa P. Beauv. Nigerian Journal of Botany, 2, 37-48.

Pl@ntNet, 2017. Riceweeds - Poaceae - Echinochloa crus-pavonis (Kunth) Schult. Montpellier, France: Agropolis Foundation. http://publish.plantnet-project.org/project/riceweeds_en/collection/collection/information/details/ECHCV

PlantNET, 2017. The NSW Plant Information Network System. Sydney, Australia: Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust. http://plantnet.rbgsyd.nsw.gov.au

Pohl RW, 1980. Family #15 Graminae. In: Burger W, ed. Flora Costaricenses. Chicago, USA: Field Museum of Natural History. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/2653432#page/11/mode/1up

Randall, R. P., 2007. The introduced flora of Australia and its weed status, CRC for Australian Weed Management.iv + 524 pp.

Russell PG , 1954. Plant inventory no. 155. United States Department of Agriculture. Washington, DC. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/41645718#page/470/mode/1up

Russell, G. E. G., Watson, L., Koekemoer, M., Smook, L., Barker, N. P., Anderson, H. M. , Dallwitz, M. J. , 1990. Grasses of southern Africa. South Africa: National Botanic Gardens. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/51778681#page/7/mode/1up

SEINet, 2017. Southwest environmental information network, seinet - arizona chapter. http//:swbiodiversity.org/seinet/index.php

The Plant List, 2017. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

Tropicos, 2017. Tropicos - Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Name/25513355

University of Texas Herbarium, 2017. Echinochloa crus-pavonis. Herbarium Collection. http://prc-symbiota.tacc.utexas.edu/collections/list.php

University of Washington Herbarium, 2017. Washington Flora Checklist. http://biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/waflora/checklist.php?Taxon=Echinochloa%20crus-pavonis%20var.%20crus-pavonis

USDA-NRCS, 2017. The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, USA. http://plants.usda.gov/

Van der Zon APM, 1992. Graminées du Cameroun, Vol. II. Wageningen Agricultural Papers 92-1. http://edepot.wur.nl/166175

Weakley AS , 2005. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia and Georgia. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

Webster E, 2015. Weed management. In: Saichuk JK, Hollier CA, Oard JH, White LM, Groth DE, Linscombe SD, Stout MJ, Brown S, Webster EP, Harrell DL, Reagan TE, Schultz B, Salassi M. eds. Louisiana rice production handbook. LSU Ag Center. http://www.lsuagcenter.com/MCMS/RelatedFiles/%7BF7E930BF-346A-45DA-A989-37FE3D0B0F11%7D/7---Chapter-5-Weed-Mgmt.pdf

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2007. Catalogue of the seed plants of the West Indies., http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/getonerecord_Emu.cfm?ID=8272

Adagba M A, Gbanguba A U, Ndarubu A A, Ismaila U, Ukwungwu M N, 2014. Weed species diversity as influenced by different herbicide formulations and rates in lowland rice fields in Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 20 (1), 21-36. http://www.wssp.org.pk/vol-20-1-2014/3.%20PJWSR-30-2013.pdf

AusGrass2, 2017. (Echinochloa crus-pavonis). In: Grasses of Australia, http://ausgrass2.myspecies.info/content/echinochloa-cruspavonis

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CalFlora, 2017. Echinochloa crus-pavonis, information on wild California plants for conservation, education, and appreciation., Berkeley, California, The Calflora Database. http://www.calflora.org/cgi-bin/species_query.cgi?where-taxon=Echinochloa+crus-pavonis

Egea J de, Mereles F, Pena-Chocarro M del C, Céspedes G, 2016. Checklist for the crop weeds of Paraguay. PhytoKeys. 13-92. http://phytokeys.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=10135

Ferrero A, Tinarelli A, 2008. Rice cultivation in the E.U. Ecological conditions and agronomical practices. In: Pesticide risk assessment in rice paddies: theory and practice, [ed. by Capri E, Karposzas DG]. Oxford, UK: Elsevier B.V.

Flora of Central Africa, 2017. Flora of Central Africa., Belgium: Botanic Garden Meise. http://floreafriquecentrale.org/

González-Torres LR, Rankin R, Palma-rola R, 2012. (Plantas invasoras en Cuba). In: Bissea, 6 (1) 1-132.

SEINet, 2017. Southwest environmental information network, seinet - arizona., http//:swbiodiversity.org/seinet/index.php

Tropicos, 2017. Tropicos - Missouri Botanical Garden., http://www.tropicos.org/Name/25513355

Weakley AS, 2005. Flora of the Carolinas, Virginia and Georgia., Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Distribution Maps

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