Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Deroceras invadens
(tramp slug)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Deroceras invadens (tramp slug)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Deroceras invadens
  • Preferred Common Name
  • tramp slug
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Mollusca
  •       Class: Gastropoda
  •         Subclass: Pulmonata
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • D. invadens is a small, agile slug that is native to the Mediterranean and has been recorded from at least 46 countries worldwide. Until 2011, this species was known as D. panormitanum but molecular wo...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Deroceras invadens (tramp slug); adult, extended. In garigue. Menorca, Spain.
TitleAdult
CaptionDeroceras invadens (tramp slug); adult, extended. In garigue. Menorca, Spain.
Copyright©Roy Anderson
Deroceras invadens (tramp slug); adult, extended. In garigue. Menorca, Spain.
AdultDeroceras invadens (tramp slug); adult, extended. In garigue. Menorca, Spain.©Roy Anderson
Deroceras invadens (tramp slug); adult, retracted. In a garden. Belfast, Ireland.
TitleAdult
CaptionDeroceras invadens (tramp slug); adult, retracted. In a garden. Belfast, Ireland.
Copyright©Roy Anderson
Deroceras invadens (tramp slug); adult, retracted. In a garden. Belfast, Ireland.
AdultDeroceras invadens (tramp slug); adult, retracted. In a garden. Belfast, Ireland. ©Roy Anderson
Deroceras invadens (tramp slug); adult, partially extended. In heathland. Co. Londonderry, Ireland.
TitleAdult
CaptionDeroceras invadens (tramp slug); adult, partially extended. In heathland. Co. Londonderry, Ireland.
Copyright©Roy Anderson
Deroceras invadens (tramp slug); adult, partially extended. In heathland. Co. Londonderry, Ireland.
AdultDeroceras invadens (tramp slug); adult, partially extended. In heathland. Co. Londonderry, Ireland.©Roy Anderson

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Deroceras invadens

Preferred Common Name

  • tramp slug

Other Scientific Names

  • Agriolimax caruanae Pollonera
  • Deroceras caruanae
  • Deroceras meridionale Reygrobellet
  • Deroceras panormitanum Lessona and Pollonera
  • Deroceras pollonerae Pollonera

International Common Names

  • English: brown field slug; longneck field slug; Sicilian slug
  • French: petite loche maritime

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Mittelmeerackerschnecke; Mittelmeerackerschnecke

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

D. invadens is a small, agile slug that is native to the Mediterranean and has been recorded from at least 46 countries worldwide. Until 2011, this species was known as D. panormitanum but molecular work revealed that it comprised two distinct species. This species is similar in appearance to D. laeve and as a result, the exact distribution and impact of this species is unknown. This is a particular problem in countries such as the USA and Australia and probably also in South America. D. invadens is regarded as a significant pest of agricultural crops in New Zealand (Barker, 1999) but is highly likely to be damaging in many other countries as well. References to slug damage in agricultural crops by D. laeve are very likely to refer to D. invadens. In addition to this, D. invadens is an aggressive slug which may compete with native slugs, decreasing biodiversity.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Mollusca
  •             Class: Gastropoda
  •                 Subclass: Pulmonata
  •                     Order: Stylommatophora
  •                         Suborder: Sigmurethra
  •                             Unknown: Limacoidea
  •                                 Family: Limacidae
  •                                     Genus: Deroceras
  •                                         Species: Deroceras invadens

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

D. invadens, formerly referred to in the scientific literature as D. panormitanum Lessona & Pollonera, 1882, and before that as D. caruanae Pollonera, 1891 or Agriolimax caruanae Pollonera, 1891, has had a long and confusing history of misidentification and misapplication of names.

Not until the age of DNA bar-coding (in tandem with extensive behavioural studies) has it been possible to untangle a skein of confused taxa with an extensive list of names which have been applied or mis-applied to this taxon (Reise et al., 2011). The origins of D. invadens are currently unknown but are likely to be somewhere in or around Italy. The name formerly applied to what will be called here the tramp slug, i.e. D. panormitanum, relates to a different species native to Sicily and Malta (Reise et al., 2011). It appears that two other names in circulation, D. pollonerae Simroth, 1889 and D. caruanae are synonyms of D. panormitanum.

Reise et al. (2011) performed breeding experiments and DNA analysis on material from Sicily, Malta, Sardinia and England. These confirmed that two closely similar taxa exist, D. invadens the tramp slug with a worldwide distribution and D. panormitanum (=pollonerae = caruanae) native to Sicily and Malta and now found also at single sites in Wales and Ireland (Rowson et al., 2016).

Description

Top of page

D. invadens is a small, agile, slug species with a reputation for pugnacity towards other slugs. Size range is 25-35 mm. The body is cylindrical, narrowing to a short but strongly truncate keel at the tail. The mantle is moderately large but less so proportionately than in D. laeve, so that the tail part of the body is clearly longer than the mantle. In living specimens the mantle is transversely wrinkled in front as in D. laeve. The body colour is variable. In Mediterranean countries a pinkish flesh-coloured ground colour is common with a translucent cuticle and few if any darker spots. This form can also occur in northern Europe. In north-west Europe two forms predominate, these are slightly or considerably darker colour forms. The most common is mid gray and translucent with lighter mantle, through the cuticle of which the shell and pale internal organs can be seen even in the field. There is a marbling of tiny darker spots, but these are difficult to see with the naked eye. In hilly or exposed areas a darker form occurs, with mid to dark grey ground colour and contrasting pale mantle on which darker spotting is particularly obvious. The respiratory pore is white-rimmed, more clearly marked in darkly pigmented specimens. The sole in most specimens is translucent grey and paler than upper body pigments. Pedal and body mucus is colourless. Internally D. invadens has a rounded, compact penis with two fairly symmetrical, slightly elongate and inturned, ‘side pockets’ comprising the penial caecum and penial lobe (see Reise et al., 2011).

Distribution

Top of page

D. invadens is native to Italy and has been introduced widely into a number of countries around the world; it is now present in the continents of Africa, North America, South America, Central America, Europe and Oceania. The distribution of this species is believed to be under reported. This is in part due to lack of interest and the similarity with D. laeve (Forsyth, 2014).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IsraelPresentIntroducedMienis et al., 2014

Africa

EgyptPresentIntroduced2005-2007 Invasive Obuid-Allah et al., 2008
KenyaPresentIntroduced2012 Invasive Hutchinson et al., 2014
Saint HelenaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Tristan Da CunhaPresentIntroduced1982 Invasive Reise et al., 2006
South AfricaPresentIntroduced1963 Invasive Reise et al., 2006
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroduced1947 Invasive Regteren Altena, 1966

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroduced1974 Invasive Reise et al., 2006Present in greenhouses
-QuebecPresentIntroduced1966 Invasive Reise et al., 2006Present in greenhouses
MexicoPresentIntroduced1974 Invasive Hutchinson et al., 2014
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentIntroduced1940 Invasive Reise et al., 2006
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced2004 Invasive Reise et al., 2006
-OregonPresentIntroduced2001 Invasive Hutchinson et al., 2014
-UtahPresentIntroduced2006 Invasive
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced2001 Invasive Hutchinson et al., 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentIntroduced2006 Invasive
PanamaPresentIntroduced2007 Invasive Hutchinson et al., 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced2004 Invasive Gutiérrez Gregoric et al., 2013
BrazilPresentIntroduced1991 Invasive Barker, 1999
ChilePresentIntroduced1962 Invasive Letelier et al., 1969; Araya, 2015Juan Fernandez Islands
ColombiaPresentIntroduced1975 Invasive Hausdorf, 2002
EcuadorPresentIntroduced2012 Invasive Hutchinson et al., 2014
PeruPresentIntroduced2012 Invasive Hutchinson et al., 2014

Europe

AndorraPresentIntroduced Invasive Fauna Europea, 2015
AustriaPresentIntroduced1977 Invasive Reischütz, 1986
BelgiumPresentIntroduced1968 Invasive Fauna Europea, 2015
BulgariaPresentIntroduced Invasive Fauna Europea, 2015
CroatiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Fauna Europea, 2015
Czech RepublicPresentIntroduced1996 Invasive Fauna Europea, 2015
DenmarkPresentIntroduced1937 Invasive Fauna Europea, 2015
Faroe IslandsPresentIntroduced1970 Invasive Fauna Europea, 2015
FinlandPresentIntroduced2014 Invasive Koivunen et al., 2014
FrancePresentIntroduced1945 Invasive Fauna Europea, 2015
-CorsicaPresentIntroduced Invasive Fauna Europea, 2015
GermanyPresentIntroduced1978 Invasive Fauna Europea, 2015; Ludwig et al., 2015
GreecePresentIntroduced2011 Invasive Hutchinson et al., 2014Crete
IrelandPresentIntroduced1958 Invasive Makings, 1959
ItalyPresentNative Not invasive Reise et al., 2011
LuxembourgPresentIntroduced1997 Invasive Fauna Europea, 2015
MonacoPresentIntroduced2012 Invasive Fauna Europea, 2015
MontenegroPresentIntroduced2014 Invasive Fauna Europea, 2015
NetherlandsPresentIntroduced1969 Invasive Fauna Europea, 2015
NorwayPresentIntroduced1983 Invasive Hutchinson et al., 2014
PolandPresentIntroduced2001 Invasive Fauna Europea, 2015
PortugalPresentIntroduced1977 Invasive Fauna Europea, 2015
-AzoresWidespreadIntroduced1957 Invasive Waldén, 1960
-MadeiraPresentIntroduced1980 Invasive Rähle, 1992
San MarinoPresentIntroduced2013 Invasive Hutchinson et al., 2014
SlovakiaPresentIntroduced2003 Invasive Dvorák et al., 2003Present in greenhouses
SpainPresentIntroduced1974 Invasive Fauna Europea, 2015
SwedenPresentIntroduced1980 Invasive Proschwitz, 2002
SwitzerlandPresentIntroduced1982 Invasive Fauna Europea, 2015
UKPresentIntroduced1930 Invasive Fauna Europea, 2015

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced1936 Invasive Reise et al., 2006
New ZealandPresentIntroduced1974 Invasive Reise et al., 2006

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

D. invadens (as Agriolimax caruanae) was first reported outside its native range (which is probably in Italy), in England around 1930. It was then recorded in Australia in 1936. Post-World War II, it appears to have spread rapidly into north-west Europe and Iberia. In North America it was found in California by 1940, Canada by 1966, South America by 1962, and South Africa by 1963. Country specific dates can be found in the Introductions table. Despite rapid colonization, it has not yet been reported from the Russian Federation, Central Asia, or China. In most places from which this species is recorded, it has retained a close association with man and there is little indication of full naturalization in some of these countries (Hutchinson et al., 2014).

Introductions

Top of page
Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Argentina 2004 Gutiérrez Gregoric et al. (2013) Accidental
Australia 1936 Yes Hutchinson et al. (2014) Accidental
Austria 1977 Reischütz (1986) Accidental
Azores 1957 Waldén (1960) Accidental
Belgium 1968 Yes Fauna Europea (2015) Accidental
Brazil 1991 Barker (1999) Accidental
British Columbia  1974 Reise et al. (2006) Accidental
California 1940 Reise et al. (2006) Accidental
Canary Islands 1947 Regteren Altena (1966) Accidental
Chile 1962 Araya (2015); Letelier et al. (1969) Accidental
Colombia 1975 Hausdorf (2002) Accidental
Colorado 2004 Reise et al. (2006) Accidental
Costa Rica 2006 Hutchinson et al. (2014) Accidental
Czech Republic 1996 Fauna Europea (2015) Accidental
Denmark 1937 Yes Fauna Europea (2015) Accidental
Ecuador 2012 Hutchinson et al. (2014) Accidental
Egypt 2005-2007 Obuid-Allah et al. (2008) Accidental
Faroe Islands  1970 Fauna Europea (2015) Accidental
Finland 2014 Koivunen et al. (2014) Accidental
France  1945 Yes Fauna Europea (2015) Accidental
Germany  1978 Fauna Europea (2015) Accidental
Greece  2011 Hutchinson et al. (2014) Accidental
Ireland 1958 Yes Hutchinson et al. (2014) Accidental
Israel 2013 Mienis et al. (2014) Accidental
Kenya 2012 Hutchinson et al. (2014) Accidental
Luxembourg 1997 Makings (1959) Accidental
Madeira  1980 Rähle (1992) Accidental
Mexico 1974 Hutchinson et al. (2014) Accidental
Monaco 2012 Rähle (1992) Accidental
Montenegro 2012 Hutchinson et al. (2014) Accidental
Netherlands  1969 Yes Fauna Europea (2015) Accidental
New Zealand 1974 Reise et al. (2006) Accidental
Norway  1983 Hutchinson et al. (2014) Accidental
Oregon 2001 Hutchinson et al. (2014) Accidental
Panama 2007 Hutchinson et al. (2014) Accidental
Peru 2012 Hutchinson et al. (2014) Accidental
Poland  2001 Fauna Europea (2015) Accidental
Portugal 1977 Fauna Europea (2015) Accidental
Quebec  1966 Reise et al. (2006) Accidental
San Marino 2013 Hutchinson et al. (2014) Accidental
Slovakia 2003 Hutchinson et al. (2014) Accidental
South Africa 1963 Yes Herbert (2010) Accidental
Spain 1974 Yes Dvorák et al. (2003) Accidental
Sweden 1980 Proschwitz (2002) Accidental
Switzerland 1982 Yes Proschwitz (2002) Accidental
Tristan Da Cunha 1982 Reise et al. (2006) Accidental
UK 1930 Yes Hutchinson et al. (2014) Accidental
Utah 2006 Reise et al. (2011) Accidental
Washington 2001 Hutchinson et al. (2014) Accidental

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

As world trade continues to grow, it is increasingly likely that D. invadens may appear in major conurbations around the world. Its affinity for environments disturbed by anthropogenic activitys, particularly gardens and commercial horticultural enterprises, its tolerance of a wide range of environmental temperatures and ability to adhere to clothing, animals and vehicles, makes it readily transportable and adaptable to new environments.

Habitat

Top of page

D. invadens adapts well to disturbance and is a typical ‘garden’ species in many parts of its range. After introduction to new areas it is mostly associated with urban and roadside habitats, gardens and farm buildings (Rowson et al., 2014a). In Britain and Ireland, while expanding its range in the 1970s, it became very common at fly-tipping sites where garden rubbish was deposited.

Once established it can invade semi-natural woodland, rough pasture, wetland margins and agricultural fields in the general countryside especially where ground conditions are moist. In the warmer climate of the west Mediterranean it is restricted mainly in irrigated hotel gardens and in and around garden centres and has not been observed in dry forests or garigue, especially in the summer months.

Habitat List

Top of page
CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page

D. invadens is a generalist slug and has been recorded causing agricultural damage to crops. Examples of these species include; Asparagus officinalis, Avena sativa, Brassica napus, B. oleracea, B. rapa, Cucurbita maxima, C. pepo, Daucus carota, Franaria vesca, Hordeum vulgare, Lactuca sativa, Solanum tuberosum, Triticum aestivum and T. durum.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / frass visible
Leaves / shredding
Seeds / external feeding
Stems / external feeding
Vegetative organs / external feeding
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / frass visible

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Reproductive Biology

D. invadens is an annual species which is variable in its seasonality. It can self-fertilise but most reproduction occurs by outcrossing (Foltz et al., 1984). The eggs are small and are laid in clutches of up to 50 (Quick, 1960). The lifecycle of this species is short and up to three generations may exist per year (AnimalBase, 2015).

Physiology and Phenology

D. invadens is an agile slug and more irritable and fast moving than D. laeve. It has been observed to tail-flick and bite other slug species (Rowson et al., 2014a). It has no particular affinity for water, although it requires damp or well watered habitats.

Longevity

The maximum life span of D. invadens is about one year.

Activity Patterns

D. invadens can breed and is active at all times of year, except during drought or under freezing conditions.

Nutrition

Barker (1999) has observed D. invadens as a pest in gardens in New Zealand, but there are remarkably few observations on feeding habits or preferences elsewhere. In Ireland young specimens have frequently been observed doing damage between lettuce leaves (Lactuca sativa) offered for sale, so it is probably a serious pest in horticulture. No verifiable reports of damage to cereal or root crops has been reported although it is likely to cause damage to winter cereals.

Environmental Requirements

D. invadens has a reasonably wide temperature tolerance, but this is more biased towards environmental heat than cold. For example this species has been recorded widely in the tropics. The watery mucus it secretes requires readily available water, so it is intolerant of or inactive in, truly arid conditions

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)
ET - Tundra climate Tolerated Tundra climate (Average temp. of warmest month < 10°C and > 0°C)

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anas platyrhynchos Predator Adults/Juveniles not specific
Cychrus caraboides Predator Eggs/Juveniles not specific
Erinaceus europaeus Predator Adults not specific
Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita Parasite Adults not specific Y
Silpha atrata Predator Adults/Juveniles not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

There is little information on the natural enemies of D. invadens however, they likely include the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) slow worms, ground beetles, tachinid flies, toads and birds such as the runner duck, Anas platyrhynchos. In Europe and North America beetles of the genus Silpha (S. atrata in Europe) and Cychrus (C. caraboides in Europe) have evolved mouthparts and behaviour to specifically target pulmonate molluscs, including slugs. Some Diptera (Phoridae) are specific parasites of agriolimacid slugs (Robinson and Foote, 1968). 

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Natural Dispersal

D. invadens is an active and fast moving species which will naturally move locally into new areas.

Accidental Introduction

It is possible that D. invadens can adhere to clothing, tyres, vehicles etc. and be transported into new locations this way. In addition this species is likely to be accidentally introduced through the transportation of fresh produce, plants for the garden trade or in rubbish from gardens.

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop production Yes Yes NOBANIS, 2015
Garden waste disposal Yes NOBANIS, 2015
Horticulture Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Plants or parts of plants Yes Yes

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

Top of page

References to slug damage of agricultural crops by D. laeve are very likely to refer widely to D. invadens. The impact on crops produced in temperate climates can be high, especially where grass is part of the cycle, or where horticulture is practiced. Winter cereals in temperate climates may be particularly at risk.

Environmental Impact

Top of page

Impact on Biodiversity

D. invadens can be aggressive, wounding other slugs when in high-density populations; they may defend themselves by tail-wagging and slapping and by quickly fleeing (Rollo and Wellington, 1979; Rowson et al., 2014a). This, therefore, decreases the biodiversity of native slugs.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Capable of securing and ingesting a wide range of food
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Interaction with other invasive species
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

Top of page

D. invadens may be used in laboratories as a research model.

Uses List

Top of page

General

  • Laboratory use
  • Research model

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page

D. invadens and the Sicilian species D. panormitanum closely resemble each other in external characters. Careful comparison of populations of D. panormitanum from Cardiff, UK and Kilmacanogue south of Dublin, Ireland with D. invadens has allowed the following observations.

In size, general habitus and colouration, there is overlap between the two species. Medium to dark pigmented D. panormitanum, however, differ from similarly dark D.invadens in pigmentation of the mantle which seems always to be more contrastingly paler in D.invadens with white internal organs showing through, than it is in D.panormitanum. The dark colouration on the upper surface of D. panormitanum also frequently has a significant violaceous sheen which D.invadens does not possess. Paler forms of both species are less easily separated. Internally D. panormitanum has a similar layout of the penis as D. invadens, but the ‘side pockets’ are asymmetric and while the penial lobe is a more or less rounded lobe, the penial caecum is elongate and bent, tapering towards the tip (Reise et al., 2011). The pockets are almost symmetrical in D. invadens i.e. slightly elongate but of even width along their length (Wiktor, 2000).

D. invadens is also similar in appearance to D. laeve. D. laeve differs from both of the above in its smaller size, even, usually chestnut colour, lack of pale rim on the respiratory orifice, longer mantle and sole the same colour as the upper surface. D. laeve often has the penis missing or partly missing (Foltz et al., 1984). Where it is fully formed the shape is elongate and somewhat spirally twisted with no side pockets.

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Control

Biological Control

Phasmarhabditis hermaphroditais a nematode parasite of slugs which, though most effective in controllingD. reticulatumand may also killD. invadens (Speiser et al., 2001). However, this form of control is uneconomic for field crops at present.

Chemical Control

Prystuppa et al. (1987) found that 2% methiocarb was the most effective treatment with copper failing to provide significant mortalities against Deroceras slugs. 

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

Top of page

It is important to accurately identify which Deroceras species are associated with crop damage across the globe, to promote development and more effective targeting of control measures. Present perception is that most damage is attributable to D. reticulatum, followed by D. laeve, with D. invadens having a minor role. In fact, if identification issues were resolved, D. invadens is potentially the second most important pest of these three, with D. laeve in third position. These differ in their means of reproduction, seasonality and climatic constraints and so may require different control strategies.

More work is also required on the specific responses of D. invadens in relation to control.

References

Top of page

AnimalBase, 2015. AnimalBase. Göttingen, Germany: University of Göttingen. http://www.animalbase.org/

Araya JF, 2015. Current status of the non-indigenous molluscs in Chile, with the first record of Otala punctata (Müller, 1774) (Gastropoda: Helicidae) in the country and new records for Cornu aspersum (Müller, 1774) and Deroceras laeve (Müller, 1774). Journal of Natural History, 49(29/30):1731-1761. http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/tnah20

Barker GM, 1999. Naturalised terrestrial Stylommatophora (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Fauna of New Zealand, No. 38: 253 pp.

Dvorák L; Cejka T; Horsák M, 2003. First record of Deroceras panormitanum (Gastropoda, Agriolimacidae) from Slovakia. Biologia (Bratislava), 58(5):917-918.

Fauna Europea, 2015. Fauna Europea database. European Commission. http://www.faunaeur.org/

Foltz D; Ochman H; Selander K, 1984. Genetic diversity and breeding systems in terrestrial slugs of the families Limacidae and Arionidae. Malacologia, 25(2):593-605.

Forsyth R, 2014. First record of Deroceras invadens Reise, Hutchinson, Schunack & Schlitt, 2011 (Gastropoda: Pulmonata: Agriolimacidae) from the island of Newfoundland, Canada. Check List 10, 1:149-150.

Gutiérrez Gregoric DE; Beltramino AA; Vogler RE; Cuezzo MG; Núñez V; Gomes SR; Virgillito M; Miquel SE, 2013. First records of four exotic slugs in Argentina. American Malacological Bulletin, 31:245-256.

Hausdorf B, 2002. Introduced land snails and slugs in Colombia. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 68:127-131.

Herbert DG, 2010. The introduced terrestrial mollusca of South Africa [ed. by Herbert, D. G.]. Pretoria, South Africa: South African National Biodiversity Institute, vi + 108 pp.

Hutchinson JMC; Reise H; Robinson DG, 2014. A biography of an invasive terrestrial slug: the spread, distribution and habitat of Deroceras invadens. NeoBiota, No.23:17-64. http://neobiota.pensoft.net/articles.php?id=4006

Koivunen A; Malinen P; Ormio H; Terhivuo J; Valovirta I, 2014. [English title not available] Suomen kotilot ja etanat: opas maanilviäisten maailmaan. Helsinki, Finland: Hyönteistarvike.

Letelier S; Vega MA; Ramos AM; Carreño E, 1969. Base de datos del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural: moluscos de Chile. Revista de Biología Tropical 51 (Suppl. 3):33-137.

Likharev IM; Rammel'meier ES, 1962. Terrestrial molluscs of the fauna of the U.S.S.R., Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 574 pp.

Likharev IM; Wiktor A, 1980. The fauna of the slugs of the USSR and adjacent countries (Gastropoda Terrestria Nuda). Fauna SSSR (Novaja serija 122), 3(5). Leningrad, Russia 1-437.

Ludwig A; Reise H; Hutchinson JMC, 2015. The slug fauna of gardens in the town of Görlitz (Saxony, Germany). (Die Nacktschneckenfauna in Gärten der Stadt Görlitz (Sachsen, Deutschland).) Berichte der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft der Oberlausitz, 23:43-57. http://www.naturforschende-gesellschaft-der-oberlausitz.de/Publikationen

Makings P, 1959. Agriolimax caruanae Pollonera new to Ireland. Journal of Conchology, 24:354-356.

McDonnell RJ; Paine TD; Gormally MJ, 2009. Slugs: a guide to the invasive and native fauna of California. California, USA. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 21 pp.

Mienis HK; Mienis D; Vaisman S; Rittner O, 2014. Two exotic gastropods: Aegopinella nitidula and Deroceras invadens, recently discovered in Israel. Triton, 29:21-25.

NOBANIS, 2015. North European and Baltic Network on Invasive Alien Species. http://www.nobanis.org/

Obuid-Allah AH; Abdel-Tawab HS; El-Bakary Z; Abd El-Wakeli KF; El-Sanabany A, 2008. A survey and population dynamics of terrestrial slugs (Mollusca, Gastropoda) at Assuit Governate, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Zoology, 51:585-608.

Pilsbry HA, 1948. Land Mollusca of North America (North of Mexico). Vol. II, Part 2. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA: Natural Sciences.

Proschwitz T von, 2002. [English title not available]. (Faunistikt nytt 2001-snäckor, sniglar och musslor.) Göteborgs Naturhistoriska Museum Arstryck, 2002:29-46.

Prystupa BD; Holliday NJ; Webster GRB, 1987. Molluscicide efficacy against the marsh slug, Deroceras laeve (Stylommatophora: Limacidae), on strawberries in Manitoba. Journal of Economic Entomology, 80(4):936-943.

Quick HE, 1960. British slugs (Pulmonata: Testacellidae, Arionidae, Limacidae). Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology, 6:1-226.

Regteren Altena CO van, 1966. Notes on land slugs 11.Arionidae, Milacidae and Limacidae from South Africa (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pulmonata). Zoölogische Medeelingen, 41:269-298.

Reischütz PL, 1986. [English title not available]. (Die Verbreitung der Nacktschnecken Österreichs (Arionidae, Milacidae, Limacidae, Agriolimacidae, Boettgerillidae). Catalogus Faunae Austriae Suppl. 2. Sitzungsberichte der Östereichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Klasse.) Abteilung, 1(195):67-190.

Reise H; Hutchinson JMC; ; Robinson DG, 2006. Two introduced pest slugs: Tandonia budapestensis new to the Americas, and Deroceras panormitanum new to the Eastern USA. Veliger, 48(2):110-115.

Reise H; Hutchinson JMC; Schunack S; Schlitt B, 2011. Deroceras panormitanum and congeners from Malta and Sicily, with a redescription of the widespread pest slug as Deroceras invadens N. sp. Folia Malacologica, 19(4):201-223. http://versita.metapress.com/link.asp?target=contribution&id=E8257X5567027763

Robinson WH; Foote BA, 1968. Biology and immature itages of Megaselia aequalis, a phorid predator of slug eggs. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 61(6):1587-1594.

Rollo CD; Wellington WG, 1975. Terrestrial slugs in the vicinity of Vancouver, British Columbia. The Nautilus, 89:107-115.

Rowson B; Anderson R; Allen S; Forman D; Greig C; Aziz NAA, 2016. Another wave of invasion? First record of the true Sicilian slug Deroceras panormitanum sensu stricto from Ireland, and another from Wales (Eupulmonata: Agriolimacidae). Journal of Conchology, 42(3):123-125.

Rowson B; Anderson R; Turner JA; Symondson WOC, 2014. The slugs of Britain and Ireland: undetected and undescribed species increase a well-studied, economically important fauna by more than 20%. PLoS ONE, 9:e91907.

Rowson B; Turner J; Anderson R; Symondson W, 2014. Slugs of Britain and Ireland: identification, understanding and control. Telford, UK: Field Studies Council, 136 pp.

Rähle W, 1992. [English title not available]. (Nacktschnecken (Arionidae, Milacidae, Agriolimacidae und Limacidae) von Madeira und Porto Santo (Mittelatlantische Inseln) (Gastropoda: Pulmonata).) Malakologische Abhandlungen aus dem Staatlichen Museum für Tierkunde Dresden, 16:13-24.

Speiser B; Zaller JG; Neudecker A, 2001. Size-specific susceptibility of the pest slugs Deroceras reticulatum and Arion lusitanicus to the nematode biocontrol agent Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita. BioControl, 46(3):311-320.

Storey KB; Storey JM; Churchill TA, 2007. Freezing and anoxia tolerance of slugs: a metabolic perspective. Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology, 177(8):833-840. http://www.springerlink.com/content/mg0l5021041h7554/?p=27d9e75e744647b18158a7224d5a28a9&pi=0

Thomas AK; McDonnell RJ; Paine TD; Harwood JD, 2010. A field guide to the slugs of Kentucky, SR-103. Lexington, Kentucky, USA: University of Kentucky, College of Agriculture, 36 pp.

Waldén HW, 1960. [English title not available]. (Om ett par för Sverige nya anthropochora landmollusker, Limax valentianus Férussac och Deroceras caruanae (Pollonera) jämte nagra andra, kulturbunda arter.) Göteborgs Kungliga Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets-Samhälles Handlingar,Sjätte Följden, Series B 6(8):5-48.

Wiktor A, 2000. Agriolimacidae (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) - a systematic monograph. Annales Zoologici, 49(4):347-590.

Wiktor A; Chen D; Wu M, 2000. Stylommatophoran slugs of China (GastropdaPulmonata) - prodromus. Folia Malacologica, 8(1):3-36.

Winter AG de, 1988. Remarks on the non-marine molluscan fauna of the Azores. 1-2. Basteria, 52:105-109.

Contributors

Top of page

26/11/15 Original text by:

Roy Anderson, Consultant, Northern Ireland

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map