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Datasheet

Chrysomya bezziana infestation

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 09 November 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Animal Disease
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Chrysomya bezziana infestation
  • Host plants
  • Overview
  • Chrysomya bezziana, the Old World Screw-worm fly, is distributed in sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East, Indian subcontinent, SE Asia and New Guinea, where the larvae parasitize warm-blooded animals including lives...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); wound myiasis - early stage of myiasis, with second and early third instar larvae of C.bezziana in a feeding aggregation.
TitleEarly stage of myiasis
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); wound myiasis - early stage of myiasis, with second and early third instar larvae of C.bezziana in a feeding aggregation.
Copyright©Dr J. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); wound myiasis - early stage of myiasis, with second and early third instar larvae of C.bezziana in a feeding aggregation.
Early stage of myiasisChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); wound myiasis - early stage of myiasis, with second and early third instar larvae of C.bezziana in a feeding aggregation.©Dr J. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); mature third instar larvae in a bovine wound.
TitleThird instar larvae
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); mature third instar larvae in a bovine wound.
Copyright©Dr J. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); mature third instar larvae in a bovine wound.
Third instar larvaeChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); mature third instar larvae in a bovine wound.©Dr J. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiais of navel of new-born buffalo calf. Papua New Guinea.
TitleMyiais
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiais of navel of new-born buffalo calf. Papua New Guinea.
Copyright©Dr J. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiais of navel of new-born buffalo calf. Papua New Guinea.
MyiaisChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiais of navel of new-born buffalo calf. Papua New Guinea.©Dr J. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of bovine scrotum following castration. Papua New Guinea.
TitleMyiasis
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of bovine scrotum following castration. Papua New Guinea.
Copyright©Dr J. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of bovine scrotum following castration. Papua New Guinea.
MyiasisChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of bovine scrotum following castration. Papua New Guinea.©Dr J. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of sheep's rectum. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
TitleMyiasis
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of sheep's rectum. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
Copyright©Dr J. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of sheep's rectum. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
MyiasisChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of sheep's rectum. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.©Dr J. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of sheep's vulva. Papua New Guinea.
TitleMyiasis
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of sheep's vulva. Papua New Guinea.
Copyright©Dr J. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of sheep's vulva. Papua New Guinea.
MyiasisChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of sheep's vulva. Papua New Guinea.©Dr J. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of dog. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
TitleMyiasis
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of dog. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
Copyright©Dr D.P.A. Sands-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of dog. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
MyiasisChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of dog. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.©Dr D.P.A. Sands-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of a cat (Felis catus). Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
TitleMyiasis
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of a cat (Felis catus). Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
Copyright©Dr J. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of a cat (Felis catus). Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
MyiasisChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis of a cat (Felis catus). Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.©Dr J. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis in human eye orbit.
TitleMyiasis
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis in human eye orbit.
Copyright©Dr John Niblett-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis in human eye orbit.
MyiasisChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); myiasis in human eye orbit.©Dr John Niblett-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); imported Australian sheep with C.bezziana myiasis. Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.
TitleInfested sheep
CaptionChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); imported Australian sheep with C.bezziana myiasis. Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.
Copyright©Dr J. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved
Chrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); imported Australian sheep with C.bezziana myiasis. Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.
Infested sheepChrysomya bezziana (Old World screw-worm); imported Australian sheep with C.bezziana myiasis. Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.©Dr J. Philip Spradbery-All Rights Reserved

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Chrysomya bezziana infestation

International Common Names

  • English: Old world screwworm; Old World Screw-worm fly; Screw-worm fly

Local Common Names

  • India: Peenash (rhinal myiasis)
  • Indonesia: Belatungan
  • Papua New Guinea: Lik Lik Snake (larval infestation)

English acronym

  • OWS
  • OWSWF

Overview

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Chrysomya bezziana, the Old World Screw-worm fly, is distributed in sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East, Indian subcontinent, SE Asia and New Guinea, where the larvae parasitize warm-blooded animals including livestock and humans. Larvae feeding on the skin and underlying tissues of the host cause wound or traumatic myiasis, which can be fatal. Infestations are generally acquired at sites of wounding, but they may also occur in the mucous membranes of body orifices.

At present, the only means for control of C. bezziana infestations of livestock are regular inspections and treatment of infested stock using a variety of insecticides.

The most likely route for an incursion of Chrysomya bezziana to a new location is via an infested host animal, be it livestock or human. To prevent the spread of the pest to new geographical regions, C. bezziana is subject to strict global quarantine restrictions as set down in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code. Australia maintains an official state of awareness and preparedness with respect to a potential C. bezziana incursion (Animal Health Australia AUSVETPLAN, 2007).

Host Animals

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Animal nameContextLife stageSystem
Bos indicus (zebu)Domesticated host|Wild hostCattle & Buffaloes: All Stages
Bos taurus (cattle)Domesticated host|Wild hostCattle & Buffaloes: All Stages
Bubalus bubalis (Asian water buffalo)Domesticated host|Wild hostCattle & Buffaloes: All Stages
Canis familiaris (dogs)Domesticated host|Wild host:
Capra hircus (goats)Domesticated host|Wild hostSheep & Goats: All Stages
CervidaeWild host:
Elephas maximus:
Gallus gallus domesticus (chickens)Domesticated hostPoultry: Young poultry|Poultry/Mature female|Poultry/Cockerel|Poultry/Mature male
Homo sapiens:
Loxodonta africana:
Ovis aries (sheep)Domesticated host|Wild hostSheep & Goats: All Stages
Panthera leo (lion):
Sus scrofa (pigs)Domesticated host|Wild hostPigs: All Stages

Hosts/Species Affected

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All warm-blooded terrestrial animals are susceptible to Chrysomya bezziana, including humans, birds, wildlife and livestock. In Africa, C. bezziana infestations have been recorded on buck, impala, lions, rhinos and elephants (Zumpt, 1965). Pre-disposing factors include wounds such as cuts and scratches, while the umbilical of the new-born, the vulva of post-parturition females, scrotum of post-castration or de-horned and branded cattle are especially vulnerable. Where exotic animals are maintained in a C. bezziana endemic area such as a zoo, many other animal species not normally exposed as hosts can be infested by C. bezziana. For example, at the Zoo Negara in Malaysia, kangaroos, wallabies and polar bears have been recorded as hosts (Spradbery and Vanniasingham, 1980).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BahrainPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Invasive Kloft et al., 1981; Hall et al., 2001
BangladeshPresentJames, 1947
CambodiaPresentNative Invasive James, 1947
China
-Hong KongPresentIntroduced2000 Invasive Wardhana et al., 2012b; Ng et al., 2003; Ready et al., 2009
IndiaPresentNative Invasive James, 1947; Norris and Murray, 1964
-Andhra PradeshPresentNative Invasive Norris and Murray, 1964
-ChhattisgarhPresentNative Invasive Norris and Murray, 1964
-Dadra and Nagar HaveliPresentNative Invasive Norris and Murray, 1964
-GoaPresentNative Invasive J.P. Spradbery, personal observation, 1994
-KarnatakaPresentNative Invasive Norris and Murray, 1964
-KeralaPresentNative Invasive Norris and Murray, 1964
-Madhya PradeshPresentNative Invasive Norris and Murray, 1964
-MaharashtraPresentNative Invasive Norris and Murray, 1964
-OdishaPresentNative Invasive Norris and Murray, 1964
-RajasthanPresentNative Invasive J.P. Spradbery, personal observation, 1994
-Tamil NaduPresentNative Invasive Norris and Murray, 1964
-West BengalPresentNative Invasive Norris and Murray, 1964
IndonesiaPresentNative Invasive Wardhana et al., 2012b; Norris and Murray, 1964; Wardhana et al., 2014
-Irian JayaPresentNative Invasive Wardhana et al., 2012b; Norris and Murray, 1964; Wardhana et al., 2014
-JavaPresentNative Invasive Wardhana et al., 2012b; Norris and Murray, 1964; Wardhana et al., 2014
-KalimantanPresentNative Invasive Wardhana et al., 2012b; Wardhana et al., 2014
-Nusa TenggaraPresentNative Invasive Wardhana et al., 2012b; Wardhana et al., 2014
-SulawesiPresentNative Invasive Wardhana et al., 2012b; Norris and Murray, 1964; Wardhana et al., 2014
-SumatraPresentNative Invasive Wardhana et al., 2012b; Norris and Murray, 1964; Wardhana et al., 2014
IranPresentNative Invasive Wardhana et al., 2012b; Hall et al., 2001; Hall et al., 2009Boushehr and Hormozoan Provinces
IraqPresentNative Invasive Wardhana et al., 2012b; Hall et al., 2001; Hall et al., 2009Basrah, Karbala and Diayala Provinces
KuwaitPresentIntroduced Invasive Rajapaksa and Spradbery, 1989; Hall et al., 2001
LaosPresentNative Invasive James, 1947
MalaysiaPresentNative Invasive Wardhana et al., 2012b; Norris and Murray, 1964
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentNative Invasive Norris and Murray, 1964
MyanmarPresentNative Invasive James, 1947; Norris and Murray, 1964; Hall et al., 2001
OmanPresentNative Invasive Wardhana et al., 2012b; Spradbery et al., 1992; Hall et al., 2009Al-Batina, Al-Shargiah and Interior Districts
PakistanPresentNative Invasive James, 1947; Hall et al., 2001
PhilippinesPresentNative Invasive James, 1947
QatarPresentNative Invasive Rajapaksa and Spradbery, 1989
Saudi ArabiaPresent Invasive Wardhana et al., 2012b; Ansari and Oertley, 1982; Hall et al., 2009Al-Khari, Al-Muzahimiyah, Al-Ehsaa
Sri LankaPresentNative Invasive James, 1947
TaiwanPresentNative Invasive Norris and Murray, 1964
ThailandPresentNative Invasive James, 1947
United Arab EmiratesPresentIntroduced Invasive Spradbery and Kirk, 1992; Hall et al., 2001
VietnamPresentNative Invasive James, 1947
YemenLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Wardhana et al., 2012b; Robinson et al., 2009

Africa

CameroonPresentNative Invasive Hall et al., 2001
ChadPresentNative Invasive Hall et al., 2001
CongoPresentNative Invasive James, 1947
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentNative Invasive Rovere, 1910; Hall et al., 2014
Côte d'IvoirePresentNative Invasive James, 1947
Equatorial GuineaPresentNative Invasive James, 1947
EthiopiaPresentNative Invasive Hall et al., 2001Two localities: Gondar, Yabello
GambiaPresentNative Invasive James, 1947
GuineaPresentNative Invasive James, 1947
Guinea-BissauPresentNative Invasive Norris and Murray, 1964
KenyaPresentNative Invasive James, 1947
SenegalPresentNative Invasive Norris and Murray, 1964
South AfricaPresentNative Invasive Wardhana et al., 2012b; Baker et al., 1968; Hall et al., 2014East Cape Province
SudanPresentNative Invasive Hall et al., 2014
SwazilandPresentNative Invasive James, 1947
TanzaniaPresentNative Invasive Norris and Murray, 1964; Hall et al., 2014
-ZanzibarPresentNative Invasive James, 1947
UgandaPresentNative Invasive James, 1947
ZambiaPresentNative Invasive James, 1947
ZimbabwePresentNative Invasive Wardhana et al., 2012b; Cuthbertson, 1933; Hall et al., 2001

Oceania

Australia
-Australian Northern TerritoryAbsent, intercepted only Not invasive Rajapaksa and Spradbery, 1989Port Darwin,1988
Papua New GuineaPresentNative Invasive Norris and Murray, 1964; Hall et al., 2001; Spradbery and Tozer, 2013

Pathology

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Within hours of hatching from the eggs, first-instar larvae establish cavities in the subcutaneous tissue and these are enlarged by the action of the larval mouth hooks as they grow and migrate deeper into the muscle tissue. Clinically, irritation and pyrexia occur. By day 7, when the larvae are mature, progressive necrosis and liquefaction of tissues result in deep wounds with frayed necrotic edges. Histologically, necrosis is accompanied by intense neutrophil infiltration and haemorrhage. Haematological and biochemical changes also occur, notably neutrophilia and anaemia, and a decrease in serum protein with an increase in serum globulins. Significant weight loss occurs in infested animals. The pathology of C. bezziana infestations on cattle has been studied in detail by Humphrey et al. (1980).

Diagnosis

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Clinical Diagnosis

Signs of infestation include a ragged lesion containing larvae of Chrysomya bezziana, persistent licking of the lesion by the host, an initial hypersensitivity after which sensitivity decreases. Restlessness, lethargy, inappetence with a decrease in growth rate, anaemia and hypoproteinaemia, and intermittent irritation and pyrexia characterize the condition. The lesion can extend into the body cavities causing peritonitis, sinusitis and pleuritis depending on the site of infestation. There is a foul-smelling and characteristically pungent odour associated with C. bezziana-infested lesions.

Lesions

Early larval invasion of the damaged epidermis by newly-hatched larvae create small cavities 5-10mm in diameter with the larvae bathed in a serous fluid and visibly active. Within 24 hours the cavities are enlarged and extend into the subcutaneous tissue and muscles. Progressive liquifactive necrosis of the tissues continues as the larvae grow and the lesion becomes cavernous with ragged edges. In the depths of the lesion are a seething, pulsating mass of larvae covered in liquefied tissue and blood.

Differential Diagnosis

Myiasis due to Chrysomya bezziana must be distinguished from myiases due to other species of carrion blowflies (Calliphorinae). In the sheep blowflies, Lucilia cuprina and L. sericata, the larvae feed superficially on the surface of the wound or fleece and sustained by the serous exudate from the host animal. If disturbed, C. bezziana larvae retract deeper into the wound while Lucilia tend to evacuate the site and burrow into surrounding wool. Any lesions, especially following invasive husbandry such as castration or de-horning, should be explored with a view to the possibility of C. bezziana infestation. Diagnosis of a screw-worm fly infestation is normally made after detecting larvae and collecting specimens for storage in 80 per cent ethanol for microscopic examination in the laboratory (Spradbery, 2002a).

Laboratory diagnosis

Histologically, two phases are evident: firstly of necrosis, neutrophil infiltration and haemorrhage associated with tissue invasion and growth of larvae; and then a fibroplastic healing phase in which mast cells and eosinophils are prominent. Biochemical changes include initial neutrophilia, anaemia and decreased serum protein with progressive increase in serum globulins (Humphrey et al., 1980). Specimens of first to third instar larvae (and including pupae and adults) from infested wounds can be readily diagnosed by reference to Spradbery (2002a) and first-instar larvae by Szpila et al. (2014). A technique for identifying geographical races of C. bezziana adults based on wing morphometrics has been described (Hall et al., 2014).

List of Symptoms/Signs

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General Signs

  • Fever, pyrexia, hyperthermia
  • Haemorrhage of any body part or clotting failure, bleeding
  • Swelling skin or subcutaneous, mass, lump, nodule
  • Weight loss

Skin

  • Integumentary Signs/Foul odor skin, smell
  • Integumentary Signs/Purulent discharge skin
  • Integumentary Signs/Skin laceration, cut, tear, bite
  • Integumentary Signs/Skin necrosis, sloughing, gangrene
  • Integumentary Signs/Warm skin, hot, heat

Epidemiology

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Adults of C. bezziana are not parasitic but lay their eggs on the edge of wounds or body orifaces on host animals which include all warm-blooded animals such as birds and mammals including humans. Up to 245 (mean 180) eggs are laid in a compact mass from which first-instar larvae emerge and begin feeding on the superficial wound fluids before beginning to excavate the flesh by tearing the capillaries with their mouth hooks (Spradbery, 2002a). Within 24 hours, cavities appear which extend deeply into the subcutaneous tissues. A progressive necrosis of skin and muscle continues as the larvae pass through two instar changes and in the final, third instar most larval growth takes place (Humphrey et al., 1980). Lesions emit a characteristic pungent, sickly odour which also attracts other C. bezziana females to oviposit. After 6-7 days feeding, the larvae migrate from the lesion and, primarily overnight, evacuate the host wound and begin to burrow into the substrate where they pupariate (Spradbery, 1992). Emergence of adults is temperature dependent and takes place after 7 days or more. Females normally mate only once.

Impact: Economic

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In Zimbabwe (Rhodesia) Chrysomya bezziana is, with the exception of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans, the most important insect pest of cattle, horses, dogs and other domestic animals (Cuthbertson, 1933). When the tick control programme broke down during the 1973-1978 guerilla war in Rhodesia, more than 300,000 livestock were lost, the majority due to C. bezziana infestations (Norval, 1978). C. bezziana is considered a major obstacle to large-scale beef production in Malaysia (Basset and Kadir 1982). The economic impact of the 1996 Iraq incursion included an estimated FAO/AOAD budget at the time of US$8,555,000 to counter the invasion (Spradbery and El-Dessouky, 1998). The cost of a C. bezziana incursion resulting in the establishment of the pest in Australia was estimated as high as $AUD900 million per annum a decade ago (Kwabena Anaman in Spradbery, 2002b). The social impact of livestock production losses is matched by the misery of human infestations caused by C. bezziana, especially among children and the aged and infirm. The adverse impacts on wildlife would also be considerable.

Prevention and Control

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Local Control (vaccination, restriction of movement, regulation)

At present, the only means for control of Chrysomya bezziana infestations of livestock are regular inspections and treatment of infested stock using a variety of insecticides. Wardhaugh and Mahon (2002) reviewed the use of insecticides as an integral part of the deployment of the sterile insect release method (SIRM) for control and eradication of C. bezziana. The range of potential treatment chemicals has been reviewed by James et al. (2005) and James et al. (2014) tested the efficacy of Australian-registered chemical formulations against C. bezziana in animal and laboratory evaluations. The sterile insect release method (SIRM) / sterile insect technique (SIT) has been experimentally evaluated for deployment against C. bezziana in field trials in Papua New Guinea (Spradbery et al., 1989) and Malaysia (Mahon, 2002) and is included in the Australian response plan for a C. bezziana incursion (Animal Health Australia AUSVETPLAN, 2007). A potential vaccine for C. bezziana has been explored by an Indonesian/Australian team (Sukarsih Partoutomo et al., 2000; Willadsen, 2000). Livestock movement controls should reduce the rate of spread of a C. bezziana outbreak and is an integral component of the Australian response plan for a screw-worm fly invasion (Ausvetplan, 2007). An effective bait-trapping procedure for surveillance has been developed to capture adults of C. bezziana (Urech et al., 2012, 2014) and, with a real-time PCR assay, can be used to detect very low numbers of C. bezziana in bulk fly catches from insect traps (Jarrett et al., 2010).

National and International Control Policy (vaccination programmes, quarantine regulation)

Old World Screw-worm fly, C. bezziana, is subject to strict global quarantine restrictions as set down in the OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code to prevent the spread of the pest to new geographical regions. Australia is free of screw-worm fly but with a climate suitable for C. bezziana (Sutherst et al., 1989) and there are national quarantine restrictions and an extensive surveillance program as part of the Australian emergency preparedness plan for screw-worm fly (Animal Health Australia AUSVETPLAN, 2007).

The risks of a C. bezziana incursion into Australia and recommended surveillance requirements have been recently reviewed (Beckett et al., 2014).

References

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Abdul Rassoul MS; Ali HA; Jassim FA, 1996. Notes on Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae), first recorded from Iraq. Bulletin of the Iraq Natural History Museum, 8:113-115.

Al-Izzi MAJ; Al-Taweel AA; Jassim FA, 1999. Epidemiology and rearing of Old World screwworm, Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Iraq. Iraqi Journal of Agriculture, 4:153-160.

Animal Health Australia, 2007. Disease Strategy: Screw-worm fly (Version 3). Australian Veterinary Emergency Plan (AUSVETPLAN), Edition 3. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Primary Industries Ministerial Council, 60 pp.

Ansari MA; Oertley RE, 1982. Nasal myiasis due to Bezzi's blowfly (screw worm): case report. Saudi Medical Journal, 3(4):275-278.

Baker JAF; Mchardy WM; Thorburn JA; Thompson GE, 1968. Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve-some observations on its occurrence and activity in the Eastern Cape Province. South African Veterinary Medical Association, 39:3-11.

Basset CR; Kadir SBA, 1982. The screw-worm fly (Chrysomya bezziana): an obstacle to large-scale beef production in Malaysia. In: Animal production and health in the tropics. Proceedings of the First Asian-Australasian Animal Science Congress, Serdang, 2nd-5th September 1980 [ed. by M.R. Jainudeen\A.R. Omar]. Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia: Universiti Pertanian, 133-135.

Beckett S; Spradbery JP; Urech R; James; P; Green P; Welch M, 2014. Old World Screw-worm Fly: Risk of Entry into Australia and Surveillance Requirements. Report for Animal Health Australia. Canberra, Australia: Animal Health Australia, 192 pp.

Cuthbertson A, 1933. The Habits and Life Histories of some Díptera in Southern Rhodesia. Proceedings and Transactions of the Rhodesia Scientific Association, 32:81-111 pp.

Fuller G, 1962. How screwworm eradication will affect wildlife. The Cattleman, 48:82-84.

Hall MJR; Edge W; Testa JM; Adams ZJO; Ready PD, 2001. Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, occurs as two geographical races. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 15(4):393-402.

Hall MJR; MacLeod N; Wardhana AH, 2014. Use of wing morphometrics to identify populations of the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae): a preliminary study of the utility of museum specimens. Acta Tropica, 138(Suppl.):S49-S55. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0001706X

Hall MJR; Wardhana AH; Shahhosseini G; Adams ZJO; Ready PD, 2009. Genetic diversity of populations of Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, causing traumatic myiasis of livestock in the Gulf region and implications for control by sterile insect technique. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 23(s1):51-58. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/mve

Humphrey JD; Spradbery JP; Tozer RS, 1980. Chrysomya bezziana: pathology of old world screw-worm fly infestations in cattle. Experimental Parasitology, 49(3):381-397.

James MT, 1947. The Flies that cause Myiasis in Man. Miscellaneous Publications. United States Department of Agriculture, 631. Washington, D.C., 175 pp.

James P; Wardhana A; Brown G; Urech R, 2014. Chemical containment and eradication of screw-worm incursions in Australia. Report to Meat and Livestock Australia. Sydney, Australia: Meat and Livestock Australia, 37 pp.

James PJ; Green PE; Urech R; Spradbery JP, 2005. Chemicals for control of the Old World screw-worm fly Chrysomya bezziana in Australia. Report to Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry. Canberra, Australia: Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry, 40 pp.

Jarrett S; Morgan JAT; Wlodek BM; Brown GW; Urech R; Green PE; Lew-Tabor AE, 2010. Specific detection of the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, in bulk fly trap catches using real-time PCR. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 24(3):227-235. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/mve

Kloft WJ; Noll GF; Kloft ES, 1981. Introduction of Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Dipt., Calliphoridae) into new geographical regions by "transit infestation". (Durch "Transitbefall" bewirkte Einschleppung von Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Dipt., Calliphoridae) in neue geographische Regionen.) Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie, 3(1/3):151-154.

Mahon RJ, 2002. The Malaysian project - entomological report. In: Proceedings of the Screw-worm Fly Emergency Preparedness Conference, Canberra, Australia, November 2001., Australia: Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry - Australia, 140-151.

Ng KH; Yip KT; Choi CH; Yeung KH; Auyeung TW; Tsang AC; Chow L; Que TL, 2003. A case of oral myiasis due to Chrysomya bezziana. Hong Kong Medical Journal, 9:454-456.

Norris KR; Murray MD, 1964. Notes on the screw-worm fly Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as a pest of cattle in Papua New Guinea. CSIRO Division of Entomology Technical Paper No. 6. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO, 26 pp.

Norval RAI, 1978. The effects of partial breakdown of dipping in African areas in Rhodesia. Rhodesian Veterinary Journal, 9(1/4):9-16.

Pillai JS; Ramalingan S, 1984. Recent introductions of some medically important Diptera in the Northwest, Central, and South Pacific (including New Zealand). In: Commerce and the spread of pests and disease vectors [ed. by Laird, M.]. New York: Praeger Publishers, USA 81-101.

Rajapaksa N; Spradbery JP, 1989. Occurrence of the Old World screw-worm fly Chrysomya bezziana on livestock vessels and commercial aircraft. Australian Veterinary Journal, 66(3):94-96.

Ready PD; Testa JM; Wardhana AH; Al-Izzi M; Khalaj M; Hall MJR, 2009. Phylogeography and recent emergence of the Old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, based on mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequences. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 23(s1):43-50. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/mve

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21/07/15 Original text by:

Dr J. Philip Spradbery, XCS Consulting Pty Ltd, GPO Box 2566, Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia.

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