Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Salvia occidentalis
(West Indian sage)

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Datasheet

Salvia occidentalis (West Indian sage)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Salvia occidentalis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • West Indian sage
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Salvia occidentalis, commonly known as West Indian sage, is an annual or perennial herb native to South and Central America and the Caribbean. It grows in tropical climates, in wet or dry fields, and often in w...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Salvia occidentalis (West Indian sage); flowers and leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
TitleFlowers and leaves
CaptionSalvia occidentalis (West Indian sage); flowers and leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Salvia occidentalis (West Indian sage); flowers and leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
Flowers and leavesSalvia occidentalis (West Indian sage); flowers and leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Salvia occidentalis (West Indian sage); flowers and leaves, Ulupalakua Ranch. Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
TitleFlowers
CaptionSalvia occidentalis (West Indian sage); flowers and leaves, Ulupalakua Ranch. Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Salvia occidentalis (West Indian sage); flowers and leaves, Ulupalakua Ranch. Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
FlowersSalvia occidentalis (West Indian sage); flowers and leaves, Ulupalakua Ranch. Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Salvia occidentalis (West Indian sage); leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
TitleLeaves
CaptionSalvia occidentalis (West Indian sage); leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Salvia occidentalis (West Indian sage); leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
LeavesSalvia occidentalis (West Indian sage); leaves. Ulupalakua Ranch, Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Salvia occidentalis (West Indian sage); Habit. Ulupalakua Ranch. Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
TitleHabit
CaptionSalvia occidentalis (West Indian sage); Habit. Ulupalakua Ranch. Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Salvia occidentalis (West Indian sage); Habit. Ulupalakua Ranch. Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.
HabitSalvia occidentalis (West Indian sage); Habit. Ulupalakua Ranch. Hawaii, USA. February, 2012.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Salvia occidentalis (West Indian sage); Habit. Honokowai Ditch Trail. Hawaii, USA. June, 2010.
TitleHabit
CaptionSalvia occidentalis (West Indian sage); Habit. Honokowai Ditch Trail. Hawaii, USA. June, 2010.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Salvia occidentalis (West Indian sage); Habit. Honokowai Ditch Trail. Hawaii, USA. June, 2010.
HabitSalvia occidentalis (West Indian sage); Habit. Honokowai Ditch Trail. Hawaii, USA. June, 2010.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Salvia occidentalis Sw.

Preferred Common Name

  • West Indian sage

Other Scientific Names

  • Hyptis glandulosa Sieber ex Benth.
  • Salvia martinicensis Sessé & Moc.
  • Salvia occidentalis f. bicolor Kuntze
  • Salvia occidentalis f. violacea Kuntze
  • Salvia occidentalis var. garberi Chapm.
  • Salvia privoides var. garberi (Chapm.) Chapm.
  • Salvia procumbens Ruiz & Pav.
  • Salvia radicans Poir.

International Common Names

  • English: blue sage; hap-seed; pegapega
  • Spanish: gonce de gallina

Local Common Names

  • Cook Islands: ‘aunga kino; ‘aunga-kino; mauku ‘aunga-kino
  • Cuba: salvia de manigua
  • Dominican Republic: yerba buena cimarrona
  • El Salvador: hierba de cangro; mozote de gallina; mozote de pollo; mozotillo
  • Guatemala: gonce de gallina; hierba de cangro; mozote de gallina; mozotillo; pegapega; trencilla negra
  • Haiti: peti baume
  • Indonesia/Java: legdan warak; longan; randa mint
  • Jamaica: field basil
  • Niue: pupu elo; sealu
  • Puerto Rico: hap-seed; moradilla
  • Tonga: te‘ekosi; te‘ekosi totolo

Summary of Invasiveness

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Salvia occidentalis, commonly known as West Indian sage, is an annual or perennial herb native to South and Central America and the Caribbean. It grows in tropical climates, in wet or dry fields, and often in waste grounds. Established at altitudes from 200 to 600 m, it can also be found at higher elevations. Outside of its native range it has become naturalized and invasive, such as in Hawaii, USA (first reported there in 1835), where it is impacting on endangered and endemic plants. It is also invasive in southern Florida, USA, and on a large number of islands in Oceania. S. occidentalis spreads quickly and can form a dense, tangled mass.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Lamiales
  •                         Family: Lamiaceae
  •                             Genus: Salvia
  •                                 Species: Salvia occidentalis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The Lamiaceae (mint) family comprises about 200 genera and 3,200 species of flowering plants. Such plants are frequently aromatic and are known for their medicinal and culinary use (University of Hawaii, 2015). This family includes some of the most well-known herbs containing essential oils, such as lavender, sage, basil, mint and oregano (Whistler, 2000; Smithsonian Institution, 2014). This indicates strong biotechnological potentials, not only for culinary reasons, but also for pharmaceutical applications.

The genus Salvia consists of species of sage. The genus name means “to save”, which refers to the medicinal uses of these species (Morhardt and Morhardt, 2004). It is the most abundant genus in the Lamiaceae family, consisting of between 700 and 900 species. The genus is widely distributed in various regions of the world (Rodríguez-Hahn and Cárdenas, 1999) but is primarily found in tropical and subtropical regions (Wagner et al., 1990). Many Salvia species are grown for their aromatic leaves to be used in fragrances, cooking and ornamental plants (Whistler, 2000). 

Description

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Wagner et al. (1999) describes S. occidentalis as follows:

"Annual or perennial herbs, often somewhat woody at base; stems decumbent, sometimes ascending, or occasionally subscandent, usually 3-10 dm long, densely soft short-villous, becoming glabrate. Leaves broadly ovate to rhombic-ovate or occasionally ovate-deltate, 1-6 cm long, 1-3 cm wide, upper surface sparsely scabrid to glabrous, lower surface sparsely puberulent to glabrate, margins crenate-serrate, apex acute to obtuse, base broadly cuneate or occasionally truncate, petioles 0.7-1.5 cm long. Flowers 2-6 in diffuse racemose inflorescences, bracts ovate, 1.5-2.5 mm long, apex acuminate; calyx 2-3 mm long, only slightly cleft, moderately glandular pubescent, upper lip truncate or obscurely 3-toothed, lower lip 2-toothed; corolla blue, tube ca. 2.5 mm long, upper lip concave, ca. 1.5 mm long; stamens scarcely exserted beyond or included in corolla tube. One nutlet developing, narrowly obovoid, ca. 1.5 mm long."

Plant Type

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Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed propagated
Woody

Distribution

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S. occidentalis is native throughout Central America, and is also native to South America (largely in countries along the north-west coast) and the Caribbean islands (such as Jamaica, Cuba and Saint Lucia). It is generally widespread in New World tropical regions (Lorence and Wagner, 2011; Smithsonian Institution, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2015). It has been introduced to Florida and Hawaii, USA, and to many islands in Oceania, such as those in French Polynesia, New Caledonia and Tonga (USDA-NRCS, 2015; PIER, 2015).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndonesiaPresentPIER, 2015
-JavaPresentIntroduced Not invasive Sorenson and Johannessen, 2004Tried as a cover crop

North America

MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
Saint Pierre and MiquelonPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2015
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2015
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive USDA-NRCS, 2015Hawaii Island, Kauai, Lanai, Maui, Molokai, Niihau, Oahu, Kahoolawe.

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
BahamasPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2015
BarbadosPresentNativeSmithsonian Institution, 2014
BelizePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
Cayman IslandsPresentNativeSmithsonian Institution, 2014
Costa RicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
CubaPresentNativeSmithsonian Institution, 2014
DominicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
Dominican RepublicPresentNativeSmithsonian Institution, 2014
El SalvadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
GrenadaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
GuadeloupePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
GuatemalaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
HaitiPresentNativeSmithsonian Institution, 2014
HondurasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
JamaicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
MartiniquePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
MontserratPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
NicaraguaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
PanamaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
Puerto RicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
Saint LuciaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
United States Virgin IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-NRCS, 2015

South America

BoliviaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
ColombiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
EcuadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
PeruPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015
VenezuelaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2015

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedAVH, 2015; GBIF, 2015
Cook IslandsPresentPIER, 2015Mangaia, Mauke, Mitiaro
French PolynesiaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015Marquesas Islands - Nuku Hiva; Society Islands - Moorea, Tahiti; Tuamotu Archipelago - Makatea; Austral Islands - Rimatara
New CaledoniaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015Belep Islands - Art; Loyalte Islands - Loyauté, Lifou, Ouvéa, Tiga; New Caledonia Archipelago - Balabio, Grande Terre, Pins, Yande
NiuePresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015Niue
SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015Western Samoa Islands - Upolu
Solomon IslandsPresentNativePIER, 2015
TongaPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2015Haapai Group - Lifuka, Nomuka; Tonga Islands; Tongatapu Group - ‘Eua, Tongatapu; Vavau Group - Niuatoputapu, Vavau

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Hawaii 1835 Ornamental purposes (pathway cause) Yes Stone et al. (1992)

Habitat

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S. occidentalis grows in wet or dry fields and often in disturbed habitat in tropical and sub-tropical areas. On Niue and Tonga in the South Pacific Ocean, it is occasional to abundant in plantations and waste-grounds (Yuncker, 1959; Whistler, 1988; Sykes, 1970).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Reproductive Biology

S. occidentalis reproduces by seeds.

Physiology and Phenology

As an obligate short day plant, day length affects the phenol metabolism in the leaves of S. occidentalis (Bhargava, 1965; Engelsma, 1979).

Longevity

S. occidentalis is an annual or perennial herb.

Environmental Requirements

S. occidentalis prefers sandy soil, but can grow in heavy clays.

It is mainly found at low elevations of 200-600 m (Brown, 1935; Fern, 2014) but also at higher altitudes. It grows up to 850 m in Java (Sosef, 1997) and between 1-1000 m in Hawaii, USA (Wagner et al., 1999).

Long days (continuous light) inhibit the flowering of S. occidentalis (Bhargava, 1965; Engelsma, 1979).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Tolerated < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BW - Desert climate Tolerated < 430mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Soil Tolerances

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Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Vector Transmission (Biotic)

The very viscid calyces of S. occidentalis often adhere in great numbers to clothes, and also to the feathers and feet of small birds such as chickens, or even of larger birds (Standley and Williams, 1973; Fern, 2014).

Intentional Introduction

S. occidentalis was introduced to Hawaii, USA, as an ornamental plant (Stone et al., 1992).

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessions Yes Fern, 2014
LivestockThe viscid calyces often adhere to the feathers and feet of small birds e.g. chickens Yes Fern, 2014; Standley and Williams, 1973

Environmental Impact

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A common weed of Central America, the plant has become naturalized outside its native range and, in some areas, has become an invasive weed (Fern, 2014).

Impact on Biodiversity

S. occidentalis can form a dense, tangled mass when its panicles become intertwined, causing competition with native species (Sykes, 1970). 

In Hawaii, USA, S. occidentalis degrades habitat for the endangered and endemic shrub, kaala rockwort (Nototrichium humile), and competes for resources (USFWS, 2007). On the lower cliffs of Awaawapuhi on Kauai Island, Hawaii, S. occidentalis is one of many invasive species dominating the area, potentially threatening another endemic and endangered shrub, Kauai schiedea (Schiedea apokremnos) (USFWS, 2010).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Nototrichium humile (kaala rockwort)EN (IUCN red list: Endangered) EN (IUCN red list: Endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiUSFWS, 2007
Schiedea apokremnos (Kauai schiedea)CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered) CR (IUCN red list: Critically endangered); USA ESA listing as endangered species USA ESA listing as endangered speciesHawaiiUSFWS, 2010

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species

Uses

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Economic Value

S. occidentalis is established in Indonesia (Java), where it has been tried as a cover crop (Sorenson and Johannessen, 2004). It provides quick cover and prevents the establishment of Imperata grass (Sosef and van der Maesen, 1997).

Social Benefit

It is used for medicinal purposes, for the treatment of stomach pains and dysentery (Uphof, 1959; Jaime-Vasconcelos et al., 2011; IPK, 2015).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Boundary, barrier or support
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization

General

  • Research model

Human food and beverage

  • Food additive

Materials

  • Chemicals
  • Essential oils

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Ornamental

  • Potted plant

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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Because of its adaptability, S. occidentalis could become more of a pest in the future, so more research on prevention and control is required.

References

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AVH, 2015. Australia's Virtual Herbarium. Canberra, ACT, Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. http://avh.chah.org.au/

Bhargava SC, 1965. Inhibition of flowering by light in the short-day plant Salvia occidentalis. Science, 147(3653):60-61.

Brown FBH, 1935. Flora of Southeastern Polynesia III - Dicotyledons. Bishop Museum Bulletin, 130.

Engelsma G, 1979. Effect of daylength on phenol metabolism in the leaves of Salvia occidentalis. Plant Physiology, 63(4):765-768.

Fern K, 2014. The useful tropical plants database. http://tropical.theferns.info

GBIF, 2015. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

Imada CT, 2012. Hawaiian native and naturalized vascular plants checklist (December 2012 update). A. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Bishop Museum Press, 105 pp.

IPK, 2015. Mansfield's world database of agricultural and horticultural crops. Gatersleben, Germany: IPK. http://mansfeld.ipk-gatersleben.de/

ITIS, 2015. Integrated Taxonomic Information System online database. http://www.itis.gov

Jaime-Vasconcelos MÁ; Frontana-Uribe BA; Morales-Serna JA; Salmón M; Cárdenas J, 2011. Structure of salvioccidentalin, a diterpenoid with a rearranged neo-clerodane skeleton from Salvia occidentalis. Molecules, 16(11):9109-9115. http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/16/11/9109/

Morhardt S; Morhardt E, 2004. California desert flowers - an introduction to families, genera and species. USA: University of California Press, 284 pp.

PIER, 2015. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Rodriguez-Hahn L; Cardenas J, 1999. Comparative chemotaxonomy in Labiatae. Current Topics in Phytochemistry, 2:91-102.

Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2015. An online resource for the world's plants. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens. http://wfo.kew.org

Smithsonian Institution, 2014. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/index.htm

Sorenson JL; Johannessen CL, 2004. Scientific evidence for pre-columbian transoceanic voyages to and from the Americas. Sino-Platonic Papers, 133.

Sosef MSM; Maesen LJG van der, 1997. Salvia occidentalis Swartz. In: Plant resources of southeast Asia No 11 - Auxiliary plants [ed. by Faridah Hanum, I. \Maesen, L. J. G. van der]. Leiden, Netherlands: Backhuys Publisher, 294.

Standley PC; Williams LO, 1973. Fieldiana: Botany, 24(part 9, no. 3-4). 293-294.

Stone CP; Smith CW; Tunison JT, 1992. Alien plant invasions in native ecosystems of Hawaii - Management and research. Manoa, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press, 141 pp.

Sykes WR, 1970. Contributions to the Flora of Niue. Bulletin. Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Zealand, 200:321 pp.

University of Hawaii, 2015. Department of Botany vascular plant family access page - Lamiaceae (Labiatae). Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/lami.htm

Uphof JCT, 1959. Dictionary of economic plants. Weinheim, Germany: H. R. Engelmann (J. Cramer)

USDA-ARS, 2015. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2015. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

USFWS, 2007. US Fish and Wildlife Service - Nototrichium humile (Kului) 5-year review summary and evaluation. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office. http://ecos.fws.gov/docs/five_year_review/doc1857.pdf

USFWS, 2010. US Fish and Wildlife Service - Schiedea apokremnos (maolioli) 5-year review summary and evaluation. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Islands Fish and Wildlife Office. http://www.fws.gov/ecos/ajax/docs/five_year_review/doc3319.pdf

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1990. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum Special Publication 83. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press and Bishop Museum Press, 829 pp.

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii - Revised edition. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press and Bishop Museum Press, 829 pp.

Whistler WA, 1988. Checklist of the weed flora of Western Polynesia. An annotated list of the weed species of Samoa, Tonga, Niue, and Wallis and Futuna, along with the earliest dates of collection and the local names. Technical Paper, South Pacific Commission, No. 194:69 pp.

Whistler WA, 2000. Tropical ornamentals. Portland, Oregon, USA: Timber Press.

Yuncker TG, 1959. Plants of Tonga. Bishop Museum Bulletin, 220:343 pp.

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
Department of Botany Vascular Plant Familyhttp://www.botany.hawaii.edu
Flora of the Marquesas Islandshttp://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Integrated Taxomonic Information Service (ITIS)http://www.itis.gov
PIERhttp://www.hear.org/pier/index.html
The PLANTS Databasehttp://plants.usda.gov
The Useful Tropical Plants Database websitehttp://tropical.theferns.info

Organizations

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USA: Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR), P.O. Box 1272, Puunene, HI96784, Hawaii, http://www.hear.org/

USA: The Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), 10300 Baltimore Blvd. Room 330, Bldg. 003,, BARC-West Beltsville, MD 20705, http://www.ars-grin.gov

USA: U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), 1400 Independence Ave.,, S.W. Washington, DC 20250, http://www.usda.gov/

Contributors

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10/09/2015 Original text by:

Giovanni Cafà, CABI, UK

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