Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Poa nemoralis
(wood bluegrass)

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Datasheet

Poa nemoralis (wood bluegrass)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Poa nemoralis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • wood bluegrass
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Poa nemoralis, commonly known as wood bluegrass, is a perennial, densely-tufted grass which often grows in shaded places such as woodland. It is native to Eurasia and has been introduced to North America where...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Poa nemoralis (wood bluegrass); habit, growing beneath Quercus robur (English oak). Poland.
TitleHabit
CaptionPoa nemoralis (wood bluegrass); habit, growing beneath Quercus robur (English oak). Poland.
Copyright©Gil Wojciech/Polish Forest Research Institute/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Poa nemoralis (wood bluegrass); habit, growing beneath Quercus robur (English oak). Poland.
HabitPoa nemoralis (wood bluegrass); habit, growing beneath Quercus robur (English oak). Poland.©Gil Wojciech/Polish Forest Research Institute/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Poa nemoralis L.

Preferred Common Name

  • wood bluegrass

Other Scientific Names

  • Agrostis alba L.
  • Agrostis stolonifera f. alba (L.) Schur
  • Agrostis vulgaris var. alba (L.) Gatt.
  • Aira elodes Brign.
  • Catabrosa elodes (Brign.) Roem. & Schult.
  • Catabrosa helodes Roem. & Schult.
  • Decandolia alba (L.) T. Bastard
  • Eragrostis tenuis Steud.
  • Festuca capitata Balb. ex Spreng.
  • Festuca depauperata Bertol.
  • Milium album (L.) Lag.
  • Paneion nemorale (L.) Lunell
  • Paneion nemorale L.
  • Poa acmocalyx Keng f. & L.Liu
  • Poa adjarica (Sommier & Levier) A.P.Khokhr.
  • Poa alexeenkoi (Tzvelev) Czerep.
  • Poa angustifolia var. nemoralis (L.) Huds.
  • Poa asperula Steud.
  • Poa balbisii Parl.
  • Poa balfourii auct.
  • Poa balfourii auct.
  • Poa caespitosa Poir.
  • Poa cinerea Vill.
  • Poa coarctata Haller f. ex Gaudich.
  • Poa debilis Thuill.
  • Poa firmula (Gaudich.) Gray
  • Poa glauca subsp. glaucantha (Gaudich.) Lindm.
  • Poa glaucantha Schleich. ex Gaudin
  • Poa glaucescens Roth
  • Poa gracilescens Schrad.
  • Poa hypanica Prokudin
  • Poa juncea Suter
  • Poa juncoides Gaudich.
  • Poa korshunensis Golosk.
  • Poa lapponica Prokudin
  • Poa muralis Honck.
  • Poa parnellii Bab.
  • Poa pilipes Keng f. ex Shan Chen
  • Poa polymorpha Wibel
  • Poa pratensis var. cinerea (Vill.) Mathieu
  • Poa pratensis var. fagetorum Rech. & T.C.Scheff.
  • Poa scheuchzeri Suter
  • Poa scopulorum Butters & Abbe
  • Poa subpolaris Kuvaev
  • Poa tenuis Clairv.
  • Vilfa alba (L.) P.Beauv.

International Common Names

  • English: woodland bluegrass

Local Common Names

  • Canada: foin à vaches; forest bluegrass; pâturin des bois; woods bluegrass
  • China: lin di zao shu he
  • France: pâturin des bois
  • Germany: Hainrispengras
  • Italy: fienarola dei boschi
  • Japan: tachi-ichigo-tsunagi
  • Korea, Republic of: seonpoapul
  • Russian Federation: mjatlik lesnoj
  • Sweden: lundgröe
  • UK: wood meadow grass
  • USA: inland bluegrass

Summary of Invasiveness

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Poa nemoralis, commonly known as wood bluegrass, is a perennial, densely-tufted grass which often grows in shaded places such as woodland. It is native to Eurasia and has been introduced to North America where it has become naturalized in some states and is considered invasive in Maine and potentially invasive in some forests in Wisconsin. Facilitating its spread is its ability to produce asexual seeds via apomixis, like other meadow grasses, and its use as a lawn grass.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Poa
  •                                 Species: Poa nemoralis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Poa nemoralis L. is a grass species from the family Poaceae. Poa is Greek for fodder and nemoralis is Latin for growing in the woods. Hence its common name wood bluegrass. The Plant List (2013) lists 104 synonyms for this species.

In the PLANTS Database (USDA-NRCS, 2016) two subspecies are documented:  inland bluegrass (P. nemoralis  subsp. interior (Rydb.) W.A. Weber) which is considered native to North America, and wood bluegrass (P. nemoralis  subsp. nemoralis) which is introduced. However, this datasheet follows other treatments that accept P. interior Rydb. as a separate valid species (e.g. The Plant List, 2013).

There has been much debate over the boundary between mountain forms of P. nemoralis and non-glaucous forms of Poa glauca Vahl.. The form sometimes known as Poa balfourii Parn. is now included in P. glauca, not in P. nemoralis (Farmer, 2004).

Description

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The following description is from Utah State University (2016):

Plants perennial; green or glaucous; densely tufted, not stoloniferous, not rhizomatous. Basal branching all or mostly extravaginal.

Culms 30-80 cm, mostly erect, smooth below the panicles; nodes slightly com-pressed, 2-5 exserted, top node at 1/2-3/4 the culm length.

Sheaths closed for 1/10-1/5 their length, terete, bases of basal sheaths glabrous, distal sheath lengths 0.45-1 (1.1) times blade lengths; ligules 0.2-0.8(1) mm, sparsely to densely scabrous, apices truncate, minutely ciliolate; blades 0.8-3 mm wide, mostly flat, appressed, abruptly ascending to spreading, straight or somewhat lax, apices narrowly prow-shaped.

Panicles 7-16(20) cm, lengths usually 2.5-4 times widths at maturity, usually erect, lax in shade forms, narrowly lanceoloid to ovoid, slightly to moderately congested; nodes with 2-5 b-anches; branches ascending to widely spreading, fairly straight, slender to moderately stout, angled, angles moderately to densely scabrous.

Spikelets 3-8 mm, lengths 2.5-3.5 times widths, narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate, laterally compressed, usually not glaucous; florets (1)2-5; rachilla internodes usually shorter than 1 mm, smooth, muriculate, or scabrous, usually puberulent, infrequently hispidulous or glabrous.

Glumes subulate to narrowly lanceolate, distinctly keeled, keels smooth or sparsely scabrous, apices sharply acute to acuminate; lower glumes 3-veined, long-tapered to a slender point, lengths 6.4-11 times widths; upper glumes shorter than or subequal to the lowest lemmas; calluses webbed, hairs sparse, often short; lemmas 2.4-4 mm, proximal lemma widths less than 1/5 times lengths, narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate, distinctly keeled, keels and marginal veins short-villous, lateral veins glabrous, obscure, intercostal regions smooth or muriculate, glabrous, margins glabrous, apices acute, usually partially bronze-colored; palea keels scabrous, intercostal regions glabrous; anthers 0.8-1.9 mm. Caryopses 1.5 mm long.

A description of P. nemoralis, along with photographs, is also given by Lind (2013).

Distribution

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P. nemoralis is native to Eurasia (Gray, 1908; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016). It is widespread across Europe, from Portugal to Bulgaria (Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016), and across Asia, from Iran to Japan (USDA-ARS, 2016). It is now common in southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States (USDA-NRCS, 2016). It has also been reported as naturalized in Australia and New Zealand (Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
ArmeniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
AzerbaijanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
ChinaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-TibetPresentNativeHu et al., 1992Inner Plateau (Chang Tang)
-XinjiangPresentNativeHu et al., 1992North of Tianshan
Georgia (Republic of)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
IndiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
IranPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
IsraelPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
JapanPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-HonshuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
KazakhstanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
LebanonPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
MongoliaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
NepalPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
PakistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
TajikistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
TurkeyPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
TurkmenistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
UzbekistanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
MoroccoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentIntroducedMoss, 1983; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedDouglas et al., 2001; USDA-NRCS, 2016Infrequently in SW
-ManitobaPresentIntroducedJones, 2005; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-New BrunswickPresentIntroducedHinds, 2000; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentIntroducedMeades et al., 2000; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-Nova ScotiaWidespreadIntroducedRoland and Smith, 1966; USDA-NRCS, 2016Scattered. Annapolis County; Antigonish; Kentville; Cape Split, Kings County; Parrboro, Cumberland County; Truro; Pictou; Sydney
-OntarioPresentIntroducedNewmaster et al., 1998; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-QuebecPresentIntroducedCanadensys, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-SaskatchewanPresentIntroducedHarms, 2006; USDA-NRCS, 2016
GreenlandPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
Saint Pierre and MiquelonPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlaskaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedNew England Wild Flower Society, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-DelawarePresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-IndianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-IowaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-KentuckyAbsent, unreliable recordIntroducedCampbell, 2016Naturalized in some Northern regions, including parts of state to North and East of Kentucky but misidentifications possible
-MainePresentIntroduced Invasive Lind, 2013; New England Wild Flower Society, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016; Maine and Department of Agriculture Conservation and Forestry, 2017
-MarylandPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedNew England Wild Flower Society, 2016
-MichiganPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-MinnesotaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-New HampshirePresentIntroducedNew England Wild Flower Society, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-New YorkPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-North DakotaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-OhioPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-OregonPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroducedNew England Wild Flower Society, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-VermontPresentIntroducedNew England Wild Flower Society, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2016
-WisconsinPresentIntroducedUniversity of Wisconsin, 2016; USDA-NRCS, 2016Potentially invasive in some forests

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
AustriaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
BelarusPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
BelgiumPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
BulgariaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
CroatiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
Czech RepublicPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016
DenmarkPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
EstoniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
FinlandPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
FrancePresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
GermanyPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
GreecePresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
HungaryPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
IcelandPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
IrelandPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
ItalyPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
LatviaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
LithuaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
MoldovaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
NetherlandsPresentNativeNaumova et al., 1999; USDA-ARS, 2016Near Wageningen
NorwayPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
PolandPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
PortugalPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
RomaniaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
Russian FederationPresentNativeNaumova et al., 1999; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016Near St. Petersburg; Dagestan; Ciscaucasia; European part
-Eastern SiberiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
-Russian Far EastPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
-Western SiberiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
SerbiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
SlovakiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
SloveniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016
SpainPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
SwedenPresentNativeStaaf and Jonsson, 1987; Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
SwitzerlandPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016
UKPresentNativeRyves et al., 1996; Farmer, 2004; Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora, 2016; USDA-ARS, 2016Scotland: West Highlands; Sgùrr na Lapaich
UkrainePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2016

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016Naturalized
-New South WalesPresentCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016Cultivated
-TasmaniaPresentCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016
-VictoriaPresentCouncil of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016
New ZealandPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS, 2016Naturalized

History of Introduction and Spread

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Introduced from Eurasia, it is now common in mixed woodlands of the northeastern United States and is spreading to the West (New England Wild Flower Society, 2016; Utah State University, 2016). Although an exact date of introduction cannot be found in Clark and Malte (1913) it is stated that seeds of P. nemoralis were mainly obtained from Germany.

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
North America Europe   Yes New England Wild Flower Society (2016)

Risk of Introduction

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It is probable that P. nemoralis will spread further due to its use to create lawns and playing fields (Watson and Dallwitz, 1992).

Habitat

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In its native range P. nemoralis is mainly reported from woodlands and other shady places such as glades and hedgerows (Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora, 2016). In its introduced range in North America is it is recorded from coniferous forests (Dibble et al., 2008), mixed woodlands, disturbed or man-made sites, floodplains and shores of rivers and lakes (New England Wild Flower Society, 2016).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedDisturbed areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Rail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Principal habitat Natural
Riverbanks Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Wetlands Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Rocky areas / lava flows Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Usually hexaploid. 2n = 42, but also 2n = 28, 35, 48, 50, 56 (Utah State University, 2016). Hubbard (1959) comments that it is a very variable species.

Reproductive Biology

P. nemoralis has been reported to shed pollen between 5-8 p.m. (Gibson, 2009).

It can produce asexual seeds via apomixis and can reproduce vegetatively (Asker and Jerling, 1992; Naumova et al., 1999).

Physiology and Phenology

P. nemoralis has C3 physiology. In Norway, at Ås, 59º 40’ N, a minimum of two long days cycles was required for floral induction (Olam, 1986).

Longevity

Ryser and Urbas (2000) found the leaves of P. nemoralis to have an average life span of 39 days in their experiments.

Environmental Requirements

Good resistance to drought, shade and has good winter hardiness (Gibson, 2009).

Generally grows in lowland but can grow up to 915 m in altitude in Scotland, UK (Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora, 2016).

It has been found on loam soil types in beech forests (Staaf et al., 1987).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Soil Tolerances

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Soil texture

  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

P. nemoralis produces seeds asexually (apomixis) which facilitates its spread, particularly long-distance (Asker and Jerling, 1992; Poschlod et al., 2003) (for more detailed information on apomixis in P. nemoralis see Naumova et al. (1999)). It can also reproduce vegetatively (another type of asexual reproduction) which facilitates more local spread (Asker and Jerling, 1992).

Accidental Introduction

Possibly introduced with wool shoddy, grass-seed or soil (Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora, 2016).

Intentional Introduction

Introduced to provide grass cover (see Uses section).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Breeding and propagationUsed for lawns Yes Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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A study by Dibble and Rees (2005) suggests that non-native plants have altered fuel characteristics in coniferous forests in southern Maine, USA; grasses such as P. nemoralis contribute to the fine-fuel load and may extend the period of fire threat under drought conditions.  

P. nemoralis is reported to be capable of becoming invasive in some forests in Wisconsin, USA (University of Wisconsin, 2016).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Modification of fire regime
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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Economic Value

Sown in woodlands, parks, gardens and playing fields due to its ornamental value as a lawn or turfgrass (Watson and Dallwitz, 1992; Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora, 2016).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Environmental

  • Ornamental

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Poa glauca and Poa interior are similar and can be distinguished from P. nemoralis by P. nemoralis’ consistently short ligules, high top culm node, relatively long flag leaf blades, and narrow glumes and lemmas (Utah State University, 2016).

Sometimes confused with Poa palustris which has ligules mostly 1.5-6 mm long and base of lemma with abundant soft, tangled hairs, versus P. nemoralis, with ligules mostly 0.2-0.7 mm long and base of lemma with sparse soft, tangled hairs (New England Wildflower Society, 2016).

Prevention and Control

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No specific measures for controlling this grass species have been found.

 

References

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Asker SE; Jerling L, 1992. Apomixis in Plants. Florida, USA: CRC Press, 320 pp.

Campbell J, 2016. Bluegrass Woodland: Kentucky plants. USA. http://www.bluegrasswoodland.com/Kentucky_Plants_Flora.html

Canadensys, 2016. Poa nemoralis. Canada. http://data.canadensys.net/vascan/name/Poa%20nemoralis

Clark GH; Malte MO, 1913. Fodder and Pasture Plants. Ottawa, Canada: Dominion of Canada Department of Agriculture, 143 pp.

Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria, 2016. Australia's Virtual Herbarium., Australia: Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria. http://avh.ala.org.au

Deakin R, 1857. Florigraphia Britannica; or Engravings and Descriptions of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of Britain. Vol I - Classes I to V. London, UK: Groombridge, 683 pp.

Dibble AC; Rees CA, 2005. Does the lack of reference ecosystems limit our science? A case study in nonnnative invasive plants as forest fuels. Journal of Forestry, 103(7):329-338. http://www.ingenta.com/journals/browse/saf/jof

Dibble AC; Zouhar K; Kapler Smith J, 2008. Fire and non-native invasive plants in the Northeast Bioregion. In: Wildland fire in ecosystems: fire and nonnative invasive plants. General Technical Report-GTR-42. Vol 6. USA: USDA-Forest Service. https://www.bia.gov/cs/groups/xnifc/documents/text/idc012449.pdf

Douglas GW; Meidinger D; Pojar J, 2001. Illustrated flora of British Columbia. Volume 7: Monocotyledons (Orchidaceae through Zosteraceae) [ed. by Douglas GW, Meidinger D, Pojar J]. Victoria, Canada: British Columbia Ministry of Sustainable Resource Management, v + 379 pp.

E-Flora BC, 2016. E-flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Flora of British Columbia. British Columbia, Canada. http://ibis.geog.ubc.ca/biodiversity/eflora/

Farmer C, 2004. West Highland Flora. Scotland. http://www.plant-identification.co.uk/

Gibson DJ, 2009. Grasses and Grassland Ecology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 305 pp.

Gray A, 1908. Grey's New Manual of Botany: A Handbook of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of the Central and Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, Seventh edition [ed. by Robinson BL, Fernald ML]. Chicago, USA: American Book Company, 926 pp.

Harms VL, 2006. Annotated Catalogue of Saskatchewan Vascular Plants. 116 pp. http://www.biodiversity.sk.ca/Docs/AnnotatedCatalogueSKVascPlants2006.pdf

Hinds HR, 2000. Flora of New Brunswick: A Manual for the Identification of the Vascular Plants of New Brunswick, second edition. Fredericton, Canada: University of New Brunswick, 699 pp.

Hitchcock AS, 1951. Manual of Grasses of the United States. USDA Miscellaneous Publication No. 200. Washington DC, USA: USDA.

Hu ST; Hannaway DB; Youngberg HW, 1992. Forage resources of China. Wageningen, Netherlands: Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, 327pp.

Hubbard CE, 1959. Grasses. London, UK: Penguin Books.

Jones G, 2005. Vascular flora of the Fort Whyte Centre, Winnipeg, Manitoba: 2002-2004. Report No. 2005-02. Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada: Habitat Management and Ecosystem Monitoring Section, Wildlife and Ecosystem Protection Branch, Manitoba Conservation, 37 pp.

Lind DW, 2013. French Hill Pond Field Plants: Wood Bluegrass (Poa nemoralis). Maine, USA. http://frenchhillpond.org/Pond/Flora/Field%20Plants/Wood%20Bluegrass%20(Poa%20nemoralis).htm

Maine Department of Agriculture; Conservation and Forestry, 2017. Maine Natural Areas Program: invasive plant fact sheets. http://www.maine.gov/dacf/mnap/features/invasive_plants/invsheets.htm

Meades S; Hay SG; Brouillet L, 2000. Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Newfoundland and Labrador. A digital flora of Newfoundland and Labrador vascular plants. 252 pp. http://www.digitalnaturalhistory.com/meades.htm

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Moss EH, 1983. Flora of Alberta (revised by JG Parker), second edition. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press, 687 pp.

Naumova TN; Osadtchiy JV; Sharma VK; Dijkhuis P; Ramulu KS, 1999. Apomixis in plants: structural and functional aspects of diplospory in Poa nemoralis and P. palustris. In: Protoplasma, 208(1/4). 186-195.

New England Wild Flower Society, 2016. Go Botany. Framingham, Massachusettes, USA. https://gobotany.newenglandwild.org/

Newmaster SG; Lehela A; Oldham MH; Uhlig PWC; McMurray S, 1998. Ontario Plant List. Forest information paper no 123. Sault Ste Marie, Canada: Ontario Research Institute, 550 pp.

Olam H, 1986. Long day control of flowering in Poa nemoralis in controlled and natural environments. New Phytologist, 104:225-232.

Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora, 2016. Online Atlas of the British and Irish Flora., UK: Botanical Society of the British Isles; Biological Records Centre; Joint Nature Conservation Committee; Centre for Ecology and Hydrology.

Poschlod P; Kleyer M; Jackel AK; Dannemann A; Tackenberg O, 2003. Biopop - a database of plant traits and internet application for nature conservation. Folia Geobotanica, 38(3):263-271.

Roland AE; Smith EC, 1966. The Flora of Nova Scotia, Part 1: The Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Monocotyledons. Proceedings of the Nova Scotia Institute of Science. 238 pp.

Roskov Y; Abucay L; Orrell T; Nicolson D; Kunze T; Culham A; Bailly N; Kirk P; Bourgoin T; DeWalt RE; Decock W; Wever A De, 2015. Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Leiden, Netherlands: Naturalis Biodiversity Center. http://www.catalogueoflife.org/col/

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2016. Flora Europaea, Database of European Plants (ESFEDS). Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/FE/fe.html

Ryser P; Urbas P, 2000. Ecological significance of leaf life span among central European grass species. Oikos, 91(1):41-50.

Ryves TB; Clement EJ; Foster MC, 1996. Alien grasses of the British Isles. London, UK: Botanical Society of the British Isles, xxi + 181 pp.

Staaf H; Jonsson Olsen ML-G, 1987. Buried germinative seeds in mature beech forests with different herbaceous vegetation and soil types. Holarctic Ecology, 10:268-277.

The Plant List, 2013. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Version 1.1. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://www.theplantlist.org

University of Wisconsin, 2016. Herbarium - Cofrin Center for Biodiversity: Invasive Plants of Wisconsin. Poa nemoralis L. Wisconsin, USA: University of Wisconsin, Green Bay. http://www.uwgb.edu/biodiversity/herbarium/invasive_species/invasive_plants01.htm

USDA-ARS, 2016. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). National Plant Germplasm System. Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2016. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Utah State University, 2016. Grass Manual on the Web. Utah, USA. http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/info2.asp?name=Poa_nemoralis+&type=treatment

Watson L; Dallwitz MJ, 1992. The grass genera of the world. Version: 18th December 2012. URL: http://delta-intkey.com [Accessed 04 September 2013]

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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01/03/2016 Original text by:

Belinda Luke, CABI, UK

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